Skip to main content

Full text of "Encyclopedia Britannica"

See other formats











New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Irtc 

342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 


The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 


















A. BO.* AUGUSTE BOUDINHON, D.D., D.C.L. frannn Taw r 1 

Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of i Jf n .. , ' uenerM '> 
Paris. Editor of the Canoniste Contemporain. I Cardinal. 

A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne. i"ni,„„ m .,„ n„„»„„ /• a ,v 

See the biographical article, Swinburne, Algernon Charles. \ Cna Pman George (m pari). 

A.E.H. A.E.Houghton. ,.„,„,,,._. . t . , - , ,. , .. J Camaoho; Canovas del Castillo; 

Formerly Correspondent of r he Standard, in Spain. Author of Restoration of the i r; a stplar v Rinnll 
Bourbons in Spain. I udslelar 3 Kipoil. 

A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S. f 

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer of Christ's College, Cambridge. University Reader I Chaetognatha; 
in Zoology. Formerly University Lecturer on the Advanced Morphology of the "j Chaetosomatida 
Invertebrata. Author of Zoology of the Invertebrata. Editor of the Pitt Press 
Natural Science Manuals, &c. ^ 

A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. J - 

Lecturer in Church History at the University of Manchester. \ ^arranza. 

A. H. J. G. Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge, D.Litt. (Oxon.), (d. 1905). r 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law, Handbook of Greek Constitutional -j Censor: Ancient. 
History; Roman Public Life, History of Rome. Joint-author of Sources of Roman 
History, 133-70 B.C. I 

A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.Litt., LL.D. L . 

See the biographical article, Sayce, A. H. \ oana - 

A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. f 

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, J Catechism; 
Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore] Calvin (in -bart) 
Educational Service. L \ r )• 

A.L. Andrew Lang. ..,.,_. j Casket Letters. 

See the biographical article, Lang, Andrew. I 

A. Lo. Auguste Longnon. _ f 

Professor at the College de France. Director of the ficole des hautes 6tudes. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute. Author of LivreA Champagne. 
des vassaux du Comte de Champagne et de Brie ; Geographic de la Gdule au VI Steele ; 
Atlas historique de la France depuis Cesar jusqu'a nos jours; &c. '- 


Agnes Mary Clerke. 

See the biographical article, Clerke, A. M. 

Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde). 

Late Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources o/-{ Centumviri. 
Roman History, 133-70 B.C. 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. /Canary; 

See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred. 1 Capereallv. 

Arthur Philemon Coleman, F.R.S. r 

Professor of Geology, University of Toronto. i Canada: Geography. 

Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P. r 

Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, Cane Colony § History (in 
1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till < A 

1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at part). 

Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910. { 

A. SI. Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P. j 

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water- "1 Cancer. 
Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. I 

J A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 


A. S. C, 

A. V. De P. 
A. Wa. 

A. W. H. * 

A. Z. 

B. Bl. 

B. Ra. 

C. F. A. 

C. F. C. 
C. J. J. 

C. Pf. 
C. R. B. 

C. S. L. 

D. E. J. 
D. F. T. 
D. G. H. 

D. H. 

D, LI. T. 

D. Mn. 

E. At. 


Alan Summerly Cole, C.B. r 

Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900-1908. Took part in organiza- 
tion o( the Textile Manufacturers' Section, St Louis Exhibition, 1904. Author of -j Carpet. 
Ancient Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European 
Silks ;&c. ' I 

Ceramics: §Hispano-Moresque. 

A. van de Put. 

Assistant, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Author of Hispano- 
Moresque Ware of the XV. Century; The Aragonese Double-Crown and the Borja or' 
Borgia Device. I 

Arthur Waugh, M.A. f 

Managing Director of Chapman & Hall, Ltd., Publishers. Formerly literary ? dviser J f> a i vpr i- v n c 
to Kegan Paul & Co. Author of Alfred Lord Tennyson ; Legends of the Wheel ; Robert 1 *"" velle J» u - a - 
Browning in " Westminster Biographies." Editor of Johnson's Lives of the Poets. I 

Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. 

Alice Zimmern. f 

Author of Methods of Education in the United States ; The Renaissance of Girls' i Carpenter, Mary. 
Education in England; Women's Suffrage in Many Lands; &c. ^ 

Bertram Blount, F.C.S., F.I.C. r 

Consulting Chemist to the Crown Agents for the Colonies. 
Section of International Association for Testing Materials, Buda-Pesth. 
Practical Electro- Chemistry. 

Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, A Charlemagne. 

Hon. President, Cement I 
Author of -S 


Bernard Rackham, M.A. 

Assistant, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. 

f Ceramics: § German, Dutch 
\ and Scandinavian. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. r 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal J. Castle (in part). 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. ^ 


-j Cellulose. 

F. Cross., B.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S., F.I.C. 
Analytical and Consulting Chemist. 

Charles Jasper Joly, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. (1864-1906). r 

Royal Astronomer of Ireland and Andrews Professor of Astronomy in the University Camera Lucida* 

of Dublin, 1897-1906. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Secretary of the Royal i c amera Qbscur'a (in part) 

Author of Lord J Ceylon (in part). 

Author of I Capillary; Carolingians; 
|Charibert; Charles MarteL 

Irish Academy. 

H. Caldwell Lipsett. 

Formerly Editor of the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, India. 
Curzon in India ; &c. 

Christian Pfister, D-es-L. 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. 

Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt. r g am Dingo* 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of J r • • / • I 
Merton College, Oxford. University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Author ] ^arpini U» part) ; 
of Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. [ Chang Chun. 

Charles Stewart Loch, D.C.L. (Oxford), LL.D. (St Andrews). 

Secretary to the Council of the London Charity Organization Society since 1875. 
Member of the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws. Dunkin Trust Lecturer, 
Manchester College, Oxford, 1896 and 1902. Vice-President, Royal Statistical 
Society, 1894-1895-1897-1901. Author of Charity Organization; Old Age Pensions 
and Pauperism; Methods of Social Advance; &c. 

Rev D.E. Jenkins (" Calvinistic Methodists; 

Calvinistic Methodist Minister, Denbigh. Author of Life of Lewis Charles 4 r i..i.. ti.«^.«>, 
Edwards of Bala. ^uianes, 1 nomas. 

Donald Francis Tovey. r 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The < Cantata. 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. (_ 

David George Hogarth, M.A. r 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Keeper of the 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Excavated at Paphos, 1888 ; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903 ; i Cappadocia (in part). 
Ephesus, i904-i905;_Assiut^ 1906-1907^ Director, British School at Athens, 

Charity and Charities. 

1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
Navy ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. 

Daniel Lleufer Thomas. 

Barrister at law, Lincoln's Inn. 

Author of Short History of the Royal 

Carvajal, Luisa de; 

Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and Rhondda 

Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A. 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive 
Congregational Ideals ; &c. 

Edward Armstrong, M.A. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow, Bursar and Lecturer in Modern History, 
Queen's College, Oxford. Warden of Bradfield College. Lecturer to the University 
in Foreign History, 1902-1904. Author of The Emperor Charles V.; Elisabeth 
Farnese ; Lorenzo de Medici ; The French Wars of Religion ; &c. 

j Cardiff. 

[Campbell, John McLeod; 
I Chalmers, Thomas (in part).. 

Charles V., Emperor. 



B. A. J. 
E. B.* 

E. C. 
E. C. B. 

E. C. Q. 














E;L. W. 

Ed. M. 
E. 0.* 

E. Pr. 

E. Tn. 

E. V. 

F. C. C. 

F. J. H. 

F. LI. G. 
F. N. M. 

E. Alfred Jones. 

Author of Old English Gold Plate ; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man ; Old Silver 
Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England ; Illustrated Catalogue - 
of Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of Old Plate ; A Private Catalogue of The Royal 
Plate at Windsor Castle; &c. 

Ernest Charles Francois Babelon. 

Professor at the College de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and 
Antiquities at the Bibliotheque Nationale. Member of the Academie des Inscrip- 
tions de Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
Descriptions Historiques des Monnaies de la Republique Romaine ; Traites des Monnaies 
Grecques et Romaines; Catalogue des Camees de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 

Edward Caird, D.C.L., D.Litt. 

See the biographical article, Caird, Edward. 

Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt. (Dublin). 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi. 

Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A. 

Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern Languages and Monro Lecturer in Celtic at- 
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Gosse, Edmund 

Ernest Arthur Gardner. 

See the biographical article, Gardner, Percy. 

Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895). 

M.P. for Bury-St-Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of a History of Ancient Geography, 

E. H. Godfrey. 

Editor, Census and Statistics Office, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. 

Sir Edward Leader Williams (d. 1910).' 

Vice-President, Institute of Civil Engineers. Consulting Engineer, Manchester 
Ship Canal. Chief Engineer of the Manchester Ship Canal during its construction. 
Author of papers printed in Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers. I 

Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Chicago). r 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des \ 
Alterthums ; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens ; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstdmme. [_ 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.3., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Ex- 
aminer in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author 
of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

Edgar Prestage. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Ex- 
aminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador 
Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy 
of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Author of Letters of a Portuguese 
Nun; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea; &c. 

Rev. Ethelred Leonard Taunton (d. 1907). 

Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict ; History of the Jesuits in England ; 

Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1819-1895). 

Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England. 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals' 
(1909); &c. 

Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D. (Aberdeen), F.S.A. 

Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford University. Fellow of Brasenose 
College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the German Imperial 
Archaeological Institute. Formerly Senior Censor, Student, Tutor and Librari?n " 
of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906. Author of Monographs on 
Roman History, &c. 

Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A. r 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey I fannnii<! 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. PVllr,™ <-,f T™™,-;,! -! v» n "PUS. 
German Archaeological Institute. 

Cellini, Benvenuto (in part). 

Carthage: Ancient. 


Canon: Church Dignitary; 
Capuchins; Carmelites; 
Carthusians; Celestines. 

Celt: Languages and Literature. 

Canzone; Carew, Thomas; 

Cavendish, George; Chansons 

de Geste; Chant Royal. 
"Calydon; Ceos. 
, Cephalonia. 

Cappadocia {in part). 

Canada: § Agriculture. 

Carpi: Ancient Tribes. 




Castello Branco; 

Campion, Edmund; 
Cano, Melehior; 
Cassander, George; 
, Castellesi. 
Catacomb (in part). 



Fellow of Imperial j 

Col. Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B. 

Lecturer in Military History at Manchester University. Author of War and the 
World' c Policy ; The Leipzig Campaign ; The Jena C.amt,n,{gn 











. R.* 


















, T. 













F. G. 


L. C. 


M. V. 


P. B. 


R. H. 



H. T. A. 
H. W. R.* 

H. W. S. 

H. Y. 
J. A. B. 

Frank Puaux. 

President of the Society de l'Histoire du Protestantisme francais. Author of Les 
pr&curseurs frangais de la Tolerance ; Histoire de I'etablissement des protestants frangais 
en Suede ; L'Aglise r&formie de France ; &c. 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1 887-1 889. 

George A. Boulenger, F.R.S., D.Sc, Ph.D. (Giessen). 

Assistant in the Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Kensing- 
ton. Vice-President of the Zoological Society. 

George Gordon Coulton, M.A. 

Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author 
of Medieval Studies ; Chaucer and his England ; From St Francis to Dante ; &c. 

G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc. 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: 
their Structure and Life. , • ' 

George McKinnon Wrong, M.A., F.R.S. (Canada). 

Professor of History at Toronto University. Author of A Canadian Manor and its 
Seigneurs: The British Nation: a History; &c. 

i Cavalier, Jean. 

J" Cameroon; 

I Cape Colony. 

r Carbonado; Cassiterite; 

j Cat's Eye; Celestine; 

*- Chalcedony. 



i Chafer. 
Canada: History to Federation 

f Canada: History from Federa- 

I tion. 


< Calhoun, John C. 

Ceramics: Greek, Etruscan and 

Campbell Bannerman, Sir H.; 
Canon: Music; 
Chamberlain, J. 


1 Chameleon. 

J Calibration; 
\ Calorimetry. 

"j Charles Edward. 

| Cartier, Jacques. 

Ceramics: Egypt and Western 


Formerly Lecturer in Greek and Roman History -j Chambord, Comte de. 

George Robert Parkin, LL.D., C.M.G. 
See the biographical article, Parkin, G. R. 

Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 

Henry A. M. Smith. 

Henry Beauchamp Walters, M.A., F.S.A. 

Assistant to Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum. Author of 
The Art of the Greeks; History of Ancient Pottery; Catalogue of the Greek and- 
Etruscan Vases in the British Museum, vol. ii. ; Catalogue of Bronzes, Greek, Roman 
and Etruscan ; &c. 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition- 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica ; co-editor of the loth edition. 

Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J. 

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana' 
and Acta Sanctorum. 

Ha£js Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. - 
Author of Amphibia and Reptiles. 

Hugh Longbourne Callendar, F.R.S. , LL.D. (McGill Univ.). 

Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of 
Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London. 

Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A. 

Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; 
The Last Stuart Queen. 

H. P. Biggar. 

Author of The Voyages of the Cabots to Greenland. 

Henry R. H. Hall, M.A 

Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. 

Henry Symons. 

Assistant in the British Museum. 
at Bedford College, London. 

Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews. 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of The Com- ^ 
mentary on Acts in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the Apocryphal" 
Books in the Century Bible. 

Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A. 

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, 
Oxford, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology 
(in Mansfield College Essays) ; &c. 

H. Wickham Steed. 

Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. 

Correspondent of The Times at Rome, ' 

Colonel Sir Henry Yule, K. C.S.I. 
See the biographical article, Yule, Sir H. 

Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines, C.S.I. 

President, Royal Statistical Society, 1909-1910. Census Commissioner under the 
Government of India, 1889-1893. Employed at India Office as Secretary to Royal 
Commission on Opium, 1894-1895. Author of Official Reports on Provincial 
Administration on Indian Census Operations; &c. 

Canticles {in part). 

\ Carpini {in part). 
1 Census. 
























J. H. F. 
J. H. R. 

J. HI. R. 

J. M'D. 

J. P.-B. 
J. P. E. 

J. R. C. 
J. S. F. 

J. T. Be. 
J. T. C. 

J. Wa. 

J. W. D. 
J. W. He. 


Editor and translator of theT Ceylon (in part). 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

J. A. M'Naught. 

Member of the Jury for Carriage Building, Paris Exposition, 1900. 

J. Bartlett. 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, at King's 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of 
Junior Engineers. 

James Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S. 

See biographical article: Maxwell, James Clerk. 

John Dvneley Prince, Ph.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York. Took part in . 
the Expedition to Southern Babylonia, 1 888-1 889. Author of A Critical Commentary 
on the Book of Daniel. 

Sir J. Frederick Dickson, K.C.M.G. 

Reorganized the North-West Province of Ceylon. 
Upasampada-Kammavaca and the Patimokha. 

James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 
Norman MacColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. - 
Corresponding Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Author of A History 
of Spanish Literature ; &c. 

John Henry Freese, M.A. 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). 

Author of Feudal England ; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and - 

John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. 

Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. _ 
Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic Studies ; The Development of the European " 
Nations; The Life of Pitt; chapters in the Cambridge Modern History. 

James Macdonald, M.A., LL.D. 

Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1895-1897. Rhind 
Lecturer on Archaeology, 1897. Author of Tituli Hunteriani: an Account of the ' 
Roman Stones in the Hunterian Museum. 

rCallovian; Cambrian System; 
J, Caradoc Series; 
L Carboniferous System; Chalk. 

-j Carriage. 



-I Capillary Action (in part). 

Campoamor y Campoosorio; 
Castillo Solorzano; 
Celestina, La; 

Calpurnius, Titus. 

Castle (in part). 
Castle Guard. 


Chalmers, George. 


James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst, 
Editor of the Guardian (London). 

Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemar Esmein. r 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. J Chatelet 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d'histoire du droit 1 
francais ; &c. [ 

Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A. f 

Assistant to the Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, Trinity College, -j Calorescence. 
Dublin. Editor of 2nd edition of Preston's Theory of Heat. [ 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. r 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in J Charnockite. 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 1 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. [ 

John T. Bealby ,,„.,„ f Caspian Sea (in part); 

Joint author of Stanford s Europe. _ Formerly editor of the Scottish Geographical J Caucasia* 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 1 - '/. .. 

Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly 

Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist -i Cephalopoda. 

to the Marine Biological Association, and Fellow of University College, Oxford. 

Author of numerous papers in scientific journals. 

Major-General James Waterhouse. 

Indian Staff Corps. Vice-President of the Royal Photographic Society. Assistant 
Surveyor-General in charge of Photographic Operations in the Surveyor-General's 
Office, Calcutta, 1866-1897. Took part in the observation of total eclipses, 
1 87 1 and 1875, and of transit of Venus, 1874. President of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, 1888-1890. Author of The Preparation of Drawings for Photographic 
Reproduction; &c. 

Captain J. Whitly Dixon, R.N. 

Nautical Assessor to the Court of Appeal. 

James Wycliefe Headlam, M.A. f 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly I 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and Professor of Greek and Ancient History "j Caprlvi. 
at Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and thei Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. (. 

Camera Obscura: History. 


L. D* 

L. J. B. 
L. J. S. 

L. S. 
L. V.* 

M. G. 

M. H. S. 

M. J. de G. 
M. P. 
N. E. D. 

N. W. T. 

0. Ba. 

0. M. D. 

P. A. 



A. K 


C. Y. 






A. M 

Joint author (with Henry J. Morgan) of 

Monseigneur Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne. 
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O. 

Lawrence J. Burpee. 

Author of The Search for the Western Sea. 
Canadian Life in Town and Country. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar, 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Minera- 
logical Magazine. 

Sir Leslie Stephen, K.C.B., Litt.D. 

See the biographical article: Stephen, Sir Leslie. 

Luigi Villari. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in . 
east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Philadelphia, 1907, 
and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c. 

jCalixtus I.; Celestine I. - : 

Canada: Literature, English- 



Cantu; Cappello; Xi 

Capponi, G. and P.; 

Caracciolo; Carbonari; 


Carrara; CaVour. ■ 

Margaret Bryant. 

Chapman, George {part); 
. Charlemagne: Legends. 
Moses G aster, Ph.D. (Leipzig). r 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine J Cantacuzino; 
Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. Vice-President] Cantemir. 
Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature ; &c. (_ 

Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome, and the Franco- 
British Exhibition, London. Authorof History of" Punch"; British Portrait Painting* 
to the Opening of the 19th Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture 
and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c. 

Michael Jan de Goeje. 

See the biographical article: Goeje, Michael Jan de. 

Rev. Mark Pattison. 

See the biographical article: Pattison, Mark. 

Narcisse Etjtrope Dionne, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Canada). 

Librarian of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. Chief Editor of Le Courrier 
du Canada, 1880-1884. Chief Inspector of Federal Licences, 1884-1886. Chief 
Editor of Le Journal de Quebec, 1886. Author of Life of Samuel Champlain, Founder * 
of Quebec; Life of Jacques Cartier, discoverer of Canada; La Nouvelie France, 1540- 
1603 ; Quebec et Nouvelie France ; &c. 

Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A. 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the , 

Soci6t6 d' Anthropologic de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and] Cannibalism. 

Marriage in Australia; &c. I 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. 



Casaubon, Isaac. 

Champlain, Samuel de. 


Oscar Briliant. 

Ormonde Maddock Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. 


j Carpathian Mountains {in part) . 

Assistant Keeper, Department of British and Medieval Antiquities, British Museum. J 

Corresponding Member of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society. Author of) Catacomb {in part). 

Guide to the Early Christian and Byzantine Antiquities; &c. I 

Paul Daniel Alphandery. 

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, 
Paris. Author of Les Idees morales chez les httirodoxes latines au dtbut du XIII" ' 

Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article : Kropotkin, P. A. 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. 

jf the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian ~\ 

Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology. I 

Capistrano. f 

f Caspian Sea {in part) ; 
I Caucasus {in part). 

/Catherine of Aragon; 
I Charles I.; Charles II. 

Formerly j Carpathian Mountains (in pari) ; 

Caucasus: Geology. 

Editor of the Poetical Works of Thomas Campion. { Campion, Thomas. 

Perctval Sylvanus Vivian. 
Author of Poems of Marriage. 

Percy Alexander Macmahon, F.R.S. , D.Sc r 

Late Major R.A. Deputy Warden of the Standards. Board of Trade. Joint- J fi av i ew 
General Secretary of the British Association. Formerly Professor of Physics, 1 KM *' 9 '' 
Ordnance College, and President of London Mathematical Society. [_ 




R. A.* 
R. Ad. 
R. A. S. M. 
R. G. 
R. I. P. 
R. R. D. 

R. L.* 

R. L. H. 


The Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh. 

See the biographical article: Rayleigh, 3rd Baron. 

Robert Anchel. 

. Archivist to the Department de l'Eure. 

Robert Adamson. 

See the biographical article: Adamson, R. 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 
Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Richard Garnett. 

See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard. 

R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. 

Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum, and . 
Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Author of The Language and Litera- 
ture of China; &c. I 

Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. f Camel; Capuchin Monkey; 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J CarniVOra" Cat" Caw 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of\„, I. ' . ' 

all Lands; The Came Animals of Africa; &c. L Wtacea; Cftamois. 

Capillary Action (in pari). 

fCambon, Pierre Joseph; 
1 Cathelineau. 

I Category (in part). 

I Capernaum; 
I Carmel. 

1 Cardan. 



R. N. B. 

Robert Lockhart Hobson. 

Assistant in the Department of British and Medieval Antiquities, British Museum. 
Author of Porcelain: Oriental, Continental and British; Marks on Pottery and- 
Porcelain (with W. Burton); and Catalogue and Guide of English Pottery and 
Porcelain in British Museum. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. ioco). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1 883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1313-1900; The First Romanovs, 
1613-1725; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 
1469 to 1796 ; &c. 

R. Po. 
R. P. S. 

R. S. C. 

R. We. 
S. D. 

T. As. 

T A. H, 
T. Ba. 

T. F. C. 

Ceramics: Medieval and Later 
Italian; Persian, Syrian, 
Egyptian and Turkish. 

Canute; Canute VI.; 
Casimir III.; Casimir IV.; 
Catherine I.; 
Charles I. (Hungary); 
Charles IX., X., XL, XII. 

Charles XIII., XIV., XV. 

(Sweden and Norway). 

Charles the Bold. 

Rene Poupardin, D. is L. r 

Secretary of . the ficole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliotheque J 
Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens ; Recueil 1 
des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c. L 

R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. r 

Master of the Architectural School and Surveyor, Royal Academy, London. Campanile; Capital; Arch.; 
Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's J Cathedral: Arch.; 
College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Edited Ceiling. 
Fergusson's History of Architecture. Author of Architecture East and West; &c. I 

Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Lrrr. (Cantab.). r 

Professor of Latin in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin J Campania (in part) 
in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 1 
Author of The Italic Dialects. i_ 

Robert Wallace, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.L.S. 

Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh University, and Carton 
Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C., 
Cirencester, 1882-1885. Author of Farm Live Stock of Great Britain; Indian Agri-' 
culture; The Agriculture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming 
Industries of Cape Colony; &c. 

Richard Webster, A.M. 

Editor of Elegies of Maximianus. 

Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, ist Earl of. 

Samuel Davidson, D.D. 

See the biographical article : Davidson, Samuel. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member 
of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topo- 
graphy, of the Roman Campagna ; &c. 

Captain Thomas A. Hull, R.N. 

Formerly Superintendent of Admiralty Charts. 

Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council 
of the Congo Fres State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems 
of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. 

Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A. 

Cattle (in part). 

Channing, William E. 

J. Casuistry. 

J Canon: Scriptures. 

^ Camerino; Campania (in part) ; 

Canosa; Canusium; Capena; 

Capri; Capua; Carales; 

Carsioli; Casilinum; Casinum; 

Cassia, Via; Catania; 

Caudine Forks; Cefalu; 

Centuripe; Cesena. 
I Chart. 

} Capture. 

/Carthage, Synods of; 
\Chaleedon, Council of. 













B. C 


















W. F. W. 






G. F. 



G. M. 




J. G. 

W. L.* 

W. L. A. 

W. L. G. 

W. M. R. 
W. Ri. 

Canaan, Canaanites. 

Author of Mechanics of -l Carding. 

Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne. D.Litt., D.D. 
See the biographical article : Cheyne, T. K. 

Thomas Macall Fallow, M.A., F.S.A. f 

Formerly editor of The Antiquary, 1 895-1 899. Author of Memorials of Old Yorkshire ; < 
The Cathedral Churches of Ireland. I 

Thomas William Fox. 

Professor of Textiles in the University of Manchester. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1 880-1 881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature ' 
and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1 880-1 889. 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, - 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe ; &c. 

William Burton, Hon. M.A. (Vict.), F.C.S. 

Chairman, Joint-Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Examiner 
for Board of Education in Pottery Design and for Technological Examinations in 
Pottery Manufacture. Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware ; Porcelain ; &c. 

William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., D.Sc. 

See the biographical article : Dawkins, William Boyd. 

William Bartlett Duitield, M.A. 

Barrister at Law, Inner Temple. Secretary to the Royal Commission on Canals, 

William Feilden Craies, M.A. [ 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law at King's College, -i Capital Punishment. 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). (_ 

Walter Francis Willcox, LL.B., Ph.D. r 

Dean of, and Professor of Political Economy and Statistics at, Cornell University. 
Formerly Chief Statistician and now Special Agent of the U.S. Census Bureau. J Census: U.S.A. 
Author of The Divorce Problem — a Study in Statistics ; Social Statistics of the United 
States; &c. , L 

William Fream (d. 1907), LL.D., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.S.S. f 

Author of Handbook of Agriculture. Formerly Agricultural Correspondent of The -i Cattle (in part). 
Times. I 

Walcot Gibson, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Geologist on H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-bearing Rocks of the 
S. Transvaal ; Mineral Wealth of Africa ; The Geology of Coal and Coal Mining ; &c. 

Sir Walter George Frank Phillimore, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Judge of the King's Bench Division. President of International Law Association, 
1905. Author of Book of Church Law. Editor of 2nd ed. of Phillimore' s Ecclesi- 
astical Law; 3rd ed. of vol. iv. of Phillimore' s International Law; &c. I 

Walter G. M'Millan, F.C.S., M.I.M.E. (d. 1004). f 

Formerly Secretary of the Institute of Electrical Engineers. Lecturer on Metallurgy, -> Carborundum. 
Mason College, Birmingham. Author of A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgy. [ 



Chartreuse, La Grande. 

' Canon: Church Dignitary; 
Capo d'Istria; 
Carlsbad Decrees; Chasuble! 

Ceramics {in part). 

Cape Colony: Geology. 

Canon Law: Anglican. 

Chalmers, Thomas {in part). 

Literature, Welsh. 

Rev. William Hanna, LL.D., D.D. (1802-1882). 

Minister of St John's Free Church, Edinburgh, 1850-1866. Author of Life of Dr 
Chalmers ; Wycliffe and the Huguenots ; Martyrs of the Scottish Reformation. 

William John Gruffydd, M.A. 

Lecturer in Celtic, University College, Cardiff. Examiner in Welsh to the Central ) 
Welsh Board for Intermediate Education. Author of Caneuon a Cherddi: An~\ Celt: 
Anthology of Medieval Welsh Poetry. \_ 

Walter Lehmann, M.D. r 

Directorial Assistant of the Royal Ethnographical Museum, Munich. Conducted J r t , Am( , ri( , a . Arrhamlnvv 
Exploring Expedition in Mexico and Central America, 1907-1909. Author of many 1 central America. Arcnaeowgy. 
publications on Mexican and Central American Archaeology. [ 

Calvin (in part). 

Rev. William Lindsay Alexander, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.) (180S-1 

Classical Tutor, Lancashire Independent College. Pastor -of Independent Chapel, 
N. College Street, Edinburgh. One of the Old Testament Revisers. Author of 
A Moral Philosophy. 

William Lawson Grant, M.A. 

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in 
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council, Colonial 
series; Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article : Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

William Ridgeway, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D. (Aberdeen), D.Litt. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Disney Professor of Archaeology at Cambridge 
University. Professor of Greek, Queen's College, Cork, 1883. Ex-President of 
Cambridge Philological, Antiquarian and Classical Societies. Author of The Oldest 
Irish Epic; Origin of Metallic Currency and Weight Standards; The Early Age of 
Greece; &c. 

Canada: Statistics; 

Cartier, Sir Georges Etiehne. 

Canova; Caracci; Cartoon; 
Cellini, Benvenuto (in part); 




W. R. B. 

W. R. S. 
W. Wo. 

W. W. R.* 
W. Y. S. 

Rt. Rev. William Robert Brownlow, M.A., D.D. (d. 1901). f 

Roman Catholic Bishop of Clifton. Provost and Domestic Frelate to Pope Leo 

XIII. Co-editor of English Roma Sotterranea. Author of Early Christian Symbol-\ Catacomb (in part). 
ism; Lectures on Sacerdotalism, on the Catacombs and other Archaeological Subjects. 
Translator of Cur Deus Homo and Vitis mystica. L 

William Robertson Smith. [ ., 

See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson. • ^Canticles Km part). 

William Wood, D.C.L., F.R.S. (Canada). _ f 

Lieut. -Col., Canadian Militia. Formerly President of the English Section of the) Canada: Literature, French' 
Royal Society of Canada and of the Historic Landmarks Association. Author of] Canadian. 
The Fight for Canada ; The Logs of the Conquest of Canada, &c. 

William Walker Rockwell, Lie. Theol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

William Young Sellar. 

See the biographical article: Sellar, William Young. 

{celestine III. and V. 
| Catullus (in part). 


Cambridge, Earls and Dukes 

Cambridge, England. 
Campbell, Thomas. 
Canary Islands. 
Canning, George. 
Cape Town. 
Cape Verde Islands. 
Capital (Economics). 
Carbolic Acid. 
Cards, Playing. 
Carducci, Giosue. 
Carlisle, Earls of. 







Carnegie, Andrew. 



Caroline Islands. 






Catherine, Saint. 

Catherine II. 

Catherine de' Medici 




Cavaignac, Louis EugSne. 


Cavendish, Henry. 

Caxton, William. 





Chambers, Robert. 



Channel* Islands. 

Chantrey, Sir Francis. 

Charles V., VI., VII. of 

Charles, Archduke of Austria. 

Charles Albert, king of Sar- 

Charles Augustus. 






CALHOUN, JOHN CALDWELL (1782-1850), American states- 
man and parliamentarian, was born, of Scottish-Irish descent, 
in Abbeville District, South Carolina, on the 18th of March 1782. 
His father, Patrick Calhoun, is said to have been born in Donegal, 
in North Ireland, but to have left Ireland when a mere child. 
The family seems to have emigrated first to Pennsylvania, 
whence they removed, after Braddock's defeat, to Western 
Virginia. From Virginia they removed in 1756 to South Caro- 
lina and settled on Long Cane Creek, in Granville (now Abbeville) 
county. Patrick Calhoun attained some prominence in the 
colony, serving in the colonial legislature, and afterwards in the 
state legislature, and taking part in the War of Independence. 
In 1770 he had married Martha Caldwell, the daughter of 
another Scottish-Irish settler. 

The opportunities for obtaining a liberal education in the 
remote districts of South Carolina at that time were scanty. 
Fortunately, young Calhoun had the opportunity, although late, 
of studying under his brother-in-law, the Rev. Moses Waddell 
(1770-1840), a Presbyterian minister, who afterwards, from 
1819 to 1829, was president of the University of Georgia. In 
1802 Calhoun entered the junior class in Yale College, and 
graduated with distinction in 1804. He then studied first at 
the famous law school in Litchfield, Conn., and afterwards in a 
law office in Charleston, S.C., and in 1807 was admitted to the 
bar. He began practice in his native Abbeville District, and 
soon took a leading place in his profession. In 1808 and 1809 
he was a member of the South Carolina legislature, and from 
1811 to 1817 was a member of the national House of Repre- 

When he entered the latter body the strained relations 
between Great Britain and the United States formed the most 
important question for the deliberation of Congress. Henry 
Clay, the Speaker of the House, being eager for war and knowing 
Calhoun's hostility to Great Britain, gave him the second place 
on the committee of foreign affairs, of which he soon became 
the actual head. In less than three weeks the committee 
reported resolutions, evidently written by Calhoun, recommend- 
ing preparations for a struggle with Great Britain; and in the 
following June Calhoun submitted a second report urging a 
formal declaration of war. Both sets of resolutions the House 
adopted. Clay and Calhoun did more, probably, than any other 
two men in Congress to force the reluctant president into 
beginning hostilities. 

In 1816 Calhoun delivered in favour of a protective tariff a 
speech that was ever after held up by his opponents as evidence 
of his inconsistency in the tariff controversy. The embargo and 
the war had crippled American commerce, but had stimulated 
manufactures. With the end of the Napoleonic wars in Europe 
v. 1 

the industries of the old world revived, and Americans began to 
feel their competition. In the consequent distress in the new 
industrial centres there arose a cry for protection. Calhoun, 
believing that there was a natural tendency in the United. States 
towards the development of manufactures, supported the Tariff 
Bill of 1816, which laid on certain foreign commodities duties' 
higher than were necessary for the purposes of revenue. He 
believed that the South would share in the general industrial 
development, not having perceived as yet that slavery was an 
insuperable obstacle. His opposition to protection in later years 
resulted from an honest change of convictions. He always 
denied that in supporting this bill he had been inconsistent, 
and insisted that it was one for revenue. 

From 1817 to 1825 Calhoun was secretary of war under* 
President Monroe. To him is due the fostering and the reforma- 
tion of the National Military Academy at West Point, which he 
found in disorder, but left in a most efficient state. Calhoun was 
vice-president of the United States from 1825 to 1832, during 
the administration of John Quincy Adams, and during most of 
the first administration of Andrew Jackson. This period was 
for Calhoun a time of reflection. His faith in a strong national- 
istic policy was gradually undermined, and he finally became 
the foremost champion of particularism and the recognized 
leader of what is generally known as the " States Rights "or 
" Strict Construction " party. 

In 1824 there was a very large increase in protective duties. 
In 1828 a still higher tariff act, the so-called " Bill of Abomina- 
tions," was passed, avowedly for the purpose of protection. 
The passage of these acts caused great discontent, especially 
among the Southern states, which were strictly agricultural. 
They felt that the great burden of this increased tariff fell on 
them, as they consumed, but did not produce, manufactured 
articles. Under such conditions the Southern states questioned 
the constitutionality of the imposition. Calhoun himself now"- 
perceived that the North and the South represented diverse 
tendencies. The North was outstripping the South in population 
and wealth, and already by the tariff acts was, as he believed, 
selfishly levying taxes for its sole benefit. The minority must, 
he insisted, be protected from " the tyranny of the majority." 
In his first important political essay, " The South Carolina 
Exposition," prepared by him in the summer of 1828, he showed 
how this should be done. To him it was clear that the Federal 
Constitution was a limited instrument, by which the sovereign 
states had delegated to the Federal government certain general 
powers. The states could not, without violating the constitu- 
tional compact, interfere with the activities of the Federal 
government so long as the government confined itself to its 
proper sphere; but the attempt of Congress, or any other 


department of the Federal government, to exercise any power 
which might alter the nature of the instrument would be an act 
of usurpation. The right of judging such an infraction belonged 
to the state, being an attribute of sovereignty of which the state 
could not be deprived without being reduced to a wholly sub- 
ordinate condition. As a remedy for such a breach of compact 
the state might resort to nullification (q.v.), or, as a last resort, 
to secession from the Union. Such doctrines were not original 
with Calhoun, but had been held in various parts of the Union 
from time to time. It remained for him, however, to submit 
them to a rigid analysis and reduce them to a logical form. 

Meantime the friendship between Calhoun and Jackson had 
come to an end. While a member of President Monroe's cabinet, 
Calhoun had favoured the reprimanding of General Jackson (q.v.) 
for his high-handed course in Florida in 1818, during the first 
Seminole War. In 1831 W. H. Crawford, who had been a member 
of this cabinet, desiring to ruin Calhoun politically by turning 
Jackson's hostility against him, revealed to Jackson what had 
taken place thirteen years before. Jackson could brook no 
criticism from one whom he had considered a friend; Calhoun, 
moreover, angered the president still further by his evident 
sanction of the social proscription of Mrs Eaton (q.v.) ; the political 
views of the two men, furthermore, were becoming more and more 
divergent, and the rupture between the two became complete. 

The failure of the Jackson administration to reduce the Tariff 
of 1828 drew from Calhoun his " Address to the People of South 
Carolina " in 183 1, in which he elaborated his views of the nature 
of the Union as given in the " Exposition." In 1832 a new tariff 
act was passed, which removed the " abominations " of 1828 but 
left the principle of protection intact. The people of South 
Carolina were not satisfied, and Calhoun in a third political tract, 
in the form of a letter to Governor James Hamilton (1786-1857) 
of South Carolina, gave his doctrines their final form, but without 
altering the fundamental principles that have already been stated. 

In 1832 South Carolina, acting in substantial accordance with 
Calhoun's theories, " nullified " the tariff acts passed by Congress 
in 1828 and 1832 (see Nullification; South Carolina; and 
United States). On the 28th of December 1832 Calhoun 
resigned as vice-president, and on the 4th of January 1833 took 
his seat in the Senate. President Jackson had, in a special 
message, taken strong ground against the action of South 
Carolina, and a bill was introduced to extend the jurisdiction of 
the courts of the United States and clothe the president with 
additional powers, with the avowed object of meeting the situ- 
ation in South Carolina. Calhoun, in turn, introduced resolu- 
tions upholding the doctrine held by South Carolina, and it was 
in the debate on the first-named measure, termed the " Force 
Bill," and on these resolutions, that the first intellectual duel 
took place between Daniel Webster and Calhoun. Webster 
declared that the Federal government through the Supreme 
Court was the ultimate expounder and interpreter of its own 
powers, while Calhoun championed the rights of the individual 
state under a written contract which reserved to each state its 

The practical result of the conflict over the tariff was a com- 
promise. Congress passed an act gradually reducing the duties 
to a revenue basis, and South Carolina repealed her nullification 
measures. As the result of the conflict, Calhoun was greatly 
strengthened in his position as the leader of his party in the South. 
Southern leaders generally were now beginning to perceive, as 
Calhoun had already seen, that there was a permanent conflict 
between the North and the South, not only a divergence of 
interests between manufacturing and agricultural sections, but an 
inevitable struggle between free and slave labour. Should enough 
free states be admitted into the Union to destroy the balance of 
power, the North would naturally gain a preponderance in the 
Senate, as it had in the House, and might, within constitutional 
limits, legislate as it pleased; The Southern minority recognized, 
therefore, that they must henceforth direct the policy of the 
government in all questions affecting their peculiar interests, or 
their section would undergo a social and economic revolution. 
The Constitution, if strictly interpreted according to Calhoun's 

views, would secure this control to the minority, and prevent an 
industrial upheaval. 

An element of bitterness was now injected into the struggle. 
The Northern Abolitionists, to whom no contract or agreement 
was sacred that involved the continuance of slavery, regarded the 
clauses in the Federal Constitution which maintained the property 
rights of the slave-owners as treaties with evil, binding on no one, 
and bitterly attacked the slave-holders and the South generally. 
Their attacks may be said to have destroyed the moderate party 
in that section. Any criticism of their peculiar institution now 
came to be highly offensive to Southern leaders, and Calhoun, who 
always took the most advanced stand in behalf of Southern rights, 
urged (but in vain) that the Senate refuse to receive abolitionist 
petitions. He also advocated the exclusion of abolitionist 
literature from the mails. 

Indeed from 1832 until his death Calhoun may be said to have 
devoted his life to the protection of Southern interests. He 
became the exponent, the very embodiment, of an idea. It is a 
mistake, however, to characterize him as an enemy to the Union. 
His contention was that its preservation depended on the recog- 
nition of the rights guaranteed to the states by the Constitution, 
and that aggression by one section could only end in disruption. 
Secession, he contended, was the only final remedy left to the 
weaker. Calhoun was re-elected to the Senate in i834andin 1840, 
serving until 1843. From 1832 to 1837 he was a man without 
a party. He attacked the " spoils system " inaugurated by 
President Jackson, opposed the removal of the government 
deposits from the Bank of the United States, and in general was 
a severe critic of Jackson's administration. In this period he 
usually voted with the Whigs, but in 1837 he went over to the 
Democrats and supported the " independent treasury " scheme 
of President Van Buren. He was spoken of for the presidency in 
1844, but declined to become a candidate, and was appointed as 
secretary of state in the cabinet of President Tyler, serving from 
the 1st of April 1844, throughout the remainder of the term, until 
the 10th of March 1845. While holding this office he devoted his 
energies chiefly to the acquisition of Texas, in order to preserve 
the equilibrium between the South and the constantly growing 
North. One of his last acts as secretary of state was to send a 
despatch, on the 3rd of March 1845, inviting Texas to accept the 
terms proposed by Congress. Calhoun was once more elected to 
the Senate in 1845. The period of his subsequent service covered 
the settlement of the Oregon dispute with Great Britain and the 
Mexican War. On the 19th of February 1847 he introduced in 
the Senate a series of resolutions concerning the territory about to 
be acquired from Mexico, which marked the most advanced stand 
as yet taken by the pro-slavery party. The purport of these 
resolutions was to deny to Congress the power to prohibit slavery 
in the territories and to declare all previous enactments to this 
effect unconstitutional. 

In 1850 the Union seemed in imminent danger of dissolution. 
California was applying for admission to the Union as a state 
under a constitution which did not permit slavery. Her ad- 
mission with two Senators would have placed the slave-holding 
states in the minority. In the midst of the debate on this applica- 
tion Calhoun died, on the 31st of March 1850, in Washington. 

Calhoun is most often compared with Webster and Clay. The 
three constitute the trio upon whom the attention of students at 
this period naturally rests. Calhoun possessed neither Webster's 
brilliant rhetoric nor his easy versatility, but he surpassed him in 
the ordered method and logical sequence of his mind. He never 
equalled Clay in the latter's magnetism of impulse and inspiration 
of affection, but he far surpassed him in clearness and directness 
and in tenacity of will. He surpassed them both in the distinct- 
ness with which he saw results, and in the boldness with which he 
formulated and followed his conclusions. 

Calhoun in person was tall and slender, and in his later years 
was emaciated. His features were angular and somewhat harsh, 
but with a striking face and very fine eyes of a brilliant dark blue. 
To his slaves he was just and kind. He lived the modest, 
unassuming life of a country planter when at his home, and at 
Washington lived as unostentatiously as possible, consistent with 


his public duties and position. His character in other respects 
was always of stainless integrity. 

Bibliography. — A collected edition of Calhoun's Works (6 vols., 
New York, 1 853-1 855) has been edited by Richard K*. Cralle. The 
most important speeches and papers are: — The South Carolina 
Exposition (1828) ; Speech on the Force Bill (1833) ; Reply to Webster 
('833); Speech on the Reception of Abolitionist Petitions (1836), and 
on the Veto Power (1842) ; a Disquisition on Government, and a 
Discourse on the Constitution and Government of the United States 
(1849-1850) — the last two, written a short time before his death, 
defend with great ability the rights of a minority under a govern- 
ment such as that of the United States. Calhoun's Correspondence, 
edited by J. Franklin Jameson, has been published by the American 
Historical Association (see Report for 1-899, vo '- »•)• The biography 
of Calhoun by Dr Hermann von Hoist in the " American States- 
men Series " (Boston, 1882) is a condensed study of the political 
questions of Calhoun's time. Gustavus M. Pinckney's Life of John 
C. Calhoun (Charleston, 1903) gives a sympathetic Southern view. 
Gaillard Hunt's John C. Calhoun (Philadelphia, 1908) is a valuable 
work. (H. A. M. S.) 

CALI, an inland town of the department of Cauca, Colombia, 
South America, about 180 m. S.W. of Bogota and 50 m. S.E. of 
the port of Buenaventura, on the Rio Cali, a small branch of the 
Cauca. Pop. (1906 estimate) 16,000. Cali stands 3327 ft. 
above sea-level on the western side of the Cauca valley, one of 
the healthiest regions of Colombia. The land-locked character 
of this region greatly restricts the city's trade and development; 
but it is considered the most important town in the department. 
It has a bridge across the Cali, and a number of religious and 
public edifices. A railway from Buenaventura will give Cali and 
the valley behind it, with which it is connected by over 200 m, 
of river navigation, a good outlet on the Pacific coast. Coal 
deposits exist in the immediate vicinity of the town. 

CALIBRATION, a term primarily signifying the determination 
of the " calibre " or bore of a gun. The word calibre was intro- 
duced through the French from the Italian calibro, together with 
other terms of gunnery and warfare, about the 1 6th century. The 
origin of the Italian equivalent appears to be uncertain. It will 
readily be understood that the calibre of a gun requires accurate 
adjustment to the standard size, and further, that the bore must 
be straight and of uniform diameter throughout. The term was 
subsequently applied to the accurate measurement and testing of 
the bore of any kind of tube, especially those of thermometers. 

In modern scientific language, by a natural process of transi- 
tion, the term " calibration " has come to denote the accurate 
comparison of any measuring instrument with a standard, and 
more particularly the determination of the errors of its scale. 
It is seldom possible in the process of manufacture to make an 
instrument so perfect that no error can be discovered by the 
most delicate tests, and it would rarely be worth while to attempt 
to do so even if it were possible. The cost of manufacture would 
in many cases be greatly increased without adding materially 
to the utility of the apparatus. The scientific method, in all 
cases which admit of the subsequent determination and correc- 
tion of errors, is to economize time and labour in production by 
taking pains in the subsequent verification or calibration. 
This process of calibration is particularly important in laboratory 
research, where the observer has frequently to make his own 
apparatus, and cannot afford the time or outlay required to make 
special tools for fine work, but is already provided with apparatus 
and methods of accurate testing. For non-scientific purposes 
it is generally possible to construct instruments to measure with 
sufficient precision without further correction. The present 
article will therefore be restricted to the scientific use and 
application of methods of accurate testing. 

General Methods and Principles. — The process of calibration 
of any measuring instrument is frequently divisible into two 
parts, which differ greatly in importance in different cases, and 
of which one or the other may often be omitted. (1) The deter- 
mination of the value of the unit to which the measurements are 
referred by comparison with a standard unit of the same kind. 
This is often described as the Standardization of the instrument, 
or the determination of the Reduction factor. (2) The verification 
of the accuracy of the subdivision of the scale of the instrument. 
This may be termed calibration of the scale, and does not 

necessarily involve the comparison of the instrument with any 
independent standard, but merely the verification of the accuracy 
of the relative values of its indications. In many cases the 
process of calibration adopted consists in the comparison of the 
instrument to be -tested with a standard over the whole range of 
its indications, the relative values of the subdivisions of the 
standard itself having been previously tested. In this case the 
distinction' of two parts in the process is unnecessary, and the 
term calibration is for this reason frequently employed to include 
both. In some cases it is employed to denote the first part only, 
but for greater clearness and convenience of description we shall 
restrict the term as far as possible to the second meaning. 

The methods of standardization or calibration employed have 
much in common even in the cases that appear most diverse. They 
are all founded on the axiom that " things which are equal to the 
same thing are equal to one another." Whether it is a question of 
comparing a scale with a standard, or of testing the equality of two 
parts of the same scale, the process is essentially one of interchanging 
or substituting one for the other, the two things to be compared. In 
addition to the things to be tested there is usually required some 
form of balance, or comparator, or gauge, by which the equality 
may be tested. The simplest of such comparators is the instrument 
known as the callipers, from the same root as calibre, which is in 
constant use in the workshop for testing equality of linear dimensions, 
or uniformity of diameter of tubes or rods. The more complicated 
forms of optical comparators or measuring machines with scales and 
screw adjustments are essentially similar in principle, being finely 
adjustable gauges to which the things to be compared can be suc- 
cessively fitted. A still simpler and more accurate comparison is 
that of volume or capacity, using a given mass of liquid as the gauge 
or test of equality, which is the basis of many of the most accurate 
and most important methods of calibration. The common 
balance for testing equality of mass or weight is so delicate and so 
easily tested that the process of calibration may frequently with 
advantage be reduced to a series of weighings, as for instance in the 
calibration of a burette or measure-glass by weighing the quantities 
of mercury required to fill it to different marks. The balance may, 
however, be regarded more broadly as the type of a general method 
capable of the widest application in accurate testing. It is possible, 
for instance, to balance two electromotive forces or two electrical 
resistances against each other, or to measure the refractivity of a 
gas by balancing it against a column of air adjusted to produce the 
same retardation in a beam of light. These " equilibrium," or 
" null," or " balance " methods of comparison afford the most 
accurate measurements, and are generally selected if possible as 
the basis of any process of calibration. In spite of the great diversity 
in the nature of things to be compared, the fundamental principles 
of the methods employed are so essentially similar that it is possible, 
for instance, to describe the testing of a set of weights, or the cali- 
bration of an electrical resistance-box, in almost the same terms, and 
to represent the calibration correction of a mercury thermometer 
or of an ammeter by precisely similar curves. 

Method of Substitution. — In comparing two units of the same 
kind and of nearly equal magnitude, some variety of the general 
method of substitution is invariably adopted. The same method 
in a more elaborate form is employed in the calibration of a series 
of multiples or submultiples of any unit. The details of the method 
depend on the system of subdivision adopted, which is to some 
extent a matter of taste. The simplest method of subdivision is 
that on the binary scale, proceeding by multiples of 2. With a 
pair of submultiples of the smallest denomination and one of each 
of the rest, thus 1, I, 2, 4, 8, 16, &c, each weight or multiple is equal 
to the sum of all the smaller weights, which may be substituted for 
it, and the small difference, if any, observed. If we call the weights 
A, B, C, &c, where each is approximately double the following 
weight, and if we write a for observed excess of A over the rest of 
the weights, b for that of B over C+D+&C, and so on, the observa- 
tions by the method of substitution give the series of equations, 

A— rest=a, B — rest = &,C—rest = c, &c. . . (1) 
Subtracting the second from the first, the third from the second, 
and so on, we obtain at once the value of each weight in terms of 
the preceding, so that all may be expressed in terms of the largest, 
which is most conveniently taken as the standard 

B=A/2 + (b-a)l2, C = B/2 + (c-b)2,&c. . . (2) 

The advantages of this method of subdivision and comparison, in 
addition to its extreme simplicity, are (1) that there is only one 
possible combination to represent any given weight within the 
range of the series; (2) that the least possible number of weights 
is required to cover any given range; (3) that the smallest number 
of substitutions is required for the complete calibration. These 
advantages are important in cases where the accuracy of calibration 
is limited by the constancy of the conditions of observation, as in 
the case of an electrical resistance-box, but the reverse may be the 
case when it is a question of accuracy of estimation by an observer. 

In the majority of cases the ease of numeration afforded 
by familiarity with the decimal system is the most important 


consideration. The most convenient arrangement on the decimal 
system for purposes of calibration is to have the units, tens, 
hundreds, &c, arranged in groups of four adjusted in the proportion 
of the numbers I, 2, 3, 4. The relative values of the weights in 
each group of four can then be determined by substitution inde- 
pendently of the others, and the total of each group of four, making 
ten times the unit of the group, can be compared with the smallest 
weight in the group above. This gives a sufficient number of 
equations to determine the errors of all the weights by the method 
of substitution in a very simple manner. A number of other equa- 
tions can be obtained by combining the different groups in other 
ways, and the whole system of equations may then be solved by the 
method of least squares; but the equations so obtained are not all 
of equal value, and it may be doubted whether any real advantage 
is gained in many cases by the multiplication of comparisons, since 
it is not possible in this manner to eliminate constant errors or 
personal equation, which are generally aggravated by prolonging 
the observations. A common arrangement of the weights in each 
group on the decimal system is 5, 2, I, I, or 5, 2., 2, I. These dp not 
admit of the independent calibration of each group by substitution. 
The arrangement 5, 2, I, I, I, or 5, 2, 2, 1, I, permits independent 
calibration, but involves a'larger number of weights and observations 
than the I, 2, 3, 4, grouping. The arrangement of ten equal weights 
in each group, which is adopted in " dial " resistance-boxes, and in 
some forms of chemical balances where the weights are mechanically 
applied by turning a handle, presents great advantages in point of 
quickness of manipulation and ease of numeration, but the complete 
calibration of such an arrangement is tedious, and in the case of a 
resistance-box it is difficult to make the necessary connexions. In 
all cases where the same total can be made up in a variety of ways, 
it is necessary in accurate work to make sure that the same weights 
are always used for a given combination, or else to record the actual 
weights used on each occasion. In many investigations where time 
enters as one of the factors, this is a serious drawback, and it is better 
to avoid the more complicated arrangements. The accurate adjust- 
ment of a set of weights is so simple a matter that it is often possible 
to neglect the errors of a well-made set, and no calibration is of 
any value without the most 

scrupulous attention to de- Table 

tails of manipulation, and 
particularly to the correction 
for the air displaced in com- 
paring weights of different 
materials. Electrical resist- 
ances are much more difficult 
to adjust owing to the change 
of resistance with tempera- 
ture, and the calibration of a 
resistance-box can seldom be 
neglected on account of the 
changes of resistance which 
are liable to occur after 
adjustment from imperfect annealing. It is also necessary to 
remember that the order of accuracy required, and the actual 
values of the smaller resistances, depend to some extent on the 
method of connexion, and that the box must be calibrated with 
due regard to the conditions under which it is to be used. Otherwise 
the method of procedure is much the same as in the case of a box 
of weights, but it is necessary to pay more attention to the constancy 
and uniformity of the temperature conditions of the observing-room. 

Method of Equal Steps.-. rln calibrating a continuous scale divided 
into a number of divisions of equal length, such as a metre scale 
divided in millimetres, or a thermometer tube divided in degree's 
of temperature, or an electrical slide-wire, it is usual to proceed by 
a method of equal steps. The simplest method is that known as the 
method of Gay Lussac in the calibration of mercurial thermometers 
or tubes of small bore. It is essentially a method of substitution 
employing a column of mercury of constant volume as the gauge 
for comparing the capacities of different parts of the tube. A pre- 
cisely similar method, employing a pair of microscopes at a fixed 
distance apart as a standard of length, is applicable to the calibration 
of a divided scale. The interval to be calibrated is divided into a 
whole number of equal steps or sections, the points of division at 
which the corrections are to be determined are called points of 

Calibration of a Mercury Thermometer. — To facilitate description, 
we will take the case of a fine-bore tube, such as that of a ther- 
mometer, to be calibrated with a thread of mercury. The bore of 
such a tube will generally vary considerably even in the best stan- 
dard instruments, the tubes of which have been specially drawn 
and selected. The correction for inequality of bore may amount 
to a quarter or half a degree, and is seldom less than a tenth. In 
ordinary chemical thermometers it is usual to make allowance for 
variations of bore in graduating the scale, but such instruments 
present discontinuities of division, and cannot be used for accurate 
work, in which a finely-divided scale of equal parts is essential. 
The calibration of a mercury thermometer intended for work of 
precision is best effected after it has been sealed. A-thread of mer- 
cury of the desired length is separated from the column. The exact 
adjustment of the length of the thread requires a little manipulation. 

The thermometer is inverted and tapped to make the mercury run 
down to the top of the tube, thus collecting a trace of residual gas 
at the end of the bulb. By quickly reversing the thermometer the 
bubble passes to the neck of the bulb. If the instrument is again 
inverted and tapped, the thread will probably break off at the neck 
of the bulb, which should be previously cooled or warmed so as to 
obtain in this manner, if possible, a thread of the desired length-. 
If the thread so obtained is too long or not accurate enough, it is 
removed to the other end of the tube, and the bulb further warmed 
till the mercury reaches some easily recognized division. At this 
point the broken thread is rejoined to the mercury column from the 
bulb, and a microscopic bubble of gas is condensed which generally 
suffices to determine the subsequent breaking of the mercury column 
at the same point of the tube. The bulb is then allowed to cool till 
the length of the thread above the point of separation is equal to the 
desired length, when a slight tap suffices to separate the thread. This 
method is difficult to work with short threads owing to deficient 
inertia, especially if the tube is very perfectly evacuated. A thread 
can always be separated by local heating with a small flame, but 
this is dangerous to the thermometer, it is difficult to adjust the 
thread exactly to the required length, and the mercury does not run 
easily past a point of the tube which has been locally heated in this 
manner. ' 

Having separated a thread of the required length, the thermo- 
meter is mounted in a horizontal position on a suitable support, 
preferably with a screw adjustment in the direction of its length. 
By _ tilting or tapping the instrument the thread is brought into 
position corresponding to the steps of the calibration successively, 
and its length in each position is carefully observed with a pair o r f 
reading microscopes fixed at a suitable distance apart. Assuming 
that the temperature remains constant, the variations of length 
of the thread are inversely as the variations of cross-section of the 
tube. If the length of the thread is very nearly equal to one step, 
and if the tube is nearly uniform, the average of the observed lengths 
of the thread, taking all the steps throughout the interval, is equal 
to the length which the thread should have occupied in each position 
had the bore been uniform throughout arid all the divisions equal. 

I. — Calibration by Method of Guy Lussac. 

No. of 










10 ■ 

Ends of ( 
thread. \ 


Error of 


I +-OIO 

\ +-038 

-i 7 -6 
+ 17-6 

— •016 
+ •017 

— 22-6 


— ■020 

— •017 

— 6-6 



— •022 

— •009 

+ i-4 

+ •016 
+ •010 
+ T006 

+ 16-4 


+ •008 
+ •005 

+ 7-4 


+ •013 

+ •033 

— •020 

- 9-6 

— •001 

+ 9-4 


+ •004 
+ •013 
— •004 

+ 6-4 
+ 15-4 

+ •005 

+ 15-4 ! 

The error of each step is therefore found by subtracting the average 
length from the observed length in each position. Assuming that 
the ends of the interval itself are correct, the correction to be applied 
at any point of calibration to reduce the readings to a uniform tube 
and scale, is found by taking the sum of the errors of the steps up 
to the point considered with the sign reversed. 

In the preceding example of the method an interval of ten degrees 
is taken, divided into ten steps of I ° each. The distances of the ends 
of the thread from the nearest degree divisions are estimated by the 
aid of micrometers to the thousandth of a degree. The error of any 
one of these readings probably does not exceed half a thousandth, 
but they are given to the nearest thousandth only. The excess 
length of the thread in each position over the corresponding degree 
is obtained by subtracting the second reading from the first. Taking 
the average of the numbers in this line, the mean excess-length is 
— 10-4 thousandths. The error of each step is found by subtracting 
this mean from each of the numbers in the previous line. Finally, 
the corrections at each degree are obtained by adding up the errors 
of the steps and changing the sign. The errors and corrections 
are given in thousandths of i°. 

Complete Calibration. — The simple method of Gay Lussac does 
very well for short intervals when the number of steps is not ex- 
cessive, but it would not be satisfactory for a large range owing to 
the accumulation of small errors of estimation, and the variation 
of the personal equation. The observer might, for instance, con- 
sistently over-estimate the length of the thread in one half of the 
tube, and under-estirnate it in the other. The errors near the middle 
of the range would probably be large. It is evident that the correc- 
tion at the middle point of the interval could be much more accu- 
rately determined by using a thread equal to half the length of the 
interval. To minimize the effect of these errors of estimation, it 
is usual to employ threads of different lengths in calibrating the 
same interval, and to divide up the fundamental interval of the 
thermometer into a number of subsidiary sections for the purpose 
of calibration, each of these sections being treated as a step in the 
calibration of the fundamental interval. The most symmetrical 
method of calibrating a section, called by C. E. Guillaume a " Com- 
plete Calibration," is to use threads of all possible lengths which are 


integral multiples of the calibration step. In the example already 
given nine different threads were used, and the length of each was 
observed in as many positions as possible. Proceeding in this 
manner the following numbers were obtained for the excess-length 
of each thread in thousandths of a degree in different positions, 
starting in each case with the beginning of the thread at 0°, and 
moving it on by steps of i°. The observations in the first column 
are the excess-lengths of the thread of l° already given in 
illustration of the method of Gay Lussac. The other columns 
give the corresponding observations with the longer threads. 
The simplest and most symmetrical method of solving these 
observations, so as to find the errors of each step in 
terms of the whole interval, is to obtain the differences of 
the steps in pairs by subtracting each observation from the one 

Table II. — Complete Calibration of Interval of 10° in 10 Steps. 

Lengths of Threads. 










Observed excess- o° 





— 11 



— 2 

■'- 8 

lengths of threads, I ° 





+ 14 


— 22 



in various posi- 2° 


+ 2 

- 8 

+ 1 



+ 6 


tions, the begin- 3 

- 9 


+ 5 

~ 3 




ning of the thread 4 

+ 6 


- 7 

+ 4 



being set near the 5° 

- 3 

+ 5 


- 6 


points. 6° 


+ 7 


+ 2 


— 1 


+ 10 


- 4 



+ 5 

above it. This method eliminates the unknown lengths of the 
threads, and gives each observation approximately its due weight. 
Subtracting the observations in the second line from those in the 
first, we obtain a series of numbers, entered in column 1 of the next 
table, representing the excess of step (1) over each of the other steps. 
The sum of these differences is ten times the error of the first step, 
since by hypothesis the sum of the errors of all the steps is zero in 
terms of the whole interval. The numbers in the second column 
of Table III. are similarly obtained by subtracting the third line 
from the second in Table II., each difference being inserted in its. 
appropriate place in the table. Proceeding in this way we find the 
excess of each interval over those which follow it. The table is 
completed by a diagonal row of zeros representing the difference of 
each step from itself, and by repeating the numbers already found in 
symmetrical positions with their signs changed, since the excess of 
any step, say 6 over 3, is evidently equal to that of 3 over 6 with the 
sign changed. The errors of each step having been found by adding 
the columns, and dividing by 10, the corrections at each point of 
the calibration are deduced as before. 

Table III. — Solution of Complete Calibration. 

ampoules, were calibrated by Chappuis in five sections of 20° each, 
to determine the corrections at the points 20°, 40% 6o°, 8o°, which 
may be called the " principal points " of the calibration, in terms of 
the fundamental interval. Each section of 20° was subsequently 
calibrated in steps of 2°, the Corrections being at first referred, as in 
the example already given, to the mean degree of the section itself, 
and being afterwards expressed, by a simple transformation, in terms 
of the fundamental interval, by means of the corrections already 
found for the ends of the section. Supposing, for instance, that the 
corrections at the points 0° and 10° of Table III. are not zero, but 
C° and C respectively, the correction C„ at any intermediate point 
n will evidently be given by the formula, 

C n =>C°+c„ + (C'-C°)n/io . . . (3) 

where c„ is the correction already given in the table. 

If. the corrections are required to the thou- 
sandth of a degree, it is necessary to tabulate 
the results of the calibration at much more 
frequent intervals than 2°, since the correction, 
even of a good thermometer, may change by 
as much as 20 or 30 thousandths in 2°. To 
save the labour and difficulty of calibrating 
with shorter threads, the corrections at inter- 
mediate points are usually calculated by a 
formula of interpolation. 5 This leaves much to 
be desired, as the section of a tube often changes 
very suddenly and capriciously. It is probable 
that the graphic method gives equally good 
results with less labour. 

Slide-Wire. — The calibration of an electrical 
slide-wire into parts of equal resistance is precisely analogous to that 
of a capillary tube into parts of equal volume. The Carey Foster 
method, employing short steps of equal resistance, effected by trans- 
; ferring a suitable small resistance from one side of the slide-wire to 
the other, is exactly analogous to the Gay Lussac method, and suffers 
from the same defect of the accumulation of small errors unless steps 
of several different lengths are used. The calibration of a sliderwire, 
however, is much less troublesome than that of a thermometer tube 
for several reasons. It is easy to obtain a wire uniform to one part in 
500 or even less, and the section is not liable to capricious variations. 
In all work of precision the slide-wire is supplemented by auxiliary 
resistances by which the scale may be indefinitely extended. In 
accurate electrical thermometry, for example, the slide-wire itself 
would correspond to only 1°, or less, of the whole scale, which is less 
than a single step in the calibration of a mercury thermometer, 
so that an accuracy of a thousandth of a degree can generally be 
obtained without any calibration of the slide- wire. In the rare 
cases in which it is necessary to employ a long slide-wire, such as 
the cylinder potentiometer of Latimer Clark, the calibration is best 
effected by comparison with a standard, 














- 5 

+ 11 




+ 7 





+ 5 





+ 12 





— 11 


+ 8 


+ 13 

- 4 

+ 15 




— 20 


- 8 

+ 15 

+ 5 

— 12 

+ 7 

+ 4 

+ 13 






- 9 


- 8 

— 10 

— 2 





- 5 

+ 9 


+ 2 

— 1 

+ 8 


- 7 

— 12 

+ 4 

+ 12 


+ 17 

+ 19 

+ 16 






- 7 

+ 8 

— 2 


- 3 

+ 6 





- 4 

+ 10 

+ 1 


+ 3 

+ 9 




— 22 


+ 2 

- 8 


- 6 

- 9 

Error of 


— 22-0 

- 6.4 

+ 1-9 

+ 16-7 

+ 7-i 

— 10- 1 

+ 8-9 

+ 6-1 

+ 15-1 



+ 17-3 








+ 15-1 

such as a Thomson-Varley slide-box. 

The advantages of this method are the simplicity and symmetry 
of the work of reduction, and the accuracy of the result, which 
exceeds that of the Gay Lussac method in consequence of the much 
larger number of independent observations. It may be noticed, 
for instance, that the correction at point 5 is 27-1 thousandths by 
the complete calibration, which is 2 thousandths less than the value 
29 obtained by the Gay Lussac method, but agrees well with the 
value 27 thousandths obtained by taking only the first and last 
observations with the thread of 5 °, The disadvantage of the method 
lies in the great number of observations required, and in the labour 
of adjusting so many different threads to suitable lengths. It is 
probable that sufficiently good results may be obtained with much 
less trouble by using fewer threads, especially if more care is taken 
in the micrometric determination of their errors. 

The method adopted for dividing up the fundamental interval 
of any thermometer into sections and steps for calibration may be 
widely varied, and is necessarily modified in cases where auxiliary 
bulbs or " ampoules " are employed. The Paris mercury-standards, 
which read continuously from 0° to 100° C, without intermediate 

Graphic Representation of Results. — 
The results of a calibration are often 
best represented by means of a correc- 
tion curve, such as that illustrated in 
the diagram, which is plotted to repre- 
sent the corrections found in Table III. 
The. abscissa of such a curve is the read- 
ing of the instrument to be corrected. 
The ordinate is the correction to be 
added to the observed reading to reduce 
to a uniform scale. The corrections 
are plotted in the figure in terms of the 
whole section, taking the correction to 
be zero at the beginning and end. As 
a matter of fact the corrections at these 
points in terms of the fundamental in- 
terval were found to be -29 and -9 thousandths respectively. 
The correction curve is transformed to give corrections in terms 
of the fundamental interval by ruling a straight line joining the 
points +29 and +9 respectively, and reckoning the ordinates 
from this line instead of from the base-line. Or the curve may 
be replotted with the new ordinates thus obtained. In draw- 
ing the curve from the corrections obtained at the points of 
calibration, the exact form of the curve is to some extent a 
matter of taste, but the curve should generally be drawn as 
smoothly as possible on the assumption that the changes are 
gradual and continuous. 

The ruling of the straight line across the curve to express the 
corrections in terms of the fundamental interval, corresponds to 
the first part of the process of calibration mentioned above under 
the term " Standardization." It effects the reduction of the 


readings to a common standard, and may be neglected if relative 
values only are required. A precisely analogous correction occurs 
in the case of electrical instruments. A potentiometer, for 
instance, if correctly graduated or calibrated in parts of equal 

resistance, will give correct relative values of any differences of 

3 4 6 6.7 

Calibration Curve. 

potential within its range if connected to a constant cell to supply 
the steady current through the slide-wire. But to determine at 
any time the actual value of its readings in volts, it is necessary 
to standardize it, or determine its scale-value or reduction-factor, 
by comparison with a standard cell. 

A very neat use of the calibration curve has been made by 
Professor W. A. Rogers in the automatic correction of screws of divid- 
ing machines or lathes. It is possible by the process of grinding, as 
applied by Rowland, to make a screw which is practically perfect 
in point of uniformity, but even in this case errors may be introduced 
by the method of mounting. In the production of divided scales, 
and more particularly in the case of optical gratings, it is most im- 
portant that the errors should be as small as possible, and should be 
automatically corrected during the process of ruling. With this 
object a scale is ruled on the machine, and the errors of the un- 
corrected screw are determined by calibrating the scale. A metal 
template may then be cut out in the form of the calibration-correc- 
tion curve on a suitable scale. A lever projecting from the nut 
which feeds the carriage or the slide-rest is made to follow the contour 
of the template, and to apply the appropriate correction at each 
point of the travel, by turning the nut through a small angle on the 
screw. A small periodic error of the screw, recurring regularly at each 
revolution, may be similarly corrected by means of a suitable cam 
or eccentric revolving with the screw and actuating the template. 
This kind of error is important in optical gratings, but is difficult to 
determine and correct. 

Calibration by Comparison with a Standard. — The commonest 
and most generally useful process of calibration is the direct 
comparison of the instrument with a standard over the whole 
range of its scale. It is necessary that the standard itself should 
have been already calibrated, or else that the law of its indications 
should be known. A continuous current ammeter, for instance, 
can be calibrated, so far as the relative values of its readings are 
concerned, by comparison with a tangent galvanometer, since 
it is known that the current in this instrument is proportional 
to the tangent of the angle of deflection. Similarly an alternating 
current ammeter can be calibrated by comparison with an electro- 
dynamometer, the reading of which varies as the square of the 
current. But in either case it is neccessary, in order to obtain 
the readings in amperes, to standardize the instrument for some 
particular value of the current by comparison with a voltameter, 
or in some equivalent manner. Whenever possible, ammeters 
and voltmeters are calibrated by comparison of their readings 
with those of a potentiometer, the calibration of which can be 
reduced to the comparison and adjustment of resistances, which 
is the most accurate of electrical measurements. The commoner 
kinds of mercury thermometers are generally calibrated and 
graduated by comparison with a standard. In many cases this 
is the most convenient or even the only possible method. A 
mercury thermometer of limited scale reading between 250° and 
400 ° C, with gas under high pressure to prevent the separation 
of the mercury column, cannot be calibrated on itself, or by 
comparison with a mercury standard possessing a fundamental 
interval, on account of difficulties of stem exposure and scale. 
The only practical method is to compare its readings every few 
degrees with those of a platinum thermometer under the condi- 

tions for which it is to be used. This method has the advantage 
of combining all the corrections for fundamental interval, &c, 
with the calibration correction in a single curve, except the 
correction for variation of zero which must be tested occasionally 

at some point of the sca/e. 

Authorities. — Mercurial Thermometers: Guillaume, Thermo' 
metrie de Precision (Paris, 1889), gives several examples and refer- 
ences to original memoirs. The best examples of comparison and 
testing of standards are generally to be found in publications of 
Standards Offices, such as those of the Bureau International des 
Poids et Mesures at Paris. Dial Resistance- Box: Griffiths, Phil. 
Trans. A, 1893; Platinum Thermometry-Box : J. A. Harker and 
P. Chappuis, Phil. Trans. A, 1900; Thomson- Varley Potentiometer 
and Binary Scale Box: Callendar and Barnes, Phil. Trans. A, 
1901. (H. L. C.) 

CALICO, a general name given to plain cotton cloth. The 
word was spelt in various forms, including " calicut," which 
shows its derivation from the lindian city of Calicut or Kolikod, 
a seaport in the presidency of Madras, and one of the chief ports 
of intercourse with Europe in the 16th century, where cotton 
cloths were made. The name seems to have been applied to 
all kinds of cotton cloths imported from the East. In England 
it is now applied particularly to grey or bleached cotton cloth 
used for domestic purposes, and, generally, to any fairly heavy 
cotton cloth without a pattern. In the United States there is "a 
special application to printed cloth " of a coarser quality than 
muslin." In England " printed calico " is a comprehensive 

CALICUT, a city of British India, in the Malabar district of 
Madras; on the coast, 6 m. N. of Beypur. In 1901 the popula- 
tion was 76,981, showing an increase of 14% in the decade. 
The weaving of cotton, for which the place was at one time so 
famous that its name became identified with its calico, is no 
longer of any importance. Calicut is of considerable antiquity; 
and about the 7th century it had its population largely increased 
by the immigration of the Moplahs, a fanatical race of Mahom- 
medans from Arabia, who entered enthusiastically into com- 
mercial life. The Portuguese traveller Pero de Covilham 
(q.v.) visited Calicut in 1487 and described its possibilities for 
European trade; and in May 1498 Vasco da Gama, the first 
European navigator to reach India, arrived at Calicut. At 
that time it was a very flourishing city, and contained several 
stately buildings, among which was especially mentioned a 
Brahminical temple, not inferior to the largest monastery in 
Portugal. Vasco da Gama tried to establish a factory, but he 
met with persistent hostility from the local chief (zamorin), and a 
similar attempt made by Cabral two years later ended in the 
destruction of the factory by the Moplahs. In revenge the 
Portuguese bombarded the town, but no further attempt was 
made for some years to establish a trading settlement there. 
In 1509 the marshal Don Fernando Coutinho made an un- 
successful attack on the city; and in the following year it was 
again assailed by Albuquerque with 3000 troops. On this 
occasion the palace was plundered and the town burnt; but 
the Portuguese were finally repulsed, and fled to their ships after 
heavy loss. In the following year they concluded a peace with 
the zamorin and were allowed to build a fortified factory on the 
north bank of the Kallayi river, which was however again, and 
finally, abandoned in 1525. In 161 5 the town was visited by 
an English expedition under Captain Keeling, who concluded 
a treaty with the zamorin; but it was not until 1664 that an 
English trading settlement was established by th/3 East India 
Company. The French settlement, which still exists, was 
founded in 1698. The town was taken in 1765 by Hyder Ali, 
who expelled all the merchants and factors, and destroyed the 
cocoa-nut trees, sandal-wood and pepper vines, that the country 
reduced to ruin might present no temptation to the cupidity of 
Europeans. In 1782 the troops of Hyder were driven from 
Calicut by the British; but in 1788 it was taken and destroyed 
by his son Tippoo, who carried off the inhabitants to Beypur 
and treated them with great cruelty. In the latter part of 1790 
the country was occupied by the British; and under the treaty 
concluded in 1792, whereby Tippoo was deprived of half his 
dominions, Calicut fell to the British. After this event the 


inhabitants returned and rebuilt the town, which in 1800 con- 
sisted of 5000 houses. 

As the administrative headquarters of the district, Calicut 
maintains its historical importance. It is served by the Madras 
railway, and is the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, and the 
principal exports are coffee, timber and coco-nut products. 
There are factories for coffee-cleaning, employing several hundred 
hands; for coir-pressing and timber-cutting. The town has a 
cotton-mill, a saw-mill, and tile, coffee and oil works. A detach- 
ment of European troops is generally stationed here to overawe 
the fanatical Moplahs. 

CALIFORNIA, one of the Pacific Coast states of the United 
States of America, physically one of the most remarkable, 
economically one of the more independent, and in history and 
social life one of the most interesting of the Union* It is bounded 
N. by Oregon, E. by Nevada and Arizona, from which last it 
is separated by the Colorado river, and S. by the Mexican 
province of Lower California. The length of its medial line 
N. and S. is about 780 m., its breadth varies from 150 to 350 m., 
and its total area is 158,207 sq. m., of which 2205 are Water 
surface. In size it ranks second among the states of the 
Union. The coast is bold and rugged and with very few good 
harbours; San Diego and San Francisco bays being exceptions. 
The coast line is more than 1000 m. long. There are eight coast 
islands, all of inconsiderable size, and none of them as yet in 
any way important. 

Physiography.— The physiography of the state is simple; 
its main, features are few and bold: a mountain fringe along 
the ocean,, another mountain system along the east border, 
between them — closed in at both ends by their junction — a 
splendid valley of imperial extent, and outside all this a great 
area of barren, arid lands, belonging partly to the Great Basin 
and partly to the Open Basin region. 

Along the Pacific, and some 20-40 m. in width, runs the mass 
of the Coast Range, made up of numerous indistinct chains — 
most of which have localized individual names— that are broken 
down into innumerable ridges and spurs, and small valleys 
drained by short streams of rapid fall. The range is cut by 
numerous fault lines, some of which betray evidence of recent 
activity; it is probable that movements along these faults cause 
the earthquake tremors to which the region is subject, all of 
which seem to be tectonic. The altitudes of the Coast Range 
vary from about 2000 to 8000 ft. ; in the neighbourhood of San 
Francisco Bay the culminating peaks are about 4000 ft. in height 
(Mount Diablo, 3856 ft.; Mount St Helena, 4343 ft.), and to 
the north and south the elevation of the ranges increases. In 
the east part of the state is the magnificent Sierra Nevada, 
a great block of the earth's crust, faulted along its eastern side 
and tilted up so as to have a gentle back slope to the west and 
a steep fault escarpment facing east, the finest mountain system 
of the United States. The Sierra proper, from Lassen's Peak to 
Tehachapi Pass in Kern county, is about 430 m. long (from 
Mt. Shasta in Siskiyou county to Mt. San Jacinto in Riverside 
county, more than 600 m.). It narrows to the north and the 
altitude declines in the same direction. Far higher and grander 
than the Coast Range, the Sierra is much less complicated, 
being indeed essentially one chain of great simplicity of structure. 
It is only here and there that a double line of principal summits 
exists. The slope is everywhere long and gradual on the west, 
averaging about 200 ft. to the mile. Precipitous gorges or 
canyons often from 2000 to 5000 ft. in depth become a more 
and more marked feature of the range as one proceeds north- 
ward; over great portions of it they average probably not more 
than 20 m. apart. Where the volcanic formations were spread 
uniformly over the flanks of the mountains, the contrast between 
the canyons and the plain-like region of gentle slope in which 
they have been excavated is especially marked and characteristic. 
The eastern slope is very precipitous, due to a great fault which 
drops the rocks of the Great Basin region abruptly downward 
several thousand feet. Rare passes cross the chain, opening 
at the foot of the mountains on the east and the west high on their 
flanks, 7000-10,000 ft. above the sea. Between 36 20' and 38 

the lowest gap of any kind is above 0000 ft., and the average 
height of those actually used is probably not less than 11,000 ft. 
The Kearsarge, most used of all, is still higher. Very few in 
the entire Sierra are passable by vehicles. Some forty peaks 
are catalogued between 5000 and 8000 ft., and there are eleven 
above 14,000. The highest portion of the system is between 
the parallels of 36 30' and 37 30'; here the passes are about 
12,000 ft. in elevation, and the peaks range from 13,000 ft. 
upward, Mount Whitney, 14,502 ft., being the highest summit 
of the United States, excluding Alaska. From this peak north- 
ward there is a gradual decline, until at the point where the 
Central Pacific crosses in lat. 30° 20' the elevation is only 7000 ft. 

Of the mountain scenery the granite pinnacles and domes of 
the highest Sierra opposite Owen's Lake, where there is a drop 
eastward into the valley of about 10,000 ft. in 10 m.; the snowy 
volcanic cone of Mt Shasta, rising 10,000 ft. above the adjacent 
plains; and the lovely valleys of the Coast Range, and the 
south fork of the King river— all these have their charms; 
but most beautiful of all is the unique scenery of the Yosemite 
Valley (q.v.). Much of the ruggedness and beauty of the 
mountains is due to the erosive action of many alpine glaciers 
that once existed on the higher summits, and which have left 
behind their evidences in valleys and amphitheatres with 
towering walls, polished rock-expanses, glacial lakes and meadows 
and tumbling waterfalls. Remnants of these glaciers are still 
to be seen, — as notably on Mt. Shasta, — though shrunk to small 
dimensions. Glacial action may be studied well as far south as 
36 . The canyons are largely the work of rivers, modified by 
glaciers that ran through them after the rivers had formed them. 
All of the Sierra lakes and ponds are of glacial origin and there 
are some thousands of them. The lower lake line is about 8000 
ft. ; it is lower to the north than to the south, owing to the different 
climate, and the different period of glacial retrogression. Of 
these lakes some are fresh, and some — as those of the north-east 
counties— alkali. The finest of all is Tahoe, 6225 ft. above the 
sea, lying between the true Sierras and the Basin Ranges, with 
peaks on several sides rising 4000-5000 ft. above it. It is 1500 
ft. deep and its waters are of extraordinary purity (containing 
only three grains of solid matter to the gallon). Clear Lake, 
in the Coast Range, is another beautiful sheet of water. It is 
estimated by John Muir that on an average " perhaps more than 
a mile " of degradation took place in the last glacial period; 
but with regard to the whole subject of glacial action in California 
as in other fields, there is considerable difference of opinion. 
The same authority counted 65 small residual glaciers between 
36° 30' and 39 ; two-thirds of them lie between 37° and 38 , 
on some of the highest peaks in the district of the San Joaquin, 
Merced, Tuolumne and Owen's rivers. They do not descend, 
on an average, below 1 1,000 ft. ; the largest of all, on Mt. Shasta, 
descends to 9500 ft. above the sea. 

Volcanic action has likewise left abundant traces, especially 
in the northern half of the range, whereas the evidences of 
glacial action are most perfect (though not most abundant) 
in the south. Lava covers most of the northern half of the 
range, and there are many craters and ash-cones, some recent and 
of perfect form. Of these the most remarkable is Mt. Shasta. 
In Owen's Valley is a fine group of extinct or dormant volcanoes. 

Among the other indications of great geological disturbances 
on the Pacific Coast may also be mentioned the earthquakes 
to which California like the rest of the coast is liable. From 1850 
to 1887 almost 800 were catalogued by Professor E. H. Holden 
for California, Oregon and Washington. They occur in all 
seasons, scores of slight tremors being recorded every year by 
the Weather Bureau; but they are of no importance, and even 
of these the number affecting any particular locality is small. 
From 1769 to 1887 there were 10 " destructive " and 24 other 
" extremely severe " shocks according to the Rossi Forel nomen- 
clatural scale of intensity. In 1812 great destruction was 
wrought by an earthquake that affected all the southern part 
of the state; in 1865 the region about San Francisco was violently 
disturbed; in 1872 the whole Sierra and the state of Nevada 
were violently shaken; and in 1906 San Francisco fo.tO was in 



large part destroyed by a shock that caused great damage else- 
where in the state. 

North of 40 N. lat. the Coast Range and Sierra systems unite, 
forming a country extremely rough. The eastern half of this 
area is covered chiefly with volcanic plains, very dry and barren, 
lying between precipitous, although not very lofty, ranges; 
the western half is magnificently timbered, and toward the coast 
excessively wet. Between 35 and 36 N. lat. the Sierra at its 
southern end turns westward toward the coast as the Tehachapi 
Range. The valley is thus closed to the north and south, and 
is surrounded by a mountain wall, which is broken down in but 
a single place, the gap behind the Golden Gate at San Francisco. 
Through this passes the entire drainage of the interior. The 
length of the valley is about 450 m., its breadth averages about 
40 m. if the lower foothills be included, so that the entire area 
is about 18,000 sq. m. The drainage basin measured from 
the water-partings of the enclosing mountains is some three 
times as great. From the mouth of the Sacramento to Redding, 
at the northern head of the valley, the rise is 552 ft. in 192 m., 
and from the mouth of the San Joaquin southward to Kern 
lake it is 282 ft. in 260 m. 

Two great rivers drain this central basin,— the San Joaquin, 
whose valley comprises more than three-fifths of the entire 
basin, and the Sacramento, whose valley comprises the remainder. 
The San Joaquin is a very crooked stream flowing through a low 
mud-plain, with tule banks; the Sacramento is much less 
meandering, and its immediate basin, which is of sandy loam, 
is higher and more attractive than that of the San Joaquin. 
The eastward flanks of the Coast Range are very scantily forested, 
and they furnish not a single stream permanent enough to reach 
either the Sacramento or San Joaquin throughout the dry season; 
On the eastern side of both rivers are various important tribu- 
taries, fed by the more abundant rains and melting snows of the 
western flank of the Sierra; but these streams also shrink 
greatly in the dry season. The Feather, emptying into the 
Sacramento river about 20 m. N. of the city of Sacramento, 
is the most important tributary of the Sacramento river. A 
striking feature of the Sacramento system is that for 200 m. 
north of the Feather it does not receive a single tributary of 
any importance, though walled in by high mountains. Another 
peculiar and very general feature of the drainage system of the 
state is the presence of numerous so-called river " sinks," where 
the waters disappear, either directly by evaporation or (as in 
Death Valley) after flowing for a time beneath the surface. 
These " sinks " are therefore not the true sinks of limestone 
regions. The popular name is applied to Owen's lake, at the 
end of Owen's river; to Mono lake, into which flow various 
streams rising in the Sierra between Mount Dana and Castle 
Peak; and to Death Valley, which contains the " sink " of the 
Amargosa river, and evidently was once an extensive lake, 
although now only a mud-flat in ordinary winters, and a dry, 
alkaline, desert plain in summer. All these lakes, and the other 
mountain lakes before referred to, show by the terraces about 
them that the water stood during the glacial period much higher 
than it does now. Tulare lake, which with Buena Vista lake 
and Kern lake receives the drainage of the southern Sierra, 
shows extreme local variations of shore-line, and is generally 
believed to have shrunk extremely since 1850, though of this 
no adequate proof yet exists. In 1900 it was about 200 sq. m. 
in area. In wet seasons it overflows its banks and becomes 
greatly extended in area, discharging its surplus waters into the 
San Joaquin; but in dry seasons the evaporation is so great 
that there is no such discharge. The drainage of Lassen, Siskiyou 
and Modoc counties has no outlet to the sea and is collected 
in a number of great alkaline lakes. 

Finally along the sea below Pt. Conception are fertile coastal 
plains of considerable extent, separated from the interior deserts 
by various mountain ranges from 5000 to 7000 ft. high, and 
with peaks much higher (San Bernardino, 11,600; San Jacinto, 
10,800; San Antonio, 10,140). Unlike the northern Sierra, 
the ranges of Southern California are broken down in a number 
of. places. It is over these passes — Soledad, 2822 ft., Cajon, 

San Gorgonio, 2560 ft.— that the railways cross to the coast; 
That part of California which lies to the south and east of the 
southern inosculation of the Coast Range and the Sierra c6m- 
prises an area of fully 50,000 sq. m., and belongs to the Basin" 
Range region. For the most part it is excessively dry and 
barren. The Mohave desert — embracing Kern, Los AhgeleS 
and San Bernardino, as also a large part of San Diego, Imperial 
and Riverside counties— belong to the " Great Basin," while a 
narrow strip along the Colorado river is in the "Open Basin 
Region." They have no drainage to the sea, save fitfully for 
slight areas through the Colorado river. The Mohave desert is 
about 2000 ft. above the sea in general altitude. The southern 
part of the Great Basin region is vaguely designated the Colorado 
desert. In San Diego, Imperial and Riverside counties a number 
of creeks or so-called rivers, with beds that are normally dryy 
flow centrally toward the desert of Salton Sink or " Sea "; 
this is the lowest part of a large area that is depressed below the 
level of the sea, — at Salton 263 ft., and 287 ft. at the lowest point.; 
In 1900 the Colorado river (q.v.) was tapped south of the Mexican- 
boundary for water wherewith to irrigate land in the Imperial 
Valley along the Southern Pacific railway, adjoining Salton Sea. 
The river enlarged the canal, and finding a steeper gradient than" 
that to its mouth, was'diverted into the Colorado desert, flooding: 
Salton Sea; 1 and when the break in this river was closed for 
the second time in February 1907, though much of its water 
i still escaped through minor channels and by seepage, a lake 
more than 400 sq. m. in area was left. A permanent 60 ft. 
masonry dam was completed in July 1907. The region to the 
east of the Sierra, likewise in the Great Basin province, between 
the crest of that range and the Nevada boundary, is very moun- 
tainous. Owen's river runs through it from north to south for 
some 180 m. Near Owen's lake the scenery is extremely grand. 
The valley here is very narrow, and on either side the mountains 
rise from 7000 to 10,000 ft. above the lake and river. The Inyo 
range, on the east, is quite bare of timber, and its summits are 
only occasionally whitened with snow for a few days during the 
winter, as almost all precipitation is cut off by the higher ranges 
to the westward. Still further to the east some 40 m. from the 
lake is Death Valley (including Lost or Mesquite Valley)— the 
name a reminder of the fate of a party of "forty-niners " who- 
perished here, by thirst or by starvation and exposure. Death 
Valley, some 50 m. long and on an average 20-25 m. broad from- 
the crests of the inclosing mountain ranges (or S^to' m. at their 
base), constitutes an independent drainage basin. It is below 
sea level (about 276 ft. according torecent surveys) , arid altogether 
is one of the most remarkable physical features of California. 
The mountains about it are high and bare and brilliant with 
varied colours. The Amargosa river, entering the valley from 
Nevada, disappears in the salty basin. Enormous quantities' 
of borax, already exploited, and of nitrate of soda, are known 
to be present in the surrounding country, the former as almost 
pure borate of lime in Tertiary lake sediments. 

The physiography of the state is the evident determinant of 
its climate, fauna and flora. California has the highest' land 
and the lowest land of the United States, the greatest variety 
of temperature and rainfall, and of products of the soil. 

Climate. — The climate is very different from that of the 
Atlantic coast; and indeed very different from that of any part 
of the country save that bordering California* Amid great 
variations of local weather there are some peculiar features that 
obtain all over the state. In the first place, the climate of the 
entire Pacific Coast is milder and more uniform in temperature 
than that of the states in corresponding latitude east of the 
mountains. Thus we have to go north as far as Sitka in 57 N. 
lat. to find the same mean yearly temperature as that of Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, in latitude 44 39'. And going south along the' 
coast, we find the mean temperature of San Diego 6" or 7? less 
than that of Vicksburg, Miss., or Charleston, S.C. The quantity 
of total annual heat supply "at Puget Sound exceeds that ; at 
Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Cleveland or Omaha, all more than 

1 In December 1904 Salton Sea was dry; in February 1906 if was 
occupied by a lake 60 m. long. 

Emery Walker sc. 



500 m. farther south; Cape Flattery, exposed the year round 
to cold ocean fogs, receives more heat than Eastport, Maine, 
which is 3 farther south and has a warmer summer. In the 
second place, the means of winter and summer are much nearer 
the mean of the year in California than in the east. This condi- 
tion of things is not so marked as one goes inward from the 
coast; yet everywhere save in the high mountains the winters 
are comparatively mild. In the third place, the division of the 
year into two seasons — a wet one and a dry (and extremely 
dusty) one-^-marks this portion of the Pacific Coast in the most 
decided manner, and this natural climatic area coincides almost 
exactly in its extension with that of California; being truly 
characteristic neither of Lower California nor of the greater part 
of Oregon, though more so of Nevada and Arizona. And finally, 
in the fourth place, except on the coast the disagreeableness of 
the heat of summer is greatly lessened by the dryness of the air 
and the consequent rapidity of evaporation. Among the 
peculiarities of Calif ornian climate it is not one of the least 
striking that as one leaves the Sacramento or San Joaquin plains 
and travels into the mountains it becomes warmer, at least for 
the first 2O00 or 3000 ft. of ascent. 

Along both the Coast Range and the Sierra considerable 
rainfall is certain, although, owing to the slight snow accumula- 
tions of the former, its streams are decidedly variable. A heavy 
rain-belt, with a normal fall of more than 40 in., covers all the 
northern half of the Sierra and the north-west counties; shading 
off from this is the region of 10-20 in. fall, which covers all the 
rest of the state save Inyo, Kern and San Bernardino counties, 
Imperial county and the eastern portion of Riverside county; 
the precipitation of this belt is from o to 10 in. In excessively 
dry years the limits of this last division may include all of the 
state below Fresno and the entire Central Valley as well. In 
the mountains the precipitation increases with the altitude; 
above 6000 or 7000 ft. it is almost wholly in the form of snow; 
and this snow, melting in summer, is of immense importance to 
the state, supplying water once for placer mining and now for 
irrigation. 1 The north-west counties are extremely wet; many 
localities here have normal rainfalls of 60-70 in. and even higher 
annually, while in extreme seasons as much as 125 in. falls. 
Along the entire Pacific Coast, but particularly N. of San Fran- 
cisco, there is a night fog from May to September. It extends 
but a few miles inland, but within this belt is virtually a pro- 
longation of the rainy season and has a marked effect on 
vegetation. Below San Francisco the precipitation decreases 
along the coast, until at San Diego it is only about 10 in. The 
south-east counties are the driest portions of the United States. 
At Ogilby, Volcano, Indio and other stations on the Southern 
Pacific line the normal annual precipitation is from 1-5 to 2-5 in.; 
and there are localities near Owen's lake, even on its very edge, 
that are almost dry. For days iri succession when it storms 
along the Southern California coasts and dense rain clouds blow 
landwards to the mountains, leaving snow or rain on their 
summits, it has been observed that within a few miles beyond 
the ridge the contact of the desert air dissipates the remaining 
moisture of the clouds into light misty masses, like a steam 
escape in cold air. The extreme heat of the south-east is tempered 
fey the extremely low humidity characteristic of the Great Basin, 
which in the interior of the two southernmost counties is very 
low. The humidity of places such as Fresno, Sacramento and 
Red Bluff in the valley varies from 48 to 58. Many places in 
northern, southern, central, mountain and southern coastal 
California normally have more than 200 perfectly clear days in a 
year; and many in the mountains and in the south, even on the 
coast, have more than 250. The extreme variability in the 
amount of rainfall is remarkable. 1 The effects of a season of 
drought on the dry portions of the state need not be adverted 
fo;> and as there is no rain or snow of any consequence 
on the mountains during summer, a succession of dry 
seasons may almost bare the ranges of the accumulated stock 

1 During the interval from 1850 to 1872 the yearly rainfall at 
San Francisco ranged from 11-37 to 49-27 in.; from 1850 to 1904 the 
average was 22-74, and the probable annual variation 4 in. 

of previous winter snows, thus making worse what, is already 
bad. , 

The Colorado desert (together with the lower Gila Valley 
of Arizona) is the hottest part of the United States. Along the 
line of the Southern Pacific the yearly extreme is frequently 
from 124 to 129 F. (i.e. in the shade, which is almost if not 
quite the greatest heat ever actually recorded in any part of the 
world). At the other extreme, temperatures of — 20 to —36° 
are recorded yearly on the Central (Southern) Pacific line near 
Lake Tahoe. The normal annual means of the coldest localities 
of the state are from 37° to 44 F.; the monthly means from 
20 to 65° F. The normal annual means on Indio, Mammoth 
Tanks, Salton and Volcano Springs are from 73-9° to 78-4 F.; the 
monthly means from 52-8° to 101-3° (frequently 95° to 98°), 
The normal trend of the annual isotherms of the state is very 
simple: a low line of about 40° circles the angle in the Nevada 
boundary line; 50° normally follows the northern Sierra across 
the Oregon border; lines of higher temperature enclose the 
Great Valley; and lines of still higher tempera ture— usually 
6o° to 70°, in hotter years 6o° to 75 — run transversely across 
the southern quarter of the state. 

Another weather factor is the winds, which are extremely 
regular in their movements.. There are brisk diurnal sea-breezes, 
and seasonal trades and counter-trades. Along the coast an 
on-shore breeze blows every summer day; in the evening it is 
replaced by a night-fog, and the cooler air draws down the 
mountain sides in opposition to its movement during the day. 
In the upper air a dry off-shore wind from the Rocky Mountain 
plateau prevails throughout the summer; and in winter an on- 
shore rain wind; The last is the counter- trade, the all-year 
wind of Alaska and Oregon; it prevails in. winter even off 
Southern California. . 

There is the widest and most startling variety of local climates. 
At Truckee, for example, lying about 5800 ft. above the sea near 
Lake Tahoe, the lowest temperature of the year may be— 2,5° F. 
or colder, when 70 m. westward at Rocklin, which lies in the 
foothills about 250 ft. above the sea, the mercury. does not 
fall below 28°. Snow never falls at Rocklin, but falls in large 
quantity at Truckee; ice is the crop of the one, oranges of the 
other, at the same time. There are points in Southern California 
where one may actually look from sea to desert and from snow 
to orange groves. Distance from the ocean, situation with 
reference to the mountain ranges, and altitude are all important 
determinants of these climatic differences; but of these the 
last seems to be most important. At any rate it may be said 
that generally speaking the maximum, minimum and mean 
temperatures of points of approximately equal altitude are 
respectively but slightly different in northern or southern 
California, 2 

Death Valley surpasses for combined heat and aridity any 
meteorological stations on earth where regular observations 
are taken, although for extremes of heat it is exceeded by places 
in the Colorado desert. The minimum daily temperature in 
summer is rarely below 70 F. and often above 90° F. (in the 
shade), while the maximum may for days in succession be 
as high as 120 F. A record of 6 months (1891) showed an 
average daily relative humidity of 30-6 in the morning and 15-6 
in the evening, and the humidity sometimes falls to 5. Yet 
the surrounding country is not devoid of vegetation. The hills 
are very fertile when irrigated, and the wet season develops 
a variety of perennial herbs, shrubs and annuals. 

Fauna. — California embraces areas of every life-zone of 
North America: of the boreal, the Hudsonian and Canadian 
subzones; of the transition, the humid Pacific subzone; of 
the upper austral, the arid or upper Sonoran subzone; of the 
lower austral, the arid or lower Sonoran; of the tropical, the 
" dilute arid " subzone. As will be inferred from the above 

2 The means for Los Angeles and Red Bluff, of Redding and 
Fresno, of San Diego and Sacramento, of San Francisco or Monterey 
and Independence, are respectively about the same; and all of them 
lie between 56 and 63° F. The places mentioned are scattered over 
■3t* of longitude and 6|° of latitude. 



account of temperature, summer is longer in the north, and 
localities in the Valley have more hours of heat than do those 
of south California. Hence that climatic characteristic of 
the entire Pacific Coast — already referred to and which is of 
extreme importance in determining the life-zones of California — 
the great amount of total annual heat supply at comparatively 
high latitudes. A low summer temperature enables northern 
species to push far southward, while the high heat total of the 
year enables southern species to push far north. The resultant 
intermingling of forms is very marked and characteristic of 
the Pacific Coast states. The distribution of life-zones is 
primarily a matter of altitude and corresponds to that of the 
isotherms. The mountain goat and mountain sheep live in 
the Sierran upper-land, though long ago well-nigh exterminated. 
The Douglas red squirrel is ubiquitous in the Sierran forests 
and their most conspicuous inhabitant. White-tailed deer 
and especially black-tails are found on the high Sierra; the 
mule deer, too, although its habitat is now mainly east of the 
range, on the plateau, is also met with. Grizzly, black, cinnamon 
and brown bears are all Calif ornian- species once common and 
to-day rare. When Americans began to rule in California elk 
and antelope herded in great numbers in the Great Valley; 
the former may to-day sometimes- be seen, possibly, in the 
northern forests, and the latter occasionally cross into the state 
from Nevada. The sage-hen is abundant on the eastern flank 
of the Sierra. Grouse, quail, crows and woodpeckers (Melanerpes 
formicivorus) furnish species characteristic of the state. There 
are various species of ground-squirrels and gophers, which are 
very abundant. Noteworthy in the animal life of tie lower 
Sonoran and tropic region are a variety of snakes and lizards, 
desert rats and mice; and, among birds, the cactus wren, desert 
thrasher, desert sparrow, Texas night-hawk, mocking-bird 
and ground cuckoo or road runner (Geococcyx Calif ornianus). 
The California vulture, the largest flying bird in North America 
and fully as large as the Andean condor, is not limited to Cali- 
fornia but is fairly common there. In the zoology and botany 
of California as of the rest of the Pacific Coast, the distinctions 
between the upper austral and humid transition zones are largely 
obliterated; and as one passes southward into the arid lands, 
life forms of both these zones intermingle with those of the 
arid transition. 

Fish are abundant. The United States fish commission, and an 
active state commission established in 1869, have done much to 
preserve and increase this source of food. In 1904 the yield of 
the fisheries of the three Pacific Coast states was 168,600,000 
lbs., valued at $6,681,000, — nearly half that of the New England 
states, more than one-third that of the Middle Atlantic states and 
more than that of the South Atlantic and Gulf states combined. 
Of the total, California yielded between a quarter and a third. 
A third of her fish comes from the Sacramento river. Some 230 — 
more or less — marine food fishes are to be found in the market at 
San Francisco. The exports of fish from that port from 1892- 
1899 were valued at from $2,000,000 to $2,500,000 annually. 
Native oysters are small and of peculiar flavour; eastern 
varieties also are fattened, but not bred in California waters. 
Shrimp are abundant; the shrimp fishers are Chinese and four- 
fifths of the catch is exported to China. Sturgeon were once the 
cheapest fish after salmon; to-day, despite all efforts to increase 
the supply, they are the dearest. Salmon, once threatened with 
extinction, have been saved, maintained in good supply, and 
indeed have probably regained their pristine abundance. Shad 
and striped bass are both very abundant and cheap. Black bass, 
flounders, terrapin, sea -turtles, perch, turbot, sole and catfish are 
also common. Great herds of seals once lay like toll-gatherers off 
the Golden Gate and other bays of the coast, taking a large share 
of the salmon and other fish; but they are no longer common. 
The sea-lions sometimes raid the rivers for 100 m. inland. They 
have greatly increased since hunting them for their hides and oil 
ceased to be profitable, and thousands sometimes gather on the 
Farallones, off the Golden Gate. 

Flora. — Inclusiveness of range in the distribution of vegetable 
life is perhaps more suggestive than the distribution of animal 

species. The variation is from dwarf mountain pine to giant 
cactus and dates. The humid transition belt is the habitat of 
California's magnificent forests. Nut pine, juniper and true 
sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata) characterize the upper Sonoran, 
— although the latter grows equally in the transition zone. 
Cereals, orchard fruits and alfalfa are of primary importance in 
the upper and of secondary importance in the lower Sonoran. In 
the arid portions of thisand the tropic areas the indigenous plants 
are creosote, mesquite and alfileria bushes, desert acacias, 
paloverdes, alkali-heath, salt grass, agaves, yuccas (especially the 
Spanish-bayonet and Joshua tree) and cactuses. Among exotics 
the Australian saltbush spreads successfully over the worst alkali 
land. The introduction of other exotics into these zones, — made 
humid by irrigation, which converts them, the one into true 
austro-riparian the other into true humid tropical, — has revolur 
tionized the agricultural, and indeed the whole, economy of 
California. At the two ends of Cajon Pass, only four or five 
kilometres apart, are the two utterly distinct floras of the Mohave 
desert and the San Bernardino valley. Despite the presence of 
the pass, plants do not spread, so great is the difference of climatic 
conditions. On the desert the same plant will vary in different 
years from 4 in. to 10 ft. in height when equally mature, according 
to the rainfall and other conditions of growth. Many mature 
plants are not taller than 0-4 to o-8 in. The tree yucca often 
attains a height of 20 to 25 ft., and a diameter of 1-5 ft. About 
600 species of plants were catalogued in desert California in 189 1 
by a government botanical party. The flora of the coast islands 
of California is very interesting. On Santa Cruz Professor Joseph 
Le Conte found 248 species, nearly all of which are distinctively 
Californian, 48 being peculiar to the surrounding islands and 28 
peculiar to Southern California* Various other things indicate a 
separation of the islands from the mainland in quaternary times; 
since which, owing to the later southward movement on the 
continent of northern forms in glacial times, there has been a 
struggle for existence on the mainland from which the islands 
have largely escaped. 

Forests. — The forests and agricultural crops of the state de- 
mand particular notice. In 1906 the woodland was estimated 
by the United States census at 22% of the state's area, and the 
total stand at 200,000 million ft. of timber. The variety of forest 
trees is not great, but some of the California trees are unique, and 
the forests of the state are, with those of Oregon and Washington, 
perhaps the most magnificent of the world. At least the coni- 
ferous forests which make up nine-tenths of California's woodland 
surpass all others known in number of species and in the size and 
beauty of the trees. Forty-six species occur, namely, 32 species 
of pitch trees (18 pines), 12 species of the cypresses and their 
allies (2 sequoia), and 2 species of yews or their allies. Peculiar 
to California are the two species of sequoia (q.v.), — the redwood 
(S. sempervirens) , and the big-tree (S. gigantea), remnants of an 
earlier age when they were common in other parts of the world. 
The redwood grows only in a narrow strip on the Coast Range 
from Southern Oregon (where there are not more than 1000 acres) 
down nearly to the Golden Gate, in a habitat of heavy rains and 
heavy fogs. They cover an area of about 2000 sq. m. almost 
unmixed with other species. One fine grove stands S. of San 
Francisco near Santa Cruz. These noble trees attain very often 
a height of more than 300 ft., frequently of 350 and even more, 
and a butt diameter of more than 1 5 to 20 ft., with clean, straight 
fluted trunks rising 200 ft. below the lowest branches. They grow 
in a very dense timber stand; single acres have yielded 
1,500,000 ft. B.M. of lumber, and single trees have cut as high as 
100,000 ft. The total stand in 1900 was estimated by the United 
States census as 75,000,000,000 ft., and the ordinary stand per 
acre varies from 25,000 to 150,000 ft., averaging probably 60,000 
ft. The redwood is being rapidly used for lumber. There is 
nowhere any considerable young growth from seed, although this 
mode of reproduction is not (as often stated) unknown; the tree 
will reproduce itself more than once from the stump (hence its 
name) . In thirty years a tree has been known to grow to a height 
of 80 ft. and a diameter of 16 in. The wood contains no pitch and 
much water, and in a green condition will not bum. To this fact 



it owes its immunity from: the forest fires which wreak frightful 
havoc among the surrounding forests. ■ As the redwood is limited 
to the Coast Range, so the big tree is limited wholly to the Sierra 
Nevada. Unlike the redwood the big tree occurs in scattered 
groves (ten in all) among other species. Its habitat extends 
some 200 m., from latitude 36 to 39 , nowhere descending much 
below an altitude of 5000 ft., nor rising above 8000 ft. The most 
northerly grove and the nearest to San Francisco is the Calaveras 
Grove near Stockton; the Mariposa Grove just south of the Yose- 
mite National Park, is a state reservation and easily accessible 
to tourists. The noblest groves are near Visalia, and are held as 
a national park. The average height is about 275 ft., and the 
diameter near the ground 20 ft. ; various individuals stand over 
300 ft, and a diameter of 25 ft. is not rare. One tree measures 
35-7 ft. inside the bark 4 ft. above the ground, 10 fti at 200 ft. 
above the ground, and is 325 ft. tall. Specimens have been cut 
down that were estimated to be 1300 and even 2200 years old; 
many trees standing are presumably 250x2 years old. It is the 
opinion of John Muir that the big tree would normally live 5000 
years or more; that the California groves are still in their prime; 
that, contrary to general ideas, the big tree was never more widely 
distributed than now, at least not "within the past 8000 or 10,000 
years; that it is not a decaying species, but that on the contrary 
" no tree of all the forest is more enduringly established in con- 
cord with climate and soil," growing like the mountain pine even 
on granite, and in little danger save from the greed of the lumber- 
man; but other excellent authorities consider it as hardly hold- 
ing its own, especially in the north. Three main wood belts cover 
the flanks of the Sierra: the lower or main pine belt, the silver fir 
belt, and the upper pine belt. The sugar pine, the yellow or silver 
pine and the Douglas spruce (considerably smaller than in Oregon 
and Washington), are rivals in stature and nobility, all attaining 
200 ft. or more when full grown; and the incense cedar reaches a 
height of 150 ft. In this belt and the following one of firs the big 
tree also grows. The white silver fir (abies concolor) and the silver 
or red fir {ab. magnified), standing 200 to 250 ft., make up almost 
wholly the main forest belt from 5000 to 9000 ft. for some 450 m. 
Above the firs come the tamarack, constituting the bulk of the 
lower Alpine forest; the hardy long-lived mountain pine; the 
red cedar or juniper, growing even on the baldest rocks; the 
beautiful hemlock spruce; the still higher white pine, nut pine, 
needle pine; and finally, at 10,000 to 12,000 ft., the dwarf pine, 
which grows in a tangle on the earth over which one walks, and 
may not show for a century's growth more than a foot of height 
or an inch of girth. The Nevada slope of the mountains below 7 500 
ft. is covered with the nut pine down to the sage plains. Its nuts 
are gathered in enormous amounts by the Indians for food; and 
it is estimated that the yearly harvest of these nuts exceeds in 
bulk that of all the cereals of California (John Muir). On the 
Sierra the underbrush is characterized by the purtgent manzanita, 
the California buckeye and the chamiso; the last two growing 
equally abundantly on the Coast Range. The chamiso and the 
manzanita, with a variety of shrubby oaks and thorny plants, 
often grow together in a dense and sometimes quite impenetrable 
undergrowth, forming what is known as "chaparral"; if the 
chamiso occurs alone the thicket is a " chamisal." The elm, the 
hickory, the beech, the chestnut, and many others of the most 
characteristic and useful trees of the eastern states were originally 
entirely wanting in California. Oaks are abundant; they are 
especially characteristic of the Great Valley, where they grow in 
magnificent groves. Up to igionationalforestreservesamounted 
to 27,968,510 acres. In 1909 Congress created a national forest 
to include the big tree groves in Calaveras and Tuolumne counties. 
One of the noblest redwood areas (that of Santa Cruz county) is 
a state reservation (created in 1901). Even within reservations 
almost all the merchantable timber is owned by private in- 
dividuals. In addition to native trees many others — especially 
ornamental species — have been successfully introduced from 
various parts of the world. 

Soil. — Sand and loams in great variety, grading from mere 
sand to adobe, make up the soils of the state. The plains of 
the north-east counties are volcanic, and those of the south-east 

sandy. It is impossible to say with accuracy what part of the 
state may properly be classed as tillable. The total farm acreage 
in 1900 was 28,828,951 acres, of which 41-5 % were improved; 
since 1880 the absolute amount of improved land has remained 
practically constant, despite the extraordinary progress of the 
state in these years. Much land is too rough, too elevated 
or too arid ever to be made agriculturally available; but irriga- 
tion, and the work of the state and national agricultural bureaus 
in introducing new plants and promoting scientific farming, 
have accomplished much that once seemed impossible. The 
peculiarities of the climate, especially its division into two 
seasons, make Californian (and Southern Arizona) agriculture 
very different from that of the rest of the country. During the 
winter no shelter is necessary for live-stock, nor, during summer, 
for the grains that are harvested in June and July, and may lie 
for weeks or months in the field. The mild, wet winter is the 
season of planting and growth, and so throughout the year there 
is a succession of crops. The dangers of drought in the long dry 
seasons particularly increase the uncertainties of agriculture in 
regions naturally arid. Irrigation was introduced in Southern 
California before 1 780, but its use was desultory and its spread 
slow till after 1850. In 1900 almost 1,500,000 acres were irrigated 
— an increase of 46% since 1890. About half of this total was 
in San Joaquin Valley. California has the greatest area of 
irrigated land of any state in the Union, and offers the most 
complete utilization of resources. In the south artesian wells, 
and in the Great Valley the rivers of the Sierra slope, are the 
main source ©f water-supply. On nearly all lands irrigated 
some crops will grow in ordinary seasons without irrigation, but 
it is this that makes possible selection of crops; practically 
indispensable for all field and orchard culture in the south, 
save for a few moist coastal areas, it everywhere increases the 
yield of all crops and is practised generally all over the state. 
Of the acreage devoted to alfalfa in 1899, 76-2 % was irrigated; 
of that devoted to subtropical fruits, 71-7%. Small fruits, 
orchard fruits, hay, garden products and grains are decreasingly 
dependent on irrigation; wheat, which was once California's 
great staple, is (for good, but not for best results) comparatively 
independent of it, — hence its early predominance in Californian 
agriculture, due to this success on arid lands since taken over 
for more remunerative irrigated crops. 

Agriculture. — The spread of irrigation and of intensive cultiva- 
tion, and the increase of small farms during the last quarter of 
the 19th century, have made California what it is to-day. Agri- 
culture had its beginning in wheat-raising on great ranches, 
from 50,000 even to several hundred thousand acres in extent. 
A few of these, particularly in the Great Valley, are still worked, 
but only a few. The average size of farms in 1850 (when the 
large Mexican grants were almost the only farms, and these 
unbroken) was 4466 acres; in i860 it was 466-4, and in 1900 
only 397-4 acres. Stock ranches, tobacco plantations, and hay 
and grain farms, average from 800 to 530 acres, and counteract 
the tendency of dairy farms, beet plantations, orchards, vegetable 
gardens and nurseries to lower the size of the farm unit still 
further. The renting of large holdings prevails to a greater 
extent than in any other state except Texas. From 1880 to 
1900 the number of farms above 500 and below 1000 acres 
doubled; half of the total in 1900 were smaller than 100 acres. 
The most remunerative and most characteristic farming to-day 
is diversified and intensive and on small holdings. The essential 
character of California's economic life has been determined 
by the successive predominance of grass, gold, grain and fruits. 
Omitting the second it may be truly said that the order of 
agricultural development has been mainly one of blind experi- 
ment or fortuitous circumstances. Staple products have changed 
with increasing knowledge of climatic conditions, of life-zones 
and of the fitness of crops; first hides and tallow, then wool, 
wheat, grapes (which in the early eighteen-nineties were the 
leading fruit), deciduous orchard fruits, and semi-tropical citrus 
fruits successively. Prunes were introduced in 1854, but their 
possibilities were only slightly appreciated for some thirty years. 
Of various other crops much the same is true. Of late years 



progress has been very intelligent; in earlier years it was gained 
through a multitude of experiments and failures, and great 
pecuniary loss, and progress was a testimonial chiefly to courage 
and perseverance. The possibilities of the lower Sonoran and 
tropical areas are still imperfectly known. Nature has been 
niggard of rain but lavish in soil and sun. Irrigation has shown 
that with water, arid and barren plains, veritable deserts may 
be made to bloom with immense wealth of semi-tropical fruits; 
and irrigation in the tropical area along the Colorado river, 
which is so arid that it naturally bears only desert vegetation, 
has made it a true humid-tropical region like Southern Florida, 
growing true tropical fruits. 

In 1900 California ranked eleventh among the states in total 
value of farm property ($796,527,955) and in 1899 fourteenth 
in the value of farm products ($131,690,606). The growth of 
the former from 1890 to 1900 was only 2-5%, one of the 
smallest increases among all the states. 

The pastoral period extended from 1769 to 1848. The live- 
stock industry was introduced by the Franciscans and flourished 
exceedingly. In 1834, when the missions had already passed 
their best days, there were some 486,000 cattle, horses, mules 
and asses on the ranges, and 325,000 small animals, principally 
sheep. Throughout the pre-American period stock-raising 
was the leading industry; it built up the prosperity of the 
missions, largely supported the government and almost ex- 
clusively sustained foreign commerce. Hides and tallow were 
the sum and substance of Californian economy. Horses were 
slaughtered wholesale at times to make way for cattle on the 
ranges. There was almost no dairying; olive oil took the place 
of butter, and wine of milk, at the missions; and in general 
indeed the Mexicans were content with water. In the develop- 
ment of the state under the American regime the live-stock 
industry has been subordinate. A fearful drought in 1862-1864 
greatly depressed it, and especially discouraged cattle ranching. 
Sheep then became of primary importance, until the increase 
of the flocks threatened ranges and forests with destruction. 
As late as 1876 there were some 7,000,000 sheep, in 1900 only 
2,581,000, and in 1906 only 1,750,000. In the total value of 
all live stock (5,402,297 head) in 1900 ($65,000,000) the rank of 
the state was 1 5th in the Union, and in value of dairy products 
in 1899 (12-84 million dollars) 12th. The live-stock industry 
showed a tendency to decline after 1890, and the dairy industry 
also, despite various things — notably irrigation and alfalfa 
culture — that have favoured them. 

Cereals replaced hides and tallow in importance after 1848. 
Wheat was long California's greatest crop. Its production 
steadily increased till about 1884, the production in 1880, the 
banner year, being more than 54 million bushels (32,537,360 
centals). Since 1884 its production has markedly fallen off; 
in 1905 the wheat crop was 17,542,013 bushels, and in 1906, 
26,883,662 bushels (valued at $20,162,746). There has been a 
general parallelism between the amount of rain and the amount 
of wheat produced; but as yet irrigation is little used for this 
crop. In the eighth decade of the 19th century, the value of the 
wheat product had come to exceed that of the annual output 
of gold. Barley has always been very important. The acreage 
given to it in 1899 was one-fourth the total cereal acreage, and 
San Francisco in 1902-1904 was the shipping point of the larger 
part of American exported barley, of (roughly) three-quarters 
in 1902, seven-eighths in 1903 and four-fifths in 1904. In 1906. 
California produced 38,760,000 bushels of barley, valued at 
$20,930,400. The great increase in the acreage of barley, which 
was 22'5% of the country's barley acreage in 1906, and 24-2% 
in 1905, is one reason for the decreased production of wheat. 
The level nature of the great grain farms of the valley led to the 
utilization of machinery of remarkable character. Combined 
harvesters (which enter a field of standing grain and leave this 
grain piled in sacks ready for shipment), steam gang-ploughs, 
and other farm machinery are of truly extraordinary size and 
efficiency. In 1899 cereals represented more than a third of the 
total crop acreage and crop product ($93,641,334) of the state. 
Wheat and other cereals are in part cut for hay, and the hay crop 

of 1906 was i,i33;465 tons, valued at $12,751^4.81. California 
is one of the leading hop-producing states of the Union, the 
average annual production since 1901 being more than 10,000,000 
lb. The product of sugar beets increased between 1888 and 
1902 from 1910 to 73,761 tons (according to the state board of 
trade), and in 1909 (according to the department of agriculture) 
it was 882,084 tons, from which 254,544,000 lb of sugar was 
manufactured. In this industry California in 1909 ranked 
second to Colorado. Truck gardening for export is an. 
assured industry, especially in the north. Great quantities of 
vegetables, fresh and canned, are shipped yearly, and the same ; 
is true on a far larger scale of fruit. Vegetable exports more 
than doubled between 1894 and 1903. In 1899 hay and grain 
represented slightly more than a third of the farm acreage 
and capital and also of the value of all farm products; 
live-stock and dairy farms represented slightly more than 
half the acreage, and slightly under 30% of the capital and- 
produce; fruit farms absorbed 6-2% of the acreage and 27% 
of the capital, and returned 22-5% of the value of farm 

Fruit-growing. — Horticulture is now the principal industry, 
and in this field California has no rival in the United States, 
although ranking after Florida in the growth of some tropical, 
or semi-tropical fruits,— pineapples, guava, limes, pomeloes or 
grape-fruit and Japanese persimmons. In 1899 California's 
output of fruit was more than a fifth of that of the whole Union. 
The supremacy of the state is established in the growth of oranges, 
lemons, citrons, olives, figs, almonds, Persian (or English) 
walnuts, plums and prunes, grapes and raisins, nectarines,; 
apricots and pomegranates; it also leads in pears, and peaches, 
but here its primacy is not so assured. Southern California ■ 
by no means monopolizes the warm-zone fruits. Oranges, 
lemons and walnuts come chiefly from that section, but citrus 
fruits grow splendidly in the Sierra foothills of the Sacramento 
Valley, and indeed ripen earlier there than hi the southern 
district. Almonds, as well as peaches, pears, plums, cherries 
and apricots, come mainly from the north. Over half of the 
prune crop comes from Santa Clara county, and the bulk of the 
raisin output from Fresno county. Olives thrive as far north' 
as the head of the Great Valley, growing in all the valleys and 
foothills up to 1500 or 2000 ft. They were introduced by the 
Franciscans (as were various other subtropical fruits, pears and 
grapes), but their scientific betterment and commercial import- 
ance date from about 1885. They grow very abundantly and of 
the finest quality; for many years poor methods of preparation 
prejudiced the market against the Californian product, but this 
has ceased to be the case. The modern orange industry practic- 
ally began with the introduction into Southern California in 1873 
of two seedless orange trees from Brazil; from their stock have 
been developed by budding millions of trees bearing a seedless 
fruit known as the " Washington navel," which now holds first 
rank in American markets; other varieties, mainly seedlings, 
are of great but secondary importance. Shipments continue 
the year round. There has been more than one horticultural 
excitement in California, but especially in orange culture, which 
was for a time almost as epidemic a fever as gold seeking once 
was. By reason of the co-operative effort demanded for the 
large problems of irrigation, packing and marketing, the citrus 
industry has done much for the permanent development of the 
state, and its extraordinary growth made it, towards the close 
of the 19th century, the most striking and most potent single 
influence in the growth of agriculture. State legislation has 
advanced the fruit interest in all possible ways. Between 1872 
and 1903 exports of canned fruits increased from 91 to 94,205 
short tons; between 1880 and 1903 the increase of dried fruit ex- 
ports was from 295 to 149,531 tons; of fresh deciduous fruits, from 
2590 to 101,199; of raisins, from 400 to> 39,963; of citrus fruits, 
from 458 to 299,623; of wines and brandies between 1 891 and 
1903, from 47,651 to 97,332 tons. Of the shipments in 1903 
some 44 % were from Southern California, — i x. from the seven 
southernmost counties. 

Grape culture has a great future in California. Vines were 



first introduced by the Franciscans in 1771 from Spain, and 
until after i860" Mission " grapes were practically the only stock 
in California. Afterwards many hundred^ of European varieties 
were introduced with great success. " The state has such a 
variety of soil, slope, elevation, temperature and climatic 
conditions as to reproduce, somewhere within its borders, any 
wine now manufactured" (United States Census, 1900); but 
experience has not as yet divided the state into districts of 
specialized produce, nor determined just how far indigenous 
American vines may profitably be used, either as base or graftings, 
with European varieties. Grapes are grown very largely over 
the state. Raisins do well as far north as Yolo county, but do 
best in Madera, Fresno, Kings, Tulare and San Diego counties. 
The product ■ is more than sufficient for the markets of the 
United States. Dry wine grapes do best in the counties around 
San Francisco Bay, on unirrigated lands; while sweet wine 
stocks do best in Yolo, San Joaquin and the counties of the 
raisin grape, and on irrigated lands. In 1000 California produced 
about three-fifths in value ($3,937,871) and in 1905 the same 
proportion ($6,688,620) of the wine output of the United 
States. The value of: product more than sextupled from 1880 
to 1900. In quantity the product was more than four times the 
combined product of all other states. The better California 
wines are largely sold under French labels. Brandies are an 
important product. They are made chiefly from grapes, and 
are used to fortify wines. It was officially estimated that in the 
spring of 1904 there were some 227,000 acres of vineyards in 
the state, of which exactly five-tenths were in wine grapes and 
four-tenths in raisin grapes. 

Gold. — Between the pastoral period and the era of wheat was 
the golden epoch of Californian history. The existence of gold 
had long been suspected, and possibly known, in California before 
1848, and there had been desultory washings in parts where 
there was very little to reward prospectors. The first perfectly 
authenticated discovery was made near Los Angeles in 1842. 
The discovery of real historical importance was made in January 
1848 (the 24th is the correct date) at John A. Sutter's mill, on 
the south fork of the American river near Coloma, by a workman, 
James W. Marshall (1810-1885). His monument now marks 
the spot. From 1848 to the 1st of January 1903, according to 
the state mining bureau, California produced $1,379,275,408 
in goldi There were two periods of intense excitement. The 
first ended in 1854, at which time there was a decided reaction 
throughout the United States in regard to mining matters. 
The Californian discoveries had given rise to a general search 
for metalliferous deposits in the Atlantic states, and this had* 
been followed by wild speculations. At the time of their greatest 
productiveness, from 1850 to 1853, the highest yield of the 
washings was probably not less than $65,000,000 a year; accord- 
ing to the state mining bureau the average production from 
1851-1854 was $73,570,087 ($81,294,270 in 1852, the banner 
year), and from 1850-1861 $55,882,861, never falling below 
$50,000,000. The estimates of other competent authorities 
differ considerably, and generally are somewhat less generous 
than these figures. 

At first the diggings were chiefly along the rivers. These 
were " flumed," — that is, the water was diverted by wooden 
flumes from the natural channel and the sand and gravel 
in the bed were washed. All the "gulches" or ravines lead- 
ing down into the canyons were also worked over, with or 
without water. These were the richest " placers," but in them 
the gold was very unequally distributed. Those who first got 
possession of the rich bars on the American, Yuba, Feather, 
Stanislaus and the other smaller streams in the heart of the 
gold region, made sometimes from $1000 to $5000 a day; but 
after one rith spot was worked out it might be days or weeks 
before another was found. In 1848 $500^700 a day was not 
unusual luck; but, on the other hand, the income of the great 
majority of miners was certainly far less than that of men who 
seriously devoted themselves to trade or even to common 
labour.. Many extraordinary nuggets were found, varying 
from $1000 to $20,000 in value. The economic stimulus given by 

such times may be imagined. For several years gold-dust was 
a regular circulating medium in the cities as well as in the mining 
districts of the state. An ounce of dust in 1848 frequently went 
for $4 instead of $17; for a number of years traders in dust 
were sure of a margin of several dollars, as for example in private 
coinage, mints for which were common by 1851. From the 
record of actual exports and a comparison of the most authori- 
tative estimates of total production, it may be said that from 
1848 to 1856 the yield was almost certainly not less than 
$450,000,000, and that about 1870 the billion dollar mark had 
been passed. Just at this time came the highest point and the 
sudden fall of the second great mining fever of the state. This 
was a stock speculation based on the remarkable output 
($300,000,000 in 20 years) of the silver "bonanzas" of the 
Comstock lode at Virginia City, Nevada, which were opened 
and financed by San Francisco capitalists. The craze pervaded 
all classes. Shares that at first represented so many dollars 
per foot in a tangible mine were multiplied and remultiplied 
until they came to represent paper thicknesses or almost nothing, 
yet still their prices mounted upward. In April 1872 cam* the 
revulsion; there was a shrinkage of $60,000,000 in ten days; 
then in 1873 a tremendous advance, and in 1875 a final and 
disastrous collapse; in ten years thereafter the stock of the 
Comstock lode shrank from $3,000,000 to $2,000,000. This 
Comstock fever belongs to Californian rather than to Nevadan 
history, and is one of the most extraordinary in mining 

First the "rocker," then the "torn," the "flume," and the 
hydraulic stream were the tools of the miner. Into the " rocker " 
and the " torn " the miner shovelled dirt, rocking it as he poured 
in water, catching the gold on riffles set across the bottom of his 
box; thus imitating in a wooden box the work of nature in the 
rivers. The " flume " enabled him to dry the bed of a stream 
while he worked over its gravels. The hydraulic stream came 
into use as early as 1852 (or 1853) when prospecting of the 
higher ground made it certain that the " deep " or " high " 
gravels — i.e. the detrital deposits of tertiary age — contained 
gold, though in too small quantities to be profitably worked in 
the ordinary way. The hydraulic process received an immense 
development through successive improvements of method and 
machinery. In this method tremendous blasts of powder, 
sometimes twenty-five or even fifty tons, were used to loosen the 
gravel, which was then acted on by the jet of water thrown from 
the " pipes." To give an idea of the force of the agent thus 
employed it may be stated that when an eight-inch nozzle is 
used under a heavy head, more than 3000 ft. may be discharged 
in a minute with a velocity of 150 ft. per second. The water as 
it thus issues from the nozzle feels to the touch like metal, and 
the strongest man cannot sensibly affect it with a crowbar. 
A gravel bank acted on by such tremendous force crumbled 
rapidly, and the disintegrated material could be run readily 
through sluices to the " dumps." Hydraulic mining is no longer 
practised on the scale of early days. The results were wonderful 
but disastrous, for the " dumps " were usually river-beds. 
From 1870-1879 the bed of Bear river was raised in places in its 
lower course 97 ft. by the detritus wash of the hydraulic mines, 
and that of Sleepy Hollow Creek 136 ft. The total filling up to 
that time on the streams in this vicinity had been from 100 to 
250 ft., and many thousand acres of fine farming land were 
buried under gravel, — some 16,000 on the lower Yuba alone. 
For many years the mining interests were supreme, and agri- 
culture, even after it had become of great importance, was 
invariably worsted when the two clashed; but in 1884 the long 
and bitter " anti-d6bris " or " anti-slickins " fight ended in favour 
of the farmers. In 1893 the United States government created 
a California Debris Commission, which has acted in unison with 
the state authorities. Permits for hydraulic mining are granted 
by the commission only when all gravel is satisfactorily 
impounded and no harm is done to the streams; and the 
improvement of these, which was impossible so long as limits 
were not set to hydraulic mining, can now be effectively advanced. 
Quartz mining began as early asi8si. Ini 908 about five-eighths 



of the gold output was from such mines. Quartz veins are 
very often as £ood at a depth of 3000 ft. as at the surface. 
A remarkable feature of recent years (especially since 1900) is 
gold "dredging." Thousands of acres even of orchard, vine- 
yard and farming land have been thus treated in recent years. 
Gold was being produced in 1906 in more than thirty counties. 
The annual output since 1875 has been about $15,000,000 
to $17,000,000; in 1905, according to the Mines Report, it 
was $18,898,545. Colorado now excels California as a gold 

Mineral Products. — California produces more than forty 
mineral substances that are of commercial significance. Gold, 
petroleum, copper, borax and its products, clays, quicksilver 
and silver lead, in order of importance, representing some four- 
fifths of the total. From 1894 to 1902 the aggregate production 
increased from 20-2 to 35-1 million dollars; in 1908 it was 
$65,137,636. Metallic products long represented three-fourths of 
the total, but the feature of recent years has been the rising im* 
portance of hydrocarbons and gases, and of structural materials, 
and indeed of non-metallic products generally. The production 
of crude petroleum has grown very rapidly since about 1895. 
Oil is found from north to south over some 600 m., but especially 
in Southern California. The high cost of coal, which has always 
been a hindrance to the development of manufactures, makes 
the petroleum deposits of peculiar value. Their total output 
increased from 4,250,000 to 44,854,737 barrels between i960 
and 1908, and the value of the product in 1908 was $23,433,502. 
The Kern river field is the most important in the state and one 
of the greatest in the world. Those of Coalinga, Santa Maria 
and Lompoc, and Los Angeles are next in importance. Both 
in 1900 and in 1905 California ranked fifth among the states of 
the United States in the petroleum refining industry. Copper 
has risen in importance in very recent years; it is mined mainly 
in Shasta county; the value of the state's total product in 1908 
was $5,232,986 Gold mining still centres in the mountainous 
counties north of Tuolumne. This is the region of quartz mining. 
In borax (of which California's output in 1904 was 45,647 tons) 
and structural materials San Bernardino has a long lead.' More 
than nine-tenths of the borax product of the country comes from 
about Death Valley. San Bernardino marbles have a very high 
repute. California was the fourth state of the Union in 1908 in 
the production of granite. It furnishes about two-fifths of the 
quicksilver of the world. This has been mined since 1824; the 
output was greatest from 1875-1883, when it averaged about 
43,000,000 pounds. The New Almaden mine (opened in 1824) in 
Santa Clara couhty produced from 1850 to 1896 some 73,000,000 
pounds. The centre of production is north and south of San 
Francisco Bay. Calif ornian coal is almost wholly inferior brown 
lignite, together with a small quantity of bituminous coals of 
poor quality; the state does not produce a tenth part of the 
coal it consumes. Of growing importance are the gems found 
in California: a few diamonds in Butte county; rock crystal 
in Calaveras county; and tourmalines, kunzite, the rare 
pink beryl and bright blue topazes in San Diego county. 
Chrysoprase, mined near Porterville and near Visalia (Tulare 
county), is used partly for gems, but more largely (like the 
vesuvianite found near Exeter, in the same county) for mosaic 
work; and there are ledges of fine rose quartz in the Coahuila 
mountains of Riverside county and near Lemon Cove, Tulare 

A vivid realization of the industrial revolution in the state 
is to be gained from the reflection that in 1875 California was 
pre-eminent only for gold and sheep; that the aggregate mineral 
output thirty years later was more than a third greater than then, 
and that nevertheless the value of farm produce at the opening 
of the 20th century exceeded by more than $100,000,000 the 
value of mineral produce, and exceeded by $50,000,000 the 
most generous estimate of the largest annual gold output in the 
annals of the state. 

Manufactures. — Previous to i860 almost every manufactured 
article used in the state was imported from the east or from 
Europe. Dairy products, for example, for whose production 

good facilities always existed, were long greatly neglected, and 
not for two decades at least after 1848 was the state independent 
in this respect. The high cost of coal, the speculative attractions 
of mining, and the high wages of labour, handicapped the 
development of manufactures in early years. The first continued 
to be a drag on such industries, until after 1895 the increasing 
use of crude petroleum obviated the difficulty. Several remark- 
able electric power and lighting plants utilize the water power 
of the mountains. 1 Geographic isolation has somewhat fostered 
state industries. The value of gross manufactured products 
increased4i-9%from 1890 to 1900. In the latter year California 
ranked 12th among the states in the gross value of all manufac- 
tures ($302,874,761); the per-capita value of manufactured and 
agricultural products being $293,— -$89 of the latter, $204 of the 
former. Of the wage-earners 6 1 % were engagedin manufacturing. 
Fourteen industries represented from 41% to 45% of the 
employees,, wages, capital and product of the aggregate manu- 
facturers of the state. The leading ones in order of importance 
and the rvalue of product in millions of dollars were: the manu- 
facture of railway, foundry, and machine shop products (19-6 
million dollars), lumber and timber industries (18-57), sugar and 
molasses refining (15-01), beef slaughtering (15-72), canning and 
preserving (13 >o8) , flour and grist milling (13- 10) , the manufacture 
of malt, vinousi and distilled liquors (9-26), leather industries 
(7-40), printing and publishing (6-86). In the second, third and 
fifth of these industries the state ranked respectively fifth, 
fourth and first in the Union. 2 The canning and preserving of 
fruits and vegetables is in the main an industry of the northern 
and central counties. In 1890 the state board of forestry 
estimated that the redwood forests were in danger of exhaustion 
by 1930. The redwood is a general utility lumber second only 
to the common white pine, and the drain on the woods has been 
continuous since 1850. The wood has a fine, straight and even 
grain; and though light and soft, is firm and extremely durable, 
lying, it is authoritatively asserted, for centuries in the forest 
without appreciable decay. It takes a beautiful polish. The 
colour varies from cedar colour to mahogany. A small southern 
belt in San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties is not 
being commercially exploited. The annual lumber cut from 
1 898-1 903 averaged more than 663,348,000 ft.; of the 
852,638,000 ft. cut in 1903, 465,460,000 were of redwood, and 
264,890,000 of yellow pine; fir and sugar pines contributing 
another 104,600,000, and spruce and cedar 17,670,000 ft. In 
1 900 California ranked 16th among the states in value of product 
($13,764,647, out of a total of $566,852,984). The total cut was 
under £ of 1% of the estimated stand. In Humboldt county, 
in the redwood belt near Eureka, are probably the most modern 
and remarkable lumber mills of the world. In 1900 it was 
estimated that lumbermen controlled somewhat less than a fifth 
of the timber of the state, and the same part of the redwood. 
After 1800 important shipyards were established near San 
Francisco. The most important naval station of the United 

1 Small masses of water made to fall great distances and the use 
of turbines are important features of such plants. One on the 
North Yuba river at Colgate, where there is a 700 ft. fall, serves 
Oakland, San Jose and San Francisco, at high pressure yielding in 
San Francisco (220 m. away) 75 % of its power. Other plants are 
one at Electra (154 m. from San Francisco), and one on the San 
Joaquin, which delivers to Fresno 62 m. distant. 

2 The 1905 census of manufactures deals only with establishments 
under the factory system; its figures for 1905 and the figures for 
1900 reduced to the same limits are as follows : — total value of pro- 
ducts, 1905 $367,218,494; 1900, 5257,385,521, an increase of 
42-7 %; leading industries, with value of product in millions of 
dollars — canning and preserving, first in 1905 with 23-8 millions, 
third in 1900 with 13-4 millions; slaughtering and meat-packing, 
second in 1905 with 21-79 millions, first in 1900 with 15-71 millions- 
flour and grist mill products, third in 1905 with 20-2 millions, fourth 
in 1900 with 13-04 millions; lumber and timber, fourth in 1905 with 
18-27 millions, second in 1900 with 13-71 millions; printing and 
publishing, fifth in 1905 with 17-4 millions, sixth in 1900 with 
9-6 millions; foundry and machine shop products, sixth in 1905 
with 15-7 millions, fifth in 1900 with 12-04 millions; planing mill 
products, seventh in 1905 with 13-9 millions, twelfth in 1900 with 
4-8 millions; bread and other bakery products, eighth in IQOS with 
IO-6 millions, eleventh in 1900 with 4-87 millions. 



States on the Pacific coast is at Mare Island at the northern end 
of San Francisco Bay, and the private Union Iron Works, on the 
peninsula near San Francisco, is one of the largest shipyards of 
the country. In 1905 more than one-half of the factory product 
was the output of four cities: San Francisco ($137,788,233), 
Los Angeles ($34,814,475), Sacramento ($10,310,416) and Fresno 
($9,849,001); next ranked Oakland, Stockton, and San Jose. 

The transportation facilities in California increased rapidly 
after 1870. The building of the Central Pacific and Union 
Pacific lines are among the romances of American railway 
history. They joined tracks near Ogden, Utah, in May 1869. 
The New Orleans line of the Southern Pacific was opened in 
January 1883; the Atchison, Topeka & Santa F6 completed its 
line to San Diego in 1885, and to San Francisco Bay in 1900. 
•The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, with trans-continental 
connexions at the eastern terminus, was chartered in 1901 and 
fully opened in March 1903. Railway mileage increased 137-3 % 
from 1870 to 1880, and 154-6% from 1880 to 1900. At the 
close of 1908 the total mileage was 7039-36 m., practically all 
of which is either owned or controlled by the two great trans- 
continental systems of the Southern Pacific and the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe. From 1869 to 1875 registered mail ex- 
changes were opened with China, Japan, Hawaii and Australia. 
There are now frequent mail connexions from San Francisco with 
Hawaii, Australasia, and eastern Asia, as well as with American 
ports north and south. The commerce of San Francisco amounts 
to some $80,000,000 or $90,000,000 yearly, about equally 
divided between imports and exports, until after 1905 — in 1907 
the imports were valued at $54,207,011, and the exports at 
$30,378,355 (less than any year since 1896). San Diego has a 
very good harbour, and the harbours of San Pedro (Los Angeles) 
and Eureka are fairly good and of growing importance. Grains, 
lumber, fish, fruits and fruit products, petroleum, vegetables and 
sugar are the leading items in the commerce of San Francisco. 
Other ports are of very secondary importance. Navigation on 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers was very important in 
early days, but is to-day of relatively slight importance in 
comparison with railway traffic. 

Population. — The population of California increased in 
successive decades from 1850 to 1910 respectively by 310-3, 47-3, 
54-3, 40-3, 22-4 and 60-1%. (The percentage of increase in 
1900-1910 was exceeded in Washington, Oklahoma, Idaho, Ne- 
vada, North Dakota and Oregon.) In 1 910 the total population 
was 2 ,3 7 7 , 549 , or 1 5 • 2 per sq.m. In 1 900 there were 116 incorporated 
towns and cities; and of the total population 43-3% was urban, — 
i.e. resident in cities (n in number) of 8000 or more inhabitants. 
These n cities were: San Francisco (pop. 342,782), Los Angeles 
(102,479), Oakland (66,960), Alameda (16,464), Berkeley 
(13,214), — the last three being suburbs of San Francisco, and the 
last the seat of the state university, — Sacramento, the state capital 
(29,282), San Jose (21,500), San Diego (17,700), Stockton 
(17,506), Fresno (12,470), and Pasadena (9117). Eight other 
cities had populations of more than 5000 — Riverside City 
(7973), Vallejo (7965), Eureka (7327), Santa Rosa (6673), Santa 
Barbara (6587), San Bernardino (6156), Santa Cruz (5659), 
and Pomona (5526). 

Of the entire population in 1900 persons of foreign birth or 
parentage (one or both parents being foreign) constituted 54-2 
and those of native birth were 75-3%. Of the latter six-tenths 
were born in California. The foreign element included 45,753 
i Chinese (a falling off of 25,313 since 1890), and 10,151 Japanese 
(an increase of 9004 in the same decade). Twenty-two foreign 
Countries contributed over 1000 residents each, the leading ones 
being the United Kingdom (91,638), Germany (72,449), Canada 
(29,618; 27,408 being English Canadians), Italy (22,777), Sweden 
(14,549), France (12,256), Portugal (12,068), Switzerland 
(10,974), Japan, Denmark, and Mexico, in the order named. 
Persons of negro descent numbered 1 1 ,045. Almost all the Indians 
of the state are taxed as citizens. In 1906 of 611,464 members 
of religious denominations 354,408 were Roman Catholics, 
64,528 Methodist Episcopalians, 37,682 Presbyterians, 26,390 
Congregationalists, 24,801 Baptists, 21,317 Protestant Episcopa- 

lians, 11,371 Lutherans, and 9,110 members of Eastern Orthodox 
churches. A peculiar feature in the population statistics of 
California is the predominance of males, which in 1900 was 
156,009; the Asiatic element accounts for a third of this number. 
Since 1885 the eight counties south of the Tehachapi Range, 
which are known collectively and specifically as Southern Califor- 
nia have greatly advanced in population. In 1 880 their population 
was 7-3, in 1890 17- 2, and in 1900 20-1% of the total population of 
the state. The initial impulse to this increase was the beginning 
of the " fruit epoch " in these counties, combined with a railway 
" rate-war " following the completion to the coast in 1885 of the 
Santa Fe, and an extraordinary land boom prevailing from 
1886 to 1888. The conjuncture of circumstances, and the 
immigration it induced, were unusual. The growth of the South, 
as of the rest of the state, has been continuous and steady. 

The Indians were prominent in early Californian history, but 
their progress toward their present insignificance began far back 
in the Spanish period. It proceeded much more rapidly after 
the restraining influence of the missions was removed, leaving 
them free to revert to savagery; and the downward progress 
of the race was fearfully accelerated during the mining period, 
when they were abused, depraved, and in large numbers killed. 
There have been no Indian wars in California's annals, but many 
butcheries. The natives have declined exceedingly in number 
since 1830, in 1900 numbering 15,377. They have always been 
mild-tempered, low, and unintelligent, and are to-day a poor 
and miserable race. They are all called " Digger Indians " 
indiscriminately, although divided by a multiplicity of tongues. 

Government and Institutions. — In the matter of constitution- 
making California has been conservative, having had only two 
between 1849 an< i 1910- The first was framed by a convention 
at Monterey in 1849, and ratified by the people and proclaimed 
by the United States military governor in the same year. The 
present constitution, framed by a convention in 1878-1879, came 
into full effect in 1880, and was subsequently amended. It was 
the work of the labour party, passed at a time of high discontent, 
and goes at great length into the details of government, as was 
demanded by the state of public opinion. The qualifications 
required for the suffrage are in no way different from those 
common throughout the Union, except that by a constitutional 
amendment of 1894 it is necessary for a voter to be able to read 
the state constitution and write his name. As compared with 
the earlier constitution it showed many radical advances toward 
popular control, the power of the legislature being everywhere 
curtailed. The power of legislation was taken from it by specific 
inhibition in thirty-one subjects before within its power; its 
control of the public domain, its powers in taxation, and its use 
of the state credit were carefully safe-guarded. " Lobbying " 
was made a felony; provisions were inserted against lotteries 
and stock-exchange gambling, to tax and control common 
carriers and great corporations, and to regulate telegraph, 
telephone, storage and wharfage charges. The powers of the 
executive department were also somewhat curtailed. For the 
judiciary, provisions were made for expediting trials and deci- 
sions. Notable was the innovation that agreement by three- 
fourths of a jury should be sufficient in civil cases and that a jury 
might be waived in minor criminal cases, a provision which of 
course was based on experience under the Mexican law. All 
these changes in the organic law reflect bitter experience after 
1850; and, read with the history of those years as a commentary, 
few American constitutions are more instructive. The con- 
stitution of 1879 corresponds very closely to the ordinary state 
constitution of to-day. The incorporation of banks issuing 
circulating notes is forbidden. Marriage is not only declared 
a civil contract, but the laws expressly recognize that the mere 
consent of the parties is adequate to constitute a binding 
marriage. The union of whites with persons of African descent 
is forbidden. Felons twice convicted may not be pardoned 
except on the recommendation of a majority of the judges of the 
supreme court. Judges and state executive officers are elected 
for terms longer than is usual in the different states (supreme 
judges 12 years, executive officers 4 years). These few provisions 



arc mentioned, not as of particular importance in themselves, 
but as exceptions of some moment to the usual type of state 
Constitutions (see United States). The Australian ballot was 
introduced in 1891. In local government there are no deviations 
from the usual types that demand notice. In the matter of 
liquor-laws there is local option, and a considerable proportion 
of the towns and smaller cities, particularly in the south, adopt 
prohibition. In most of the rest high licence is more or less 
strictly enforced. 

The total assessed valuation of property grew from 
$666,390,985 in 1880 to $1, 217, 648,683 in 1900 and 
$1,879,728,763 in 1907. In 1904, when the U.S. Census Report 
showed California to be the twenty- first state of the Union in 
population . but the sixth in wealth, the total estimated true 
value of all property was $4,115,491,106, of which $2,664,472,025 
was the value of real property and improvements thereon. 
The per capita wealth of the state was then reported as $2582.32, 
being exceeded only by the three sparsely settled states of 
Montana, Wyoming and Nevada. In 1898 California had the 
largest savings-bank deposit per depositor ($637.75) of anv 
state in the Union; the per caput deposit was $110 in 1902, and 
about one person in seven was a depositor. The state bonded debt 
in 1907 amounted to three and a half million dollars, of which all 
but $767,529.03 was represented by bonds purchased by the state 
and held for the school and university funds; for the common 
school fund on the 1st of July 1907 there were held bonds for 
$4,890,950, and $800,000 in cash available for investment; for 
the university fund there were held $751,000 in state bonds, 
and a large amount in other securities. The total bonded county 
indebtedness was $4,879,600 in 1906 (not including that of San 
Francisco, a consolidated city and county, which was $4,568,600). 
A homestead, entered upon record and limited to a value of 
$5000 if held by the head of a family and to a value of $1000 
if held by one not the head of a family, is exempt from liability for 
debts,except for a mortgage, a lien before it was claimed as a home- 
stead or a lien afterward for improvements. A homestead held by 
a married man cannot be mortgaged without consent of his wife. 

Under an act approved on the 25th of March 1903 a state 
board of charities and corrections, — consisting of six members, 
not more than three being of the same political party, appointed 
by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, 
and holding office for twelve years, two retiring at the end of each 
quadrennium, — investigates, examines, and makes " reports 
upon the charitable, correctional and penal institutions of the 
state," excepting the Veterans' Home at Yountville, Napa 
county, and the Woman's Relief Corps Home at Evergreen, 
Santa Clara county. There are state prisons with convicts 
working under the public account system, at San Quentin, 
Marin county, and Folsom, Sacramento county. The Preston 
(Sonoma county) School of Industry, for older boys, and the 
Whittier (Los Angeles county) State School, for girls and for 
boys under sixteen, are the state reformatories, each having 
good industrial and manual training departments. There are 
state hospitals for the insane at Agnew, Santa Clara county; 
at Stockton, San Joaquin county; at Napa, Napa county; at 
Patton, San Bernardino county; and, with a colony of tuber- 
cular patients, at Ukiah, Mendocino county. In 1906 the ratio of 
insane confined to institutions, to the total population, was 
1 to every 270. Also under state control are the home for care 
and training of feeble-minded children, at Eldridge, Sonoma 
county; the institution for the deaf and the blind at Berkeley, 
and the home of mechanical trades for the adult blind at Oakland. 
A Juvenile Court Law was enacted in 1903 and modified in 1905. 

The educational system of Califofnia is one of the best in the 
country. The state board of education is composed of the 
governor of the 6tate, who is its president; the superintendent of 
public instruction, who is its secretary; the presidents of the 
five normal schools and of the University of California, and the 
professor of pedagogy in the university. Sessions are long in 
primary schools, and attendance was made compulsory in 1874 
(and must not be less than two-thirds of all school days). The 
state controlled the actual preparation 'and sale of text-books 

for the common schools from 1885 to 1903, when the Perry 
amendment to the constitution '(ratified by popular vote in 1884) 
was declared to mean that such text-books must be manufactured 
within the state, but that the texts need not be prepared in 
California. The experiment of state-prepared text-books was 
expensive, and its effect was bad on the public school system, 
as such text-books were almost without exception poorly written 
and poorly printed. After 1903 copyrights were leased hy the 
state. Secondary schools are closely affiliated with, and closely 
inspected by, the state university. All schools are generously 
supported, salaries are unusually good, and pension funds in all 
cities are authorized by state laws. The value of school 
property in 1900 was $19,135,722, and the expenditure for 
the public schools $6,195,000; in 1906 the value of school 
property was $29,013,150, and the expenditure for public- 
schools $10,815,857. The average school attendance for all 
minors of school age (5-20 years) was 59-9%; of those native-born 
61-5, of those foreign-bom 34-6; of coloured children, including 
Asiatics and Indians, 35-8, and of white, 6o-8%. In 1900,6-2% 
of the males of voting age, and 2-4% of the native-bom males of 
voting age, were illiterate (could not write). Some 3% of the 
total population could not speak English; Chinese and Japanese 
constituting almost half of the number, foreign-born whites 
somewhat less, and Indians and native-born whites of foreign 
parentage together less than a tenth of the total. Of the higher 
educational institutions of the state the most important are the 
state university at Berkeley and Leland Stanford Jr. University 
at Palo Alto. The former is supported with very great liberality 
by the state; and the latter, the endowment of which is private 
(the state, however, exempting it from taxation), is one of the 
richest educational institutions of America. In 1906 there were 
also five state normal schools (at Chico, Los Angeles, San Diego, 
San Francisco, and San Jose), and a considerable number of 
denominational colleges. There is also a state polytechnic 
school at San Luis Obispo (1903). 

History. — The name " California " was taken from Ordonez de 
Montalvo's romance of chivalry Las Sergas de Esplandian 
(Madrid, 1 5 10) , in which is told of black Amazons ruling an island 
of this name " to the right of the Indies, very near the quarter 
of the terrestrial paradise." The name was given to the unknown 
north-west before 1 540. It does not show that the namers were 
prophets or wise judges, for the Spaniards really knew California 
not at all for more than two centuries, and then only as a genial 
but rather barren land; but it shows that the conquistador es 
mixed poetry with business and illustrates the glamour thrown 
about the " Northern Mystery." Necessarily the name had for 
a long time no definite geographical meaning. The lower 
Colorado river was discovered in 1540, but the explorers did not 
penetrate California; in 1 542-1 543 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo 
explored at least the southern coast; in 1579 Sir Francis Drake 
repaired his ships in some Californian port (almost certainly not 
San Francisco Bay), and named the land New Albion; two 
Philippine ships visited the coast in 1584 and 1595, and in 1602 
and 1603 Sebastian Vizcaino discovered the sites of San Diego 
and Monterey. There was apparently no increase of knowledge 
thereafter for 150 years, Most of this time California was 
generally supposed to be an island or a group of islands. Jesuit 
missionaries entered Lower California as early as 1697, maintain- 
ing themselves there until Charles III.'s expulsion in 1767 of all 
Jesuits from his dominions; but not until Russian explorations 
in Alaska from 1 745-1 765 did the Spanish government show 
interest in Upper California. Because of these explorations, and 
also the long-felt need of a refitting point on the California coast 
for the galleons from Manila, San Diego was occupied in 1769 
and Monterey in 1770 as a result of urgent orders from Charles 
III. San Francisco Bay was discovered in the former year. Mean- 
while the Jesuit property in the Peninsula had been turned over 
to Franciscan monks, but in 1772 the Dominicans took over the 
missions, and the Franciscans not unwillingly withdrew to Upper 
California, where they were to thrive remarkably for some fifty 

This is the mission period — or from an economic standpoint. 



the pastoral period — of Californian history. In all, twenty-one 
missions were established between 1 769 and 1823. The 
otthe 1 * leader in this movement was a really remarkable man, 
missions. Miguel Jose Serra (known as Junipero Serra, 1713- 
1784), a friar of very great ability, purest piety, and 
tireless zeal. He possessed great influence in Mexico and Madrid. 
" The theory of the mission system," says H. H. Bancroft, " was 
to make the savages work out their own salvation and that of 
the priests also." The last phrase scarcely does justice to the 
truly humane and devout intentions of the missionaries; but- in 
truth the mission system was a complete failure save in the 
accumulation of material wealth. Economically the missions 
were the blood and life of the province. At them the neophytes 
worked up wool, tanned hides, prepared tallow, cultivated hemp 
and wheat, raised a few oranges, made soap, some iron and 
leather articles, mission furniture, and a very little wine and olive 
oil. Such as it was, this was about the only manufacturing or 
handicraft in California. Besides, the hides and tallow yielded 
by the great herds of cattle at the missions were the support of 
foreign trade and did much toward paying the expenses of the 
government. The Franciscans had no sympathy for profane 
knowledge, even among the Mexicans, — sometimes publicly 
burning quantities of books of a scientific or miscellaneous 
nature; and the reading of Fenelon's Tilimaque brought ex- 
communication on a layman. As for the intellectual develop- 
ment of the neophytes the mission system accomplished nothing; 
save the care of their souls they received no instruction, they 
were virtually slaves, and were trained into a fatal dependence, 
so that once coercion was removed they relapsed at once into 
barbarism. It cannot be said, however, that Anglo-Americans 
have done much better for them. 

The political upheavals in Spain and Mexico following 1808 
made little stir in this far-off province. Joseph was never 
recognized, and allegiance was sworn to Ferdinand (1809). 
When revolution broke out in Mexico (1811), California remained 
loyal, suffering much by the cessation of supplies from Mexico, 
the resulting deficits falling as an added burden upon the missions. 
The occupation of Monterey for a few hours by a Buenos Aires 
privateer (1818) was the only incident of actual war that Cali- 
fornia saw in all these years; and it, in truth, was a ridiculous 
episode, fit introduction to the bloodless play-wars, soon to be 
inaugurated in Californian politics. In 1820 the Spanish coif- 
stitution was duly sworn to in California, and in 1822 allegiance 
was given to Mexico. Under the Mexican Federal constitution 
of 1824 Upper California, first alone (it was made a distinct 
province in 1804) and then with Lower California, received 
representation in the Mexican congress. 

The following years before American occupation may be divided 
into two periods of quite distinct interest. From about 1840 to 
1848 foreign relations are the centre of interest. From 1824 to 
1840 there is a complicated and not uninteresting movement of 
local politics and a preparation for the future, — the missions fall, 
republicanism grows, the sentiment of local patriotism becomes a 
political force, there is a succession of sectional controversies and 
personal struggles among provincial chiefs, an increase of foreign 
commerce, of foreign immigration and of foreign influence. 

The Franciscans were mostly Spaniards in blood and in 
sympathies. They viewed with displeasure and foreboding the 
fall of Iturbide's empire and the creation of the republic. They 
were not treasonable, but talked much, refusing allegiance to 
the new government; and as they controlled the resources of 
th? colony and the good will of the Indians, they felt their 
strength against the local authority; besides, they were its 
constant benefactors. But secularization was in harmony with 
the growth of republican ideas. There was talk in California of 
the rights of man and neophytes, and of the sins of friars. The 
missions were never intended to be permanent. The mission- 
aries were only the field workers sent out to convert and civilize 
the Indians, who were to be turned over then to the regular 
clergy, the monks pushing further onward into new fields. This 
was the well-established policy of Spain. In 1813 the Spanish 
Cortes ordered the secularization of all missions in America that 

were ten years old, but this decree was not published in California 
until 182 1. After that secularization was the burning question 
in Californian politics. In 1826 a beginning toward it was made 
in partially emancipating the neophytes, but active and thorough 
secularization of the missions did not begin until 1834; by 1835 
it was consummated at sixteen missions out of twenty-one, and 
by 1840 at all. At some of the missions the monks acted later 
as temporary curates for the civil authorities, until in 1845-1846 
all the missions were sold by the government. Unfortunately 
the manner of carrying it out discredited a policy neither unjust 
nor bad in itself, increasing its importance in the political 
struggles of the time. The friars were in no way mistreated: 
Californians did not share Mexican resentments against Spaniards, 
and the national laws directed against these were in the main 
quietly ignored in the province. In 1831 the mission question 
led to a rising against the reactionary clerical rule of Governor 
Manuel Victoria. He was driven out of the province. 

This was the first of the opera bouffe wars. The causes 
underlying them were serious enough. In the first place, there 
was a growing dissatisfaction with Mexican rule, which accom- 
plished nothing tangible for good in California, — although its 
plans were as excellent as could be asked had there only been 
peace and means to realize them; however, it made the mistake 
of sending convicts as soldiers. Californians were enthusiastic 
republicans, but found the benefits of republicanism slow in 
coming. The resentment of the Franciscans, the presence of 
these and other reactionaries and of Spaniards, the attitude of 
foreign residents, and the ambitions of leading Californian 
families united to foment and propagate discontent. The 
feeling against Mexicans — those " de la otra banda " as they 
were significantly termed— invaded political and even social 
life. In the second place, there was growing jealousy between 
northern towns and southern towns, northern families and 
southern families. These entered into disputes over the location 
of the capital and the custom-house, in the Franciscan question 
also (because the friars came some from a northern and some 
from a southern college) , and in the question of the distribution 
of commands in the army and offices in the civil government. 
Then there was the mission question; this became acuter about 
1833 when the friars began to destroy, or sell and realize on, the 
mission property. The next decade was one of plunder and ruin 
in mission history. Finally there was a real growth of republic- 
anism, and some rulers — notably Victoria — were wholly out of 
sympathy with anything but personal, military rule. From all 
these causes sprang much unrest and considerable agitation. 1 

In 1 8 28- 1 8 29 there was a revolution of unpaid soldiers aided 
by natives, against alleged but not serious abuses, that really 
aimed at the establishment of an independent native government. 
In 1 83 1 Governor Victoria was deposed; in 1836 Governor 
Mariano Chico was frightened out of the province; in 1836 
Governor Nicolas Gutierrez and in 1 844-1 845 Governor Manuel 
Micheltorena were driven out of office. The leading natives 
headed this last rising. There was talk of independence, 
but sectional and personal jealousies could not be over- 
come. In all these wars there was not enough blood shed to 
discolour a sword. The rising of 1836 against Gutierrez seems 
to-day most interesting, for it was in part a protest against the 
growth of federalism in Mexico. California was even deferred 
to as (declared to be seems much too strong a statement) an 
Estado Libre y Soberano; and from 1836 to 1838, when the 
revolutionary governor, Juan B. Alvarado, was recognized by 
the Mexican government, which had again inclined to federalism 
and, besides, did not take the matter very seriously, the local 
government rested simply on local sentiment. The satisfaction 
of this ended all difficulties. 

By this time foreign influence was showing itself of importance. 
Foreign commerce, which of course was contraband, being 
contrary to all Spanish laws, was active by the begin- ^^ 

ning of the 19th century. It was greatly stimulated ^ m ign- 
during the Spanish-American revolutions (the Lima tlon. 
and Panama trade dating from about 1813), for, as the 
Californian authorities practically ignored the law. smuggling 

1 8 


was unnecessary; this was, indeed, much greater after 1822 
under the high duties (in 1836-1840 generally about 100%) of 
the Mexican tariffs. In the early 'forties some three-fourths of 
the imports, even at Monterey itself, are said to have paid no 
duties, being landed by agreement with the officials. Wholesale 
and retail trade flourished all along the coast in defiance of pro- 
hibitory laws. American trade was by far most important. The 
Boston traders — whose direct trade began in 1822, but the in- 
direct ventures long before that — were men of decided influence 
in California. The trade supplied almost all the clothing, 
merchandise and manufactures used in. the province; hides and 
furs were given in exchange. If foreign trade was not to be 
received, still less were foreign travellers, under the Spanish laws. 
However, the Russians came in 1805, and in 181 2 founded on 
Bodega Bay a post they held till 1841, whence they traded and 
hunted (even in San Francisco Bay) for furs. From the day of 
the earliest foreign commerce sailors and traders of divers 
nationalities began to settle in the province. In 1826 American 
hunters first crossed to the coast; in 1830 the Hudson's Bay 
Company began operations in northern California. By this time 
the foreign element was considerable in number, and it doubled 
• in the next six years, although the true overland immigration from 
the United States began only about 1840. Asa class foreigners 
were respected, and they were influential beyond proportion to 
their numbers. They controlled commerce, and were more 
energetic, generally, than were the natives; many were natural- 
ized, held generous grants of land, and had married into Cali- 
fornian families, not excluding the most select and influential. 
Most prominent of Americans in the interior was John A. Sutter 
(1803-1880), who held a grant of eleven square leagues around 
the present site of Sacramento, whereon he built a fort. His 
position as a Mexican official, and the location of his fortified 
post on the border, commanding the interior country and lying 
on the route of the overland immigrants, made him of great im- 
portance in -the years preceding and immediately following 
American occupation; although he was a man of slight abilities 
and wasted his great opportunities. Other settlers in the 
coast towns were also of high standing and importance. In 
short, Americans were hospitably received and very well treated 
by the government and the people; despite some formalities 
and ostensible surveillance there was no oppression whatever. 
There was, however, some jealousy of the ease with which 
Americans secured land grants, and an entirely just dislike of 
" bad " Americans. The sources from which all the immigrants 
were recruited made inevitable an element of lawlessness and 
truculence. The Americans happened to predominate. Along 
with a full share of border individuality and restlessness they 
had the usual boisterous boastfulness and a racial contempt, 
which was arrogantly proclaimed, for Mexicans, — often too for 
Mexican legal formalities. The early comers were a conservative 
American force in politics, but many of the later comers wanted 
and Euro- to make California a second, Texas. As early as 1805 
pean la- ( at j- ne ^j me { j ames Monroe's negotiations for 
Florida), there are traces of Spain's fear of American 
ambitions even in this far-away province. It was a fear she felt 
for all her American possessions. Spain's fears passed on to 
Mexico, the Russians being feared only less than Americans. An 
offer was made by President Jackson in 1835 to buy the northern 
part of California, including San Francisco Bay, but was refused. 
In 1836 and 1844 Americans were prominent in the incidents of 
revolution; divided in opinion in both years they were neutral 
in the actual " hostilities " of the latter, but some gave active 
support to the governor in 1836. From 1836 on, foreign inter- 
ference was much talked about. Americans supposed that 
Great Britain wished to exchange Mexican bonds for California; 
France also was thought to be watching for an opening for 
gratifying supposed ambitions; and all parties saw that even 
without overt act by the United States the progress of American 
settlement seemed likely to gain them the province, whose 
connexion with Mexico had long been a notoriously loose one. A 
considerable literature written by travellers of all the countries 
named had before this discussed all interests. In 1840 for too 

active interest in politics some Americans and Englishmen were 
temporarily expelled. 

In 1842 Commodore T. A. C. Jones (1789-1858) of the United 
States navy, believing that war had broken out between his 
country and Mexico and that a British force was about to seize 
California,raised the American flag over Monterey (October 21st), 
but finding that he had acted on misinformation he lowered the 
flag next day with due ceremony and warm apology. In Cali- 
fornia this incident served only to open up agreeable personal 
relations and social courtesies, but it did not tend to clarify the 
diplomatic atmosphere. It showed the ease of seizing the 
country, the indifference of the natives, and the resolution of the 
United States government. Mexico sought to prevent American 
immigration, but the local authorities would not enforce such 
orders, however positive. Between 1843 and 1845, Great 
Britain, the United States, and France opened consulates. By 
1845 there was certainly an agreement in opinion among all 
American residents (then not 700 in number) as regards the future 
of the country. The policy of France and Great Britain in these 
years is unknown. That of the United States is fully known. 
In 1845 the American consul at Monterey, Thomas O. Larkin 
(1802-1858), was instructed to work for the secession of California 
from Mexico, without overt aid from the United States, but with 
their good-will and sympathy. He very soon gained from leading 
officers assurances of such a movement before 1848. At the same 
time American naval officers were instructed to occupy the port* 
in case of war with Mexico, but first and last to work for the 
good-will of the natives. In 1845 Captain J. C. Fremont, — 
whose doings in California in the next two years were among the 
main assets in a life-long reputation and an unsuccessful presi- 
dential campaign, — while engaged in a government surveying 
expedition, aroused the apprehensions of the Californian 
authorities by suspicious and very possibly intentionally 
provocative movements, and there was a show of military force 
by both parties. Fremont had information beyond that of 
ordinary men that made him believe early hostilities between the 
United States and Mexico to be inevitable; he was also officially 
informed of Larkin's secret task and in no way authorized to 
hamper it. Resentment, however, incited him to personal 
revenge on the Californian government, and an ambition that 
clearly saw the gravity of the crisis prompted him to improve it 
unscrupulously for his own advancement, leaving his 
government to support or disavow him according as p/JL" *" 
war should come or not. In violation therefore of 
international amities, and practically in disobedience of orders, 
he broke the peace, caused a band of Mexican cavalry mounts 
to be seized, and prompted some American settlers to occupy 
Sonoma (14th June 1846). This episode is known as the " Bear 
Flag War," inasmuch as there was short-lived talk of making 
California an independent state, and a flag with a bear as an 
emblem (California is still popularly known as the Bear Flag 
State)flew for a few days at Sonoma. It was a very small, very 
disingenuous, inevitably an anomalous, and in the vanity of 
proclamations and other concomitant incidents rather a ridiculous 
affair; and fortunately for the dignity of history — and for 
Fremont— it was quickly merged in a larger question, when 
Commodore John Drake Sloat (1780-1867) on the 7th of July 
raised the flag of the United States over Monterey, proclaiming 
California a part of the United States. The opening hostilities 
of the Mexican War had occurred on the Rio Grande. The 
excuses and explanations later given by Fremont — military 
preparations by the Californian authorities , the imminence of their 
attack, ripening British schemes for the seizure of the province, 
etc. — made up the stock account of historians until the whole 
truth came out in 1886 (in Royce's California). Californians had 
been very friendly to Americans, but Larkin's intimates thought 
they had been tricked, and the people resented the stealthy and 
unprovoked breaking of peace, and unfortunately the Americans 
did not known how to treat them except inconsiderately and 
somewhat contemptuously. The result was a feeble rising in the 
south. The country was fully pacified by January 1847. The 
aftermath of Fremont's filibustering acts, followed as they were 



by wholly needless hostilities and by some injustice then and 
later in the attitude of Americans toward the natives, was a 
growing misunderstanding and estrangement, regrettable in 
Californian history. Thus there was an end to the " lotos-land 
society " of California. Another society, less hospitable, less 
happy, less contented, but also less mild, better tempered for 
building states, and more " progressive," took the place of 
the old. 

By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 Mexico ceded 
California to the United States. It was just at this time that 
California Sold was discovered, and the new territory took on 
ceded to great national importance. The discussion as to what 
the United snou id be done with it began in Congress in 1846, 
States. immediately involving the question of slavery. A 
furious conflict developed, so that nothing was accomplished in 
two successive sessions; even at the end of a third, in March 
1849, the only progress made toward creating a government for 
the territory was that the national revenue laws had been 
extended over it and San Francisco had been made a port of 
entry. Meanwhile conditions grew intolerable for the inhabit- 
ants. Before the end of the war Mexican laws not incompatible 
with United States laws were by international law supposed to 
be in force; but nobody knew what they were, and tie uncer- 
tainties of vague and variable alcalde jurisdictions were increased 
when Americans began to be alcaldes and grafted English 
common-law principles, like the jury, on Californian practice. 
Never was a population more in need of clear laws than the 
motley Californian people of 1848-1849, yet they had none when, 
with peace, military rule and Mexican law technically ended. 
There was a curious extra-legal fusion of laws, a half-breed legal 
system, and no definite basis for either law or government. Even 
the acts and theories of the officials were very inconsistent. 
Early in 1849 temporary local governments were set up in 
various towns, and in September a convention framed a free- 
state constitution and applied for admission to the Union. On 
the 7th of September 1850 a bill finally passed Congress admit- 
ting California as a free state. This was one of the bargains in 
the " Compromise • Measures of 1850" that were intended to 
dispose of the question of slavery in the Territories. Meanwhile 
the gold discoveries culminated and surpassed " three centuries 
of wild talk about gold in California." For three months there 
was little excitement, then a wild rush. Settlements were 
completely deserted; homes, farms and stores abandoned. 
Ships deserted by their sailors crowded the bay at San Francisco 
— there were 500 of them in July 1850; soldiers deserted whole- 
sale, churches were emptied, town councils ceased to sit, 
merchants, clerks, lawyers and judges and criminals, everybody, 
flocked to the foothills. Soon, from Hawaii, Oregon and Sonora, 
from the Eastern states, the South Seas, Australia, South America 

and China came an extraordinary flow of the hopeful 
Mr mid and adventurous. In the winter of '48 the rush began 

from the states to Panama, and in the spring across 
the plains. It is estimated that 80,000 men reached the coast 
in 1849, about half of them coming overland; three-fourths 
were Americans. Rapid settlement, excessive prices, reckless 
waste of money, and wild commercial ventures that glutted San 
Francisco with all objects usable and unusable made the following 
years astounding from an economic point of view; but not less 
bizarre was the social development, nor less extraordinary the 
'problems of state-building in a society " morally and socially 
tried as no other American community ever has been tried " 
(Royce). There was of course no home life in early California. 
In 1850 women numbered 8% of the population, but only 2% 
in the mining counties. The miners were an energetic, covetous, 
wandering, abnormally excitable body of men. Occasionally a 
kind of frenzy even would seem to seize on them, and lured by 
the. hope of new deposits of unheard-of richness thousands 
would flock on unfounded rumours to new and perhaps distant 
localities, where many might perish from disease and starvation, 
the rest returning in poverty and rags. Such were the Kern 
River fever of 1855 and the greater " Fraser River rush " of 
1858, the latter, which took perhaps 20,000 men out of the state, 

causing a terrible amount of suffering. Many interior towns 
lost half their population and some virtually all their population 
as a result of this emigration; and it precipitated a real estate 
crash in San Francisco that threatened temporary ruin. Mining 
times in California brought out some of the most ignoble and 
some of the best traits of American character. Professor Josiah 
Royce has pictured the social-moral process by which society 
finally impressed its " claims on wayward and blind individuals " 
who " sought wealth and not a social order," and so long as 
possible shirked all social obligations. Through varied instru- 
ments — lynch law, popular courts, vigilance committees— order 
was, however, enforced, better as times went on, until there was 
a stable condition of things. In the economic life and social 
character of California to-day the legacies of 1848 are plain. 

The slavery question was not settled for California in 1850. 
Until the Civil War the division between the Whig and Demo- 
cratic parties, whose organization in California preceded state- 
hood, was essentially based on slavery. The struggle fused with 
the personal contests of two men, rivals for the United States 
Senate, William McKendree Gwin (1805-85, U.S. senator, 
l8 5°-55 and 1857-61), the leader of the pro-slavery party, and 
David Colbreth Broderick (1819-1859), formerly a leader of 
Tammany in New York, and after 1857 a member from California 
of the United States Senate, the champion of free labour, who 
declared in i860 for the policy of the Republican party. 
Broderick's undoing was resolved upon by the slavery party, 
and he was killed in a duel. The Gwin party hoped to divide 
California into two states and hand the southern over to slavery; 
on the eve of the Civil War it considered the scheme of a Pacific 
coast republic. The decade 1850-1860 was also marked by the 
activity of filibusters against Sonora and Central America. Two 
of these — a French adventurer, one Gaston Raoux, comte de 
Raousset-Boulbon (1817-1854), and William Walker, had very 
picturesque careers. The state was thoroughly loyal when war 
came. The later 'fifties are characterized by H.H.Bancroft as 
a period of " moral, political and financial night." National 
politics were put first, to the complete ignoring of excessive 
taxation, financial extravagance, ignorant legislation and 
corruption in California. The public was exploited for many 
years with impunity for the benefit of private interests. One 
legacy that ought to be briefly noted here is that of 
disputed land grants. Under the Mexican regime such ^5"'' 
grants were generous and common, and the complicated grant*. 
'formalities theoretically essential to their validity 
were very often, if not usually, only in part attended to. Titles 
thus gained would never have been questioned under continued 
Mexican government, but Americans were unaccustomed to such 
riches in land and to such laxity. From the very first hundreds 
" squatted " on large claims, contesting the title. Instead of 
confirming all claims existing when the country passed to the 
United States, and so ensuring an immediate settlement of the 
matter, which was really the most important thing for the peace 
and purse of the community, the United States government 
undertook through a land commission and courts to sift the 
valid from the fraudulent. Claims of enormous aggregate value 
were thus considered and a large part of those dating from the 
last years of Mexican dominion (many probably artfully con- 
cocted and fraudulently antedated after the commission was at 
work) were finally rejected. This litigation filled the state and 
federal courts for many years. The high value of realty in 
San Francisco naturally offered extraordinary inducements to 
fraud, and the largest part of the city was for years involved in 
fraudulent claims, and its peace broken by " squatter "-troubles. 
Twenty or thirty years of the state's life were disturbed by these 
controversies. Land monopoly is an evil of large proportions 
in California to-day, but it is due to the laxness of the United 
States government in enabling speculators to accumulate holdings 
and not to the original extent of Mexican grants. 

In state gubernatorial elections after the Civil War the 
Democrats won in 1867, 1875,1882, 1886, 1894; the Republicans 
ini87i, 1879, 1890, 1898, 1902, 1906, 1910. Features of political 
life and of legislation after 1876 were a strong labour agitation, 



the struggle for the exclusion of the Chinese, for the control of 
hydraulic mining, irrigation, and the advancement by state-aid 
of the fruit interests; the last three of which have already been 
referred to above. Labour conditions were peculiar in the 
decade following 1870. Mining, war times and the building of 
the Central Pacific had up to then inflated prices and prosperity. 
Then there came a slump; probably the truth was rather that 
money was becoming less unnaturally abundant than that there 
was any over-supply of labour. The turning off of some 1 5,000 
Chinese (principally in 1869-18 70) from the Central Pacific lines 
who flocked to San Francisco, augmented the discontent of 
incompetents, of disappointed late immigrants, and the reaction 
from flush times. Labour unions became strong and demon- 
strative. In 1877-1878 Denis Kearney (1847-1907), an Irish 
drayman and demagogue of considerable force and daring, 
headed the discontented. This is called the " sand-lots agita- 
tion " from the favourite meeting-place (in San Francisco) of 
the agitators. 

The outcome of these years was the Constitution of 1879, 
already described, and the exclusion of Chinese by national law. 
In 1879 California voted against further immigration of Chinese 
by 154,638 to 883. Congress re-enacted exclusion legislation in 
1-962. All authorities agree that the Chinese in early years were 
often abused in the mining country and their rights most un- 
justly neglected by the law and its officers. Men among the 
most respected in California (Joaquin Miller, H. H. Bancroft 
and others) have said most in praise and defence of the Chinaman. 
From railroad making to cooking he has proved his abilities 
and trustworthiness. He is found to-day in the mines and 
fisheries, in various lines of manufacture, in small farming, and 
in all branches of domestic service. The question of the economic 
development of the state, and of trade to the Orient, the views 
of the mercenary labour-contractor and of the philanthropist, 
the factor of " upper-race " repugnance, the " economic-leech" 
argument, the " rat-rice-filth-and-opium " argument, have all 
entered into the problem. Certain it is that though the unpre- 
judiced must admit that exclusion has not been at all an unmixed 
blessing, yet the consensus of opinion is that a large population, 
non-citizen and non-assimilable, sending — it is said— most of 
their earnings to China, living in the main meanly at best, and 
practically without wives, children or homes, is socially and 
economically a menace 'outweighing the undoubted convenience 
of cheaper (and frequently more trustworthy) menial labour 
than the other population affords. The exclusion had much to 
do with making the huge single crop ranches unprofitable and in 
leading to their replacement by small farms and varied crops. 
Many of the Chinese now in the state are wealthy. Race feeling 
against them has become much less marked. 
: One outcome of early mission history, the " Pious Fund of 
the Californias," claimed in 1902 the attention of the Hague 
Tribunal. (See Arbitration, International, Hague cases 
section.) In 1906- 1 907 ; there was throughout the state a re- 
markable anti-Japanese agitation, centring in San Francisco 
(q.v.) and affecting international relations and national politics. 

Governors of California (State) 1 
I. Spanish 

served 1767-1770 

Gasper de Portola 

Filipe de Barri 

Felipe de Neve 

Pedro rages 

Jose Antonio Romeu 
'Jose Joaquin de Arillaga 

Diego de Borica . 
*J6se Joaquin de Arillaga 

Jose Joaquin de Arillaga 
*Jose Diario Arguello 

Pablo Vicente de Sola . 


1 792-1 794 
1 794-1 800 
1804-18 14 

1 As months and even years often elapsed between the date when 
early governors were appointed and the beginning of their actual 
service, the date of commission is disregarded, and the date of 
service given. Sometimes this is to be regarded as beginning at 
Monterey, sometimes elsewhere in California, sometimes at Loreto 
in LoWer California, All the Spanish and Mexican governors were 
appointed by the national government, except in the case of the 

Pablo Vicente de Sola 
*Luis Antonio Arguello 

Jos6 Maria Echeandia 

Manuel Victoria 

Jose Maria Echeandia 2 

Pio Pico 8 . 

Jose Figueroa 
*Jose Castro . 
*Nicolas Gutierrez 

Mariano Chico 

Nicolas Gutierrez 

Juan Bautista Alvarado * 

Carlos Antonio Carrillo 6 

Manuel Micheltorena . 

Pio Pico . 

II. Mexican 

John D. Sloat 
Richard F. Stockton 
Stephen W. Kearny 
R. B. Mason 
Bennett Riley 

Peter H. Burnett . 

*John H. McDpugall 
John Bigler 
John M. Johnson . 
John B. Weller 
Milton S. Latham 

*John G. Downey . 
Leland Stanford . 
Frederick F. Low 
Henry H. Haight . 
Newton Booth 

*Romualdo Pacheco 
William Irwin 
George G. Perkins 
George C. Stoneman 
Washington Bartlett 

*Robert W. Waterman 
Henry H. Markham 
James H. Budd 
Henry T. Gage 
George C. Pardee 
James N. Gillett . 
Hiram W. Johnson 

III. American 
(a) Military. 

served 1822 







1 835-1 836 




1 836-1 842 



1 845-1 846 

appointed 1846 

„ 1846-1847 

(b) State. 
I 856-1 858 
i860 (6 days) 

I 862-1 863 
1 863-1 867 



1 880-1 883 

1 883-1 887 




1 895-1 899 





1 847-1 849 



Know Nothing 
Lecompton Democrat 









The mark * before the name of one of the Spanish governors 
indicates that he acted only ad interim, and, in the case of governors 
since 1849, that the officer named was elected as lieutenant-governor 
and succeeded to the office of governor. 

Bibliography. — For list of works on California, see University 
of California Library Bulletin, No. 9, 1887, " List of Printed Maps 
of California"; catalogue of state official publications by State 
Library (Sacramento, 1894). The following may be cited here on 
different aspects: — 

Topography. — J. Muir, Mountains of California (New York, 
1894) ; H. Gannett, " Dictionary of Elevations " (1898), and " River 
Profiles," publications of United States Geological Survey; G. W- 
James, The Wonders of the Colorado Desert (2 vols., Boston, 1966). 

Climate, &c.' — U.S. Department of Agriculture, California 
Climate and Crop Service, monthly reports; E. S. Holden, Recorded 
Earthquakes in California, Lower California, Oregon, and Washington 
Territory (California State University, 1887) ; United States Depart-, 
ment Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Bulletins, Alexander G. McAdie, 
"Climatology of California " (Washington, 1903). There is a 
great mass of general descriptive literature, especially on South- 
ern California, such as Charles Dudley Warner, Our Italy (New York, 
1891); Kate Sanborn, A Truthful Woman in Southern California 
(New York, 1893); W. Lindley and J. P. Widney, California of the 
South (New York, 1896) ; J. W. Hanson, American Italy (Chicago, 
1896) ; T. S. Van Dyke, Southern California (New York, 1886), &c. 

Fauna, Flora. — Muir, op. cit.\ United States Geological Survey, 
19th Annual Report, pt. v., H. Gannett, " Forests of the United 
States"; idem, 20th Annual Report, pt. v., " United States Forest 
Reserves"; United States Division of Forestry, Bulletin No. 28, 
" A Short Account of the Big Trees of California " (1900), No. 38, 
" The Redwood " (a volume, 1903), also Professional Papers, e.g. 
No. 8, J. B. Leiberg, " Forest Conditions in the Northern Sierra 
Nevada " (1902) ; California Board of Forestry, Reports (1885— ); 

semi-revolutionary rulers of 1831-1832 and 1836 (Alvarado), whose 
title rested on revolution, or on local choice under a national statute 
regarding gubernatorial vacancies. 

2 Acting political chief, revolutionary title. 

8 Briefly recognized in South. ' 

4 Revolutionary title, 1836-1838. 

6 Appointed 1837, never recognized in the North. 


2, 1 

United States Censuses, reports on forests; United States Biological 
Survey, North American Fauna, No. 16, 1899, C. H. Merriam, 
" Biological Survey of Mt. Shasta "■; United States Department 
Agriculture, Contributions from United States National Herbarium, 
iv., 1893, F. V. Coville, Botany of Death Valley Expedition"; 
State Board of Fish Commissioners, Reports, from 1877; United 
States Fish Commissioners, Annual Reports, from 187 1, and Bulletins 
from 1882; J. le Conte, " Flora of the Coast Islands " (1887), being 
Bulletin No. 8 of California Academy of Sciences; consult also its 
Proceedings, Memoirs, and Occasional Papers; G. J. Peirce, Studies 
on the Coast Redwood (publication of Leland Stanford jr. University, 

Agriculture. — California Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Bulletins from 1884; Reports of the State Dairy Bureau, from 1898; 
State Board of Horticulture, Reports, 1 889-1 894; United States 
Censuses, 1890 and 1900, reports on irrigation. 

Industries.— J. S. Hittell, Resources of California (7th ed., 
San Francisco, 1879); J. S. Hittell, Commerce and Industries of the 
Pacific Coast (San Francisco, 1882) ; T. F. Cronise, Natural Wealth 
of California (San Francisco, 1868); E. W. Maslin, Resources of 
California, prepared by order of Governor H. H. Markham (Sacra- 
mento, 1893); United States Treasury, Bureau of Statistics, report 
by T. J. Vivian on " Commercial, Industrial, Agricultural, Trans- 
portation and Other Industries of California " (Washington 1890, 
valuable for whole period before 1890); United States Censuses, 
1890 and 1900, reports on agriculture, manufactures, mines and 
fisheries; California Stale Board of Trade (San Francisco), Annual 
Report from 1890. On Mineral Industries: — J. R. Browne, Report 
on " Mineral Resources of the States and Territories west of the 
Rocky Mountains" {United States Treasury, 2 vols., Washington, 
1867-1868); United States Geological Survey, Annual Reports, 
Mineral Resources; consult also the bibliographies of publications 
of the Survey, issued as Bulletins; California State Mining Bureau, 
Bulletins from 1888, note especially No. 30, 1904, by A. W. Vodges, 
" Bibliography relating to the Geology, Palaeontology and Mineral 
Resources of California" (2nd ed., the 1st being Bulletin No. 10, 
1896); California Debris Commission, Reports (in Annual Reports 
Chief of Engineers, United States Army, from 1893). 

Government. — E. F. Treadwell, The Constitution of the State of 
California . . . Annotated (San Francisco, 1902) ; Johns Hopkins 
University, Studies in History and Political Science, xiii., R. D. Hunt, 
"Genesis of California's First Constitution"; Annals of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, xii., R. D. Hunt, 
" Legal Status of California, 1846-1849 "; Reports of the various 
officers, departments and administrative boards of the state govern- 
ment (Sacramento), and also the Appendix to the Journals of the 
Senate and Assembly, which contains, especially in the earlier decades 
of the state's history, many of these state official reports along 
with valuable legislative reports of varied character. 

History. — Accounts of the valuable archives in Bancroft, and by 
Z. E. Eldridge in California Genealogical Society (1901); elaborate 
bibliographies in Bancroft with analyses and appreciations of many 
works. Of general scope and fundamental importance is the work 
of two men, Hubert H. Bancroft and Theodore H. Hittell. The 
former has published a History of California, 1542-1890 (7 vols., 
San Francisco, 1 884-1 890), also California Pastoral, 1769-1848 
(San Francisco, 1888), California Inter-Pocula, 1848-1856 (San 
Francisco, 1888), and Popular Tribunals (2 vols., San Francisco, 
1887). These volumes were largely written under Mr. Bancroft's 
direction and control by an office staff, and are of very unequal 
value; they are a vast storehouse of detailed material which is of 
great usefulness, although their judgments of men are often in- 
adequate and prejudiced. As regards events the histories are of 
substantial accuracy and adequacy. Written by one hand and 
more uniform in treatment and good judgment, is T. H. Hittell's 
History of California (4 vols., San Francisco, 1 885-1 897). The older 
historian of the state was Francisco Palou, a Franciscan, the friend 
and biographer of Serra; his " Noticias de la Nueva California " 
(Mexico, 1857, in the Doc. Hist. Mex., ser. iv., torn, vi.-viii. ; also 
San Francisco, 1874, 4 vols.) is no longer of importance save for its 
historical interest. Of the contemporary material on the period 
of Mexican domination the best is afforded by R. H. Dana's Two 
Years Before the Mast (New York, 1840, many later and foreign 
editions'}; also A. Robinson, Life in California (New York, 1846); 
and Alexander Forbes, California: A History of Upper and Lower 
California from their First Discovery to the Present Time (London, 
1839) ; see also F. W. Blackmar, " Spanish Institutions of the 
Southwest " {Johns Hopkins University Studies, 1891). A beautiful, 
vivid and reputedly very accurate picture of the old society is 
given in Helen Hunt Jackson's novel, Ramona (New York, 1884). 
There is no really scientific separate account of mission history ; 
there are books by Father Z. Engelhart, The Franciscans in California 
(Harbor Springs, Michigan, 1899), written entirely from a Franciscan 
standpoint ; C. F. Carter, Missions of Nueva California (San Fran- 
cisco, 1900); Bryan J. Clinch, California and its Missions: Their 
History to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (2 vols., San Francisco, 
1904) ; Francisco Palou, Relacion Historica de la Vida. . . . del Fray 
Junipero Serra (Mexico, 1787), the standard contemporary source; 
the Craftsman (Syracuse, N. Y., vol. v.), a series of articles on 
" Mission Buildings," by G. W. James. On the case of the Pious 

Fund of the missions see J. F. Doyle, History of the Pious Fund 
(San Francisco, 1887); United States Department of State," United 
States v. Mexico. Report of J. H. Ralston, agent of the United 
States and of counsel in the matter of the Pious Fund of the Cali- 
fornias " (Washington, 1902). On the " flush " mining years the 
best books of the time are J. Q. Thornton's Oregon and California 
(2 vols., New York, 1849); Edward Bryant's What I Saw in Cali- 
fornia (New York, 1848) ; W. Shaw's Golden Dreams (London, 1851) ; 
Bayard Taylor's Eldorado (2 vols., New York, 1850); W. Colton's 
Three Years in California (New York, 1850); E. G. Buffum's Six 
Months in the Gold Mines; from a Journal of Three Years' Residence 
in Upper and Lower California (London, 1850); J. T. Brooks' 
Four Months among the Gold Finders (London, 1849) ; G. G. Foster, 
Gold Regions of California (New York, 1884). On this same period 
consult Bancroft's Popular Tribunals; D. Y. Thomas, " A History 
of Military Government in Newly Acquired Territory of the United 
States," in vol. xx. No. 2 (New York, 1904) of Columbia University 
Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law; C. H. Shinn's 
Mining Camps: A Study in American Frontier Government {New 
York, 1885); J. Royce, California . . .A Study of American Char- 
acter, 1846-1856 (Boston, 1886) ; and, for varied pictures of mining 
and frontier life, the novels and sketches and poems of Bret Harte. 
See also P. H. Burnet, Recollections and Opinions of an Old Pioneer 
(New York, 1880); S. J. Field, Personal Reminiscences of Early 
Days in California (privately published, copyright 1893). , ; 

• CALIFORNIA, LOWER (Baja California), a long narrow 
peninsula between the Gulf of California and the Pacific Ocean, 
forming a territory of the republic of Mexico. Pop. (1895), 
42,245; (1900) 47,624. Lower California is a southward ex- 
tension of the State of California, United States, and is touched 
by only one of the Mexican states, that of Sonora on the E. The 
peninsula is about 760 m. long and from 30 to 150 m. wideband 
has an area of 58,328 sq m. It is traversed throughout its en,tire 
length by an irregular range of barren mountains, which slopes 
toward the Pacific in a succession of low hills, but breaks down 
abruptly toward the Gulf. The coast has two or three good 
sheltered bays, that of La Paz on the Gulf side and of Magda- 
lena on the Pacific side being best known. The coast is bordered 
by numerous islands, especially on the eastern side. The general 
appearance of the surface is arid and desolate, partly because of 
the volcanic remains, and partly because of the scanty rainfall, 
which is insufficient to support vegetation other than that of the 
desert except in the deeper mountain valleys. The northern 
part is hot and dry, like southern California, but the southern 
part receives more rain and has some fertile tracts, with a mild 
and pleasant climate. The principal natural product in this 
region is orchil, or Spanish, moss, but by means of irrigation the 
soil produces a considerable variety of products, including sugar 
cane, cotton, cassava, cereals, tobacco and grapes. Horses, 
sheep and cattle are raised in the fertile valleys, but only to a 
limited extent. The territory is rich in minerals, among which 
are gold, silver, copper, lead, gypsum, coal and salt. The silver 
mines near La Paz were worked by the Jesuits, as early as 1 700. 
There are also extensive pearl fisheries in the Gulf, La Paz being 
the headquarters of the industry, and whale fisheries on the W. 
coast in the vicinity of Magdalena Bay. The- development of 
mining and other industries in the territory has led to an exten- 
sion of the California railway system southwardinto thepeninsula, 
with the Mexican government's permission, the first section of 
37 m. from the northern frontier being completed and opened to 
traffic in 1907. The territory is divided into two districts, the 
northern having its capital at the insignificant little village of La 
Ensenada, on Todos Santos Bay, and the southern having its 
capital at La Paz, at the head of a deep bay opening into the Gulf. 
La Paz is a port of call for steamships running between Mazatlan 
and San Francisco, and had a population of 5056 in 1900. La 
Ensenada (pop. in 1906, about 1500), 65 m. by sea S. of San 
Diego, Cal., is the only port for the northern part of the territory, 
and supplies a district extending 2 50 m. along the coast and 60 m. 
inland, including the mining camps of the north; it manufactures 
and exports flour and leather. 

By orders of Cortes the coast of Lower California was explored 
in 1539 by Francisco de Ulloa, but no settlement resulted. It 
was called California, the name (according to E. E. Hale) being 
derived from a popular Spanish romance of that time, entitled 
Sergas de Esplandian, in which an island named California was 
mentioned and situated " on the right hand of the Indies, very 



near the terrestrial paradise." The name must have been given 
derisively, as the barren coasts of Lower California could not 
have suggested the proximity of a " terrestrial paradise." The 
exploration of the coast did not extend above the peninsula 
until 1842. The name California was at first applied exclusively 
to the peninsula; later, on the supposition that a strait con- 
nected the Pacific with the head of the Gulf of California, the 
name Islas Californias was frequently used. This erroneous 
theory was held as late as 1721. The first settlement was made 
in 1 597, but was abandoned. From 1633 to 1683 five unsuccessful 
attempts were made to establish a settlement at La Paz. Finally 
the Jesuits succeeded in founding a mission at Loreto on the 
Gulf coast, in about 26° "N. lat., in 1697, and at La Paz in 1720. 
At the time of their expulsion (1767) they had sixteen missions 
which were either self-supporting or were maintained by funds 
invested for that special purpose. The settlement of Upper 
California began in 1769, after which the two provinces were 
distinguished as California Baja or Antigua, and California Alta, 
the seat of government remaining in the former for a short time. 
The two provinces were separated in 1804, were united under one 
governor residing in California Alta in 1825, and were then re- 
united in a single department through the political changes of 
1836, which lasted no later than 1847. Lower California was 
only slightly disturbed by the struggle for independence among 
the Spanish-American colonies, but in 1822 Admiral Lord 
Cochrane, who was in the service of the Chilean revolutionists, 
appeared on the coast and plundered San Jose del Cabo, Todos 
Santos and Loreto. In the war between Mexico and the United 
States La Paz and other coast towns were occupied by small 
detachments from California. In 1853 a filibustering expedition 
against Sonora under William Walker took possession of La Paz 
and proclaimed a republic consisting of Sonora and the peninsula. 
Fearing an attack from the mainland, the filibusters first with- 
drew to La Ensenada, near the American frontier, and then in 
the following year broke up altogether during an attempt to 
invade Sonora by land. A revolution under the leadership of 
Marquez de Leon in 1879 met with some temporary success, but 
died for want of material support in 1880. The development 
of mining and other industries since that time, together with 
vigorous efforts to found colonies in the more favoured localities, 
have greatly improved the situation in the territory. 

See the two volumes of H. H. Bancroft's North Mexican States and 
Texas, lettered vols. 15 and 16 of his Works-, also Arthur Walbridge 
North, The Mother of California (San Francisco, 1908). 

CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF, one of the largest and most 
important of state universities in America, situated at Berkeley, 
California, on the E. shore of San Francisco Bay. It took the place 
of the College of California (founded in 1855), received Cali- 
fornia's portion of the Federal land grant of 1862, was chartered 
as a state institution by the legislature in 1868, and opened its 
doors in 1869 at Oakland. In 1873 it was removed to its present 
site. In the revised state constitution of 1879 provision is 
made for it as the head of the state's educational system. The 
grounds at Berkeley cover 270 acres on the lower slopes (299-900 
ft.) of the Berkeley Hills, which rise 1000 ft. or more above the 
university; the view over the bay to San Francisco and the 
Golden Gate is superb. In recent years new and better buildings 
have gradually been provided. In 1896 an international archi- 
tectural competition was opened at the expense of Mrs Phoebe R. 
Hearst (made a regent of the university in 1898) for plans for a 
group of buildings harmonizing with the university's beautiful 
site, and ignoring all buildings already existing. The first 
prize was awarded in 1899 to Emile Benard, of Paris. The 
first building begun under the new plans was that for the 
college of mines (the gift of Mrs Hearst), completed in 1907, 
providing worthily for the important school of mining, from 
1885 directed by Prof. S. B. Christy (b. 1853); California Hall, 
built by state appropriation, had been completed in 1906. The 
Greek theatre (1903), an open-air auditorium seating 7500 
spectators, on a hill-side in a grove of towering eucalypts, was 
the gift of William Randolph Hearst; this has been used 
regularly for concerts by the university's symphony orchestra, 

under tjie professor of music, John Frederick Wolle (b. 1S63), 
who originated the Bach. Festivals at Bethlehem, Pa.; free 
public concerts are given on Sunday afternoons; and there 
have been some remarkable dramatic performances here, notably 
Sudraka's Mricchakattika in English, and Aeschylus's Eumenides 
in Greek, in April 1907. There are no dormitories. Student 
self-government works through the " Undergraduate Students' 
Affairs Committee " of the Associated Students. The faculty of 
the university has its own social club, with a handsome building 
on the grounds. At Berkeley is carried on the work in the 
colleges of letters, social sciences, natural sciences, commerce, 
agriculture, mechanical, mining and civil engineering, and 
chemistry, and the first two years' course of the college of 
medicine — the Toland Medical College having been absorbed by 
the university in 1873; at Mount Hamilton, the work of the 
Lick astronomical department; and in San Francisco, that of 
dentistry (1888), pharmacy, law, art, and the concluding (post 
graduate or clinical) years of the medical course — the San 
Francisco Polyclinic having become a part of the university in 
1892. Three of the San Francisco departments occupy a group 
of three handsome buildings in the western part of the city, 
overlooking Golden Gate Park. The Lick astronomical depart- 
ment (Lick Observatory) on Mount Hamilton, near San Jose, 
occupies a site covering 2777 acres. It was founded in 1875 by 
James Lick of San Francisco, and was endowed by him with 
$700,000, $610,000 of this being used for the original buildings 
and equipments, which were formally transferred to the uni- 
versity in 1888. The art department (San Francisco Institute 
of art) was until 1 906 housed in the former home of Mark Hopkins, 
a San Francisco " railroad king "; it dated from 1893, under 
the name " Mark Hopkins Institute of Art." The building was 
destroyed in the San Francisco conflagration of 1906; but under 
its present name the department resumed work in 1907 on the 
old site. At the university farm, of nearly 750 acres, at Davis- 
ville, Yolo county, instruction is given in practical agriculture, 
horticulture, dairying, &c; courses in irrigation are given at 
Berkeley; a laboratory of plant pathology, established in 1907 
at Whittier, Riverside county, and an experiment station on 
20 acres of land near Riverside, are for the study of plant and 
tree diseases and pests and of their remedies. A marine biologi- 
cal laboratory is maintained at La Jolla, near San Diego, and 
another, the Hertzstein Research Laboratory, at New Monterey; 
the Rudolph Spreckels Physiological Laboratory is in Berkeley. 
The university has excellent anthropological and archaeological 
collections, mostly made by university expeditions, endowed by 
Mrs Hearst, to Peru and to Egypt. In 1907 the university 
library contained 160,000 volumes, ranking, after the destruction 
of most of the San Francisco libraries in 1906, as the largest 
collection in the vicinity. The building of the Doe library 
(given by the will of Charles Franklin Doe), for the housing of 
the university library, was begun in 1907. The university has 
also the valuable Bancroft collection of 50,000 volumes and 
countless pamphlets and manuscripts, dealing principally with 
the history of the Pacific Coast from Alaska through Central 
America, and of the Rocky Mountain region, including Montana, 
Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Western 
Texas. This collection (that of the historian Hubert Howe 
Bancroft) was acquired in 1905 for $250,000 (of which Mr 
Bancroft contributed $100,000), and was entrusted (1907) to the 
newly organized Academy of Pacific Coast History. The library 
of Karl Weinhold (1823-1901) of Berlin, which is especially rich 
in Germanic linguistics and " culture history," was presented to 
the university in 1903 by John D. Spreckels. The university 
publishes The University of California Chronicle, an official 
record; and there are important departmental publications, 
especially those in American archaeology and ethnology, edited 
by Frederic Ward Putnam (b. 1839), including the reports of 
various expeditions, maintained by Mrs Hearst; in physi- 
ology, edited by Jacques Loeb (b. 1859); in botany, edited 
by William Albert Setchell (b. 1864); in zoology, edited by 
William Emerson Ritter (b. 1859); and in astronomy, the 
publications of the Lick Observatory, edited by William Wallace 



Campbell (b, 1862). In 1902, under the direction of Henry 
Morse Stephens (b. 1857), who then became professor of 
history, a department of university extension was organized; 
lecture courses, especially on history and literature, were de- 
livered in 1906-1907 at fifteen extension " centres," at most of 
which classes of study were formed. Annexes to the university, 
but having no corporate connexion with it, are the Berkeley 
Bible Seminary (Disciples of Christ), the Pacific Theological 
Seminary (Congregational), the Pacific Coast Baptist Seminary 
and a Unitarian school. 

The growth of the university has been extremely rapid. From 
1890 to 1900 the number of students increased fourfold. In 
the latter year the university of California was second to Harvard 
only in the number of academic graduate and undergraduate 
students, and fifth among the educational institutions of the 
country in total enrolment. In July 1907 there were 519 
officers in the faculties and 2987 students, of whom 226 were in 
the professional schools in San Francisco. In addition there 
were 707 students in the 1906 summer session, the total for 
1906-1907 thus being 3684; of this number 1506 were women. 
The university conferred 482 degrees in 1907, 546 in 1906, 470 in 
1905. The affairs of the university are administered by a board 
of twenty-three regents, seven state officials and heads of 
educational institutions, being members ex officio, and sixteen 
other members being appointed by the governor and senate of 
the state; its instruction is governed by the faculties of the 
different colleges, and an academic senate in which these are 
joined. The gross income from all sources for 1905-1906 was 
$1,564,190, of which about $800,000 was income from invest- 
ments, state and government grants, fees, &c, and the remainder 
was gifts and endowments. There is a permanent endowment of 
more than $3,000,000, partly from munificent private gifts, 
especially from Mrs Hearst and from Miss Cora Jean Flood. The 
financial support of the state has always been generous. No 
tuition fee is charged in the academic colleges to students 
resident in the state, and only $10.00 annually to students from 
without the state. The university maintains about 90 under- 
graduate scholarships, and 10 graduate scholarships and fellow- 
ships. All able-bodied male students are required to take the 
courses in military science, under instruction by an officer of the 
United States army detailed for the purpose. Physical culture 
and hygiene are prescribed for all men and women. A state law 
forbids the sale of liquor within one mile of the university 
grounds. To realize the ideal of the university as the head of the 
educational system of the state, a system of inspection of high 
schools has been developed, whereby schools reaching the pre- 
scribed standard are entitled to recommend their graduates for 
admission to the university without examination. It was 
anticipated at one time that the foundation of the Leland 
Stanford Junior University at Palo Alto would injure the state 
institution at Berkeley; but in practice this was not found to 
be the case; on the contrary, the competition resulted in giving 
new vigour and enterprise to the older university. Joseph Le 
Conte (professor from 1872 to 1901) and Daniel C. Gilman 
(president in 1872-1875) deserve mention among those formerly 
connected with the university. In 1899 Benjamin Ide Wheeler 
(b. 1854) became president. He had been a graduate (1875) 
of Brown University, and was professor first of comparative 
philology and then of Greek at Cornell University; his chief 
publications are Der griechische N ominalaccent (1885); Analogy, 
and the Scope of its Application in Language (1887) ; Principles of 
Language Growth (1891); The Organization of Higher Education 
in the United States (1897); Dionysos and Immortality (1899); 
and Life of Alexander the Great (1900). 

CALIPASH and CALIPEE (possibly connected with carapace, 
the upper shell of a turtle), the gelatinous substances in the upper 
and lower shells, respectively, of the turtle, the calipash being 
of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow colour. 

CALIPH, Calif, or Khalif (Arab. khUlifa; the lengthening 
of the a is strictly incorrect), literally " successor," " repre- 
sentative," a title borne originally by Abu Bekr, who, on the 
death of Mahomet, became the civil and religious head of the 

Mahommedan state. In the same sense the term is used in the 
Koran of both Adam and David as the vicegerents of God. 
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known 
as the " perfect " caliphs; after them the title was borne by the 
thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by 
the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell 
before the Turks in 1258. By some rigid Moslems these rulers 
were regarded as only amirs, not caliphs. There were titular 
caliphs of Abbasid descent in Egypt from that date till 151 7 
when the last caliph was captured by Selim I. On the fall of the 
Omayyad dynasty at Damascus, the title was assumed by the 
Spanish branch of the family who ruled in Spain at Cordova 
(755-1031), and the Fatimite rulers of Egypt, who pretended 
to descent from Ali, and Fatima, Mahomet's daughter, also 
assumed the name (see Fatimites). 

According to the Shi'ite Moslems, who call the office the 
" imamate " or leadership, no caliph is legitimate unless he is 
a lineal descendant of the Prophet. The Sunnites insist that the 
office belongs to the tribe of Koreish (Quraish) to which Mahomet 
himself belonged, but this condition would vitiate the claim of 
the Turkish sultans, who have held the office since its trans- 
ference by the last caliph to Selim I. According to a tradition 
falsely ascribed to Mahomet, there can be but one caliph at a 
time; should a second be set up, he must be killed, for he "is 
a rebel." (See Mahommedan Institutions.) 

CALIPHATE. 1 The history of the Mahommedan rulers in the 
East who bore the title of caliph (q.v.) falls naturally into three 
main divisions: — (a) The first four caliphs, the immediate 
successors of Mahomet; (b) The Omayyad caliphs; (c) The 
Abbasid caliphs. To these three groups the present article is con- 
fined; for the Western caliphs, see Spain: History (and minor 
articles such as Almohades, Almoravides) ; for the Egyptian 
caliphs see Egypt: History (§ Mahommedan) and Fatimites. 
The history of Arabia proper will be found under Arabia : History, 

A.— The First Four Caliphs 

After the death of Mahomet the question arose who was to be 
his " representative." The choice lay with the community of 
Medina; so much was understood; but whom were they to 
choose? The natives of Medina believed themselves to be now 
once more masters in their own house, and wished to promote 
one of themselves. But the Emigrants (see Mahomet) asserted 
their opposing claims, and with success, having brought into 
the town a considerable number of outside Moslems, so as to 
terrorize the men of Medina, who besides were still divided into 
two parties. The Emigrants' leading spirit was Omar; he did 
not, however, cause homage to be paid to himself, but to Abu 
Bekr, the friend and father-in-law of the Prophet. 

The affair would not have gone on so smoothly, had not the 
opportune defection of the Arabians put a stop to the inward 
schism which threatened. Islam suddenly found itself once 
more limited to the community of Medina; only Mecca and 
Taif (Tayef) remained true. The Bedouins were willing enough 
to pray, indeed, but less willing to pay taxes; their defection, 
as might have been expected, was a political movement. 2 None 
the less was it a revolt from Islam, for here the political society 
and the religious are identical. A peculiar compliment to 
Mahomet was involved in the fact that the leaders of the rebellion 
in the various districts did not pose as princes and kings, but as 
prophets; in this appeared to He the secret of Islam's success. 

1. Reign of Abu Bekr.— Abu Bekr proved himself quite equal 
to the perilous situation. In the first place, he allowed the 
expedition against the Greeks, already arranged by Mahomet, 
quietly to set out, limiting himself for the time to the defence 
of Medina. On the return of the army he proceeded to attack 

' Throughout this article, well-known names of persons and 
places appear in their most familiar forms, generally without accents 
or other diacritical signs. For the sake of homogeneity the articles 
on these persons or places are also given under these forms, but in 
such cases, the exact forms, according to the system of transliteration 
adopted, are there given in addition. 

2 See Noldeke, Beitr&ge zur Kenntniss der Poesie der alien Araber 
(1864), pp. 89 seq. 



the rebels. The holy spirit of Islam kept the men of Medina 
together, and inspired in them an all-absorbing zeal for the 
faith; the Arabs as a whole had no other bond of union and no 
better source of inspiration than individual interest. As was 
to be expected, they were worsted; eleven small flying columns 
of the Moslems, sent out in various directions, sufficed to quell 
the revolt. Those who submitted were forthwith received back 
into favour; those who persevered in rebellion were punished 
with death. The majority accordingly converted, the obstinate 
were extirpated. In Yamama (Yemama) only was there a 
severe struggle; the Banii ganlfa under their prophet Mosailima 
fought bravely, but here also Islam triumphed. 

The internal consolidation of Islam in Arabia was, strange to 
say, brought about by its diffusion abroad. The holy war 
against the border countries which Mahomet had already 
inaugurated, was the best means for making the new religion 
popular among the Arabs, for opportunity was at the same 
time afforded for gaining rich booty. The movement was 
organized by Islam, but the masses were induced to join it by 
quite other than religious motives. Nor was this by any means 
the first occasion on which the Arabian cauldron had overflowed; 
once and again in former times emigrant swarms of Bedouins 
had settled on the borders of the wilderness. This had last 
happened in consequence of the events which destroyed the 
prosperity of the old Sabaean kingdom. At that time the small 
Arabian kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira had arisen in the western 
and eastern borderlands of cultivation; these now presented 
to Moslem conquest its nearest and natural goal. But inasmuch 
as Hira was subject to the Persians, and Eastern Palestine to 
the Greeks, the annexation of the Arabians involved the exten- 
sion of the war beyond the limits of Arabia to a struggle with 
the two great powers (see further Arabia: History). 

After the subjugation of middle and north-eastern Arabia, 
Khalid b. al-Walid proceeded by order of the caliph to the 
conquest of the districts on the lower Euphrates. Thence he 
was summoned to Syria, where hostilities had also broken out. 
Damascus fell late in the summer of 635, and on the 20th of 
August 636 was fought the great decisive battle on the Hieromax 
(Yarmuk), which caused the emperor Heraclius (q.v.) finally to 
abandon Syria. 1 Left to themselves, the Christians hence- 
forward defended themselves only in isolated cases in the fortified 
cities; for the most part they witnessed the disappearance -of 
the Byzantine power without regret. Meanwhile the war was 
also carried on against the Persians in Irak, unsuccessfully at 
first, until the tide turned at the battle of Kadisiya (Kadessia, 
Qadislya) (end of 637). In consequence of the defeat which 
they here sustained, the Persians were forced to abandon the 
western portion of their empire and limit themselves to Iran 
proper. The Moslems made themselves masters of Ctesiphon 
(Madain), the residence of the Sassanids on the Tigris, and 
conquered in the immediately following years the country of 
the two rivers. In 639 the armies of Syria and Irak were face 
to face in Mesopotamia. In a short time they had taken from 
the Aryans all the principal old Semitic lands — Palestine, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, Assyria and Babylonia. To these was soon added 
Egypt, which was overrun with little difficulty by 'Amr ibn-el- 
Ass (q.v.) in 640. (See Egypt: History, § Mahommedan.) 
This completed the circle of the lands bordering on the wilderness 
of Arabia; within these limits annexation was practicable and 
natural, a repetition indeed of what had often previously oc- 
curred. The kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira, advanced posts 
hitherto, now became the headquarters of the Arabs; the new 
empire had its centres on the one hand at Damascus, on the 
other hand at Kufa and Basra, the two newly-founded cities in 
the region of old Babylonia. The capital of Islam continued 
indeed for a while to be Medina, but soon the Hejaz (Hijaz) and 
the whole of Arabia proper lay quite on the outskirt of affairs. 

The ease with which the native populations of the con- 
quered districts, exclusively or prevailingly Christian, adapted 
themselves to the new rule is very striking. Their nationality had 

1 De Gpeje, Memoires d'hist. et de giog. orient. No. 2 (2nd ed., 
Leiden, 1864); Noldeke, D.M.Z., 1875, p. 76 sqq.; Baladhuri 137. 

been broken long ago, but intrinsically it was more closely allied 
to the Arabian than to the Greek or Persian. Their .religious 
sympathy with the West was seriously impaired by dogmatic 
controversies; from Islam they might at any rate hope for 
toleration, even though their views were not in accordance 
with the theology of the emperor of the day. The lapse of- the 
masses from Christianity to Islam, however, which took place 
during the first century after the conquest, is to be accounted 
for only by the fact that in reality they had no inward relation 
to the gospel at all. They changed their creed merely to acquire 
the rights and privileges of Moslem citizens. In no case were 
they compelled to do so; indeed the Omayyad caliphs saw 
with displeasure the diminishing proceeds of the poll-tax derived 
from their Christian subjects (see Mahommedan Institutions). 

It would have been a great advantage for the solidity oj> the 
Arabian empire if it had confined itself within the limits of those 
old Semitic lands, with perhaps the addition of Egypt.-, But the 
Persians were not so ready as the Greeks to give up the contest;, 
they did not rest until the Moslems had subjugated the whole 
of the Sassanid empire. The most important eVent in the 
protracted war which led to the conquest of Iran, was thebattle 
of Nehawend in 641 ; 2 the most obstinate resistance was offered 
by Persis proper, and especially by the capital; Istakhr -(Perse? 
polis). In the end, all the numerous and partly autonomous 
provinces of the Sassanid empire fell, one after the other, into 
the hands of the Moslems, and the young king, Yazdegerd III. 
(q.v.), was compelled to retire to the farthest corner of his^ realm, 
where he came to a miserable end. 3 But it was long before the 
Iranians learned to accept the situation. Unlike the Christians 
of western Asia, they had a vigorous feeling of national pride* 
based upon glorious memories and especially upon a church 
having a connexion of the closest kind with the state. Internal 
disturbances of a religious and political character and external 
disasters had long ago shattered the empire of the Sassanids 
indeed, but the Iranians had not yet lost their patriotism. They 
were fighting, in fact, against the despised and hated Arabs, 
in defence of their holiest possessions, their nationality and 
their faith. Their subjection was only external, nor did Islam 
ever succeed in assimilating them as the Syrian Christians were 
assimilated. Even when in process of time they did accept the 
religion of the prophet, they leavened it thoroughly with their 
own peculiar leaven, and, especially, deprived it of the practical 
political and national character which it had assumed after the 
flight to Medina. To the Arabian state they were always a 
thorn in the flesh; it was they who helped most to break up its 
internal order, and it was from them also that, it at last received 
its outward death-blow. The fallof the Omayyads was their 
work, and with the Omayyads fell the Arabian empire. 

2. Reign of Omar. — Abu Bekr died after a short reign on the 
22nd of August 634, and as a matter of course was succeeded by 
Omar. To Omar's ten years' Caliphate belong for the most part 
the great conquests. He himself did not take the field, but 
remained in Medina with the exception of his visit to Syria in 
638; he never, however, suffered the reins to slip from his 
grasp, so powerful was the influence of his personality and the 
Moslem community of feeling. His political insight is shown 
by the fact that he endeavoured to limit the indefinite extension 
of Moslem conquest, to maintain and strengthen the national 
Arabian character of the commonwealth of Islam, 4 and especially 
to promote law and order in its internal affairs. The saying 
with which he began his reign will never grow antiquated: 
" by Allah, he that is weakest among you shall be in my sight 
the strongest, until I have . vindicated for him his rights; but 
him that is strongest will I treat as the weakest, until he complies 

2 The accounts differ ; see Baladhuri 305. The chronology of the 
conquests is in many points uncertain. 

3 Baladhuri 315 sq.; Tabari i. 1068. 

4 He sought to make the whole nation a great host of God ; the 
Arabs were to be soldiers and nothing else. They were forbidden 
to acquire landed estates in the conquered countries; all land was 
either made state property or was restored to the old owners subject 
to a perpetual tribute which provided pay on a splendid scale for 
the army. 



with. the laws.". After the administration of justice he directed 
his organizing activity, as the circumstances demanded, chiefly 
towards financial questions — the incidence of taxation in the 
conquered territories, 1 and the application of the vast resources 
which poured into the treasury at Medina. It must not be 
brought against him as a personal reproach, that in dealing with 
these he acted on the principle that the Moslems were the char- 
tered plunderers of all the rest of the world. But he had to atone 
by his death for the fault of his system. In the mosque at Medina 
he was stabbed by a Kufan workman and died in November 644. 
3. Reign of Othman. — Before his death Omar had nominated 
six of the leading Mohajir (Emigrants) who should choose the 
caliph from among themselves — Othman, Ali, Zobair, Talha, 
Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, and Abdarrahman b. Auf. The last-named 
declined to be a candidate, and decided the election in favour 
of Othman. Under this weak sovereign the government of 
Islam fell entirely into the hands of the Koreish nobility. We 
have already seen that Mahomet himself prepared the way for 
this transference; Abu Bekr and Omar likewise helped it; the 
Emigrants were unanimous among themselves in thinking that 
the 1 precedence and leadership belonged to them as of right. 
Thanks to the energy of Omar, they were successful in appro- 
priating to themselves the succession to the Prophet. They 
indeed rested their claims on the undeniable priority of their 
services to the faith, but they also appealed to their blood 
relationship with the Prophet as a corroboration of their right 
to the inheritance ; and the ties of blood connected them with 
the Koreish in general. In point of fact they felt a closer con- 
nexion with these than, for example, with the natives of Medina; 
nature had not been expelled by faith. 2 The supremacy of the 
Emigrants naturally furnished the means of transition to the 
supremacy of' the Meccan aristocracy. Othman did all in his 
power to press forward this development of affairs. He belonged 
to the foremost family of Mecca, the Omayyads, and that he 
should favour his relations and the Koreish as a whole, in every 
possible way, seemed to him a matter of course. Every position 
of influence and emolument was assigned to them; they them- 
selves boastingly called the important province of Irak the garden 
of Koreish. In truth, the entire empire had become that garden. 
Nor was it unreasonable that from the secularization of Islam 
the chief advantage should be reaped by those who best knew 
the world. Such were beyond all doubt the patricians of Mecca, 
and after them those of Taif, people like Khalid b. al-Walid, 
Amr- ; ibn-el-Ass, 'Abdallah b. abi Sarh, Moghira b. Sho'ba, and, 
above all, old Abu Sofian with his son Moawiya. 

' Against the rising tide of worldliness an opposition, however, 
now began to appear. It was led by what may be called the 
spiritual noblesse of Islam, which, as distinguished from the 
hereditary nobility of Mecca, might also be designated as the 
nobility of merit, consisting of the " Defenders " (Ansar), and 
especially of the Emigrants who had lent themselves to the 
elevatiori of the Koreish, but by no means with the intention 
of allowing themselves thereby to be effaced. The opposition 
was headed by Ali, Zobair, Talha, both as leading men among 
the Emigrants and as 1 disappointed candidates for the Caliphate. 
Their motives were purely selfish; not God's cause but their 
own, not religion but power and preferment, were what they 
sought. 3 Their party Was a mixed one. To it belonged the men 
of real piety, who saw with displeasure the promotion to the 
first places in the commonwealth of the great lords who had 
actually done nothing for Islam, and had joined themselves to 
it only at the last moment. But the majority were merely a band 

■ l Noldeke, Tabari, 246. To Omar is due also the establishment 
of the Era of the Flight (Hegira), 

2 Even in the list of the slain at the battle of Honain the Emi- 

§ rants are enumerated along with the Meccans and Koreish, and 
istinguished from the men of Medina. _ 

: 3 It was the same opposition of the spiritual to the secular nobility 
that afterwards showed itself in the revolt of the sacred cities against 
the Omayyads. The movement triumphed with the elevation of the 
Abbasids to the throne. But, that the spiritual nobility was fighting 
not for principle but for personal advantage was as apparent in All's 
hostilities against Zobair and Talha as in that of the Abbasids against 
the followers of , Ali. ... 

of men without views, whose aim was a change not of system, 
but of persons in their own interest. Everywhere in the pro- 
vinces there was agitation against the caliph and his governors, 
except in Syria, where Othman's cousin, Moawiya, son of Abu 
Sofian (see below), carried on a wise and strong administration. 
The movement was most energetic in Irak and in Egypt. Its 
ultimate aim was the deposition of Othman in favour of Ali, 
whose own services as well as his close relationship to the Prophet 
seemed to give him the best claim to the Caliphate. Even then 
there were enthusiasts who held him to be a sort of Messiah. 

The malcontents sought to gain their end by force. In bands 
they came from the provinces to Medina to wring concessions 
from Othman, who, though his armies were spreading terror 
from the Indus and Oxus to the Atlantic, had no troops at hand 
in Medina. He propitiated the mutineers by concessions, but as 
soon as they had gone, he let matters resume their old course. 
Thus things went on from bad to worse. In the following year 
(656) the leaders of the rebels came once more from Egypt and 
Irak to Medina with a more numerous following; and the caliph 
again tried the plan of making promises which he did not intend 
to keep. But the rebels caught him in a flagrant breach of his 
word, 4 and now demanded his abdication, besieging him in his own 
house, where he was defended by a few faithful subjects. As he 
would not yield, they at last took the building by storm and put 
him to death, an old man of eighty. His death in the act of 
maintaining his rights was of the greatest service to his house and 
of corresponding disadvantage to the enemy. 

4. Reign of Ali. — Controversy as to the inheritance at once 
arose among the leaders of the opposition. The mass of the 
mutineers summoned Ali to the Caliphate, and compelled even 
Talha and Zobair to do him homage. But soon these two, 
along with Ayesha, the mother of the faithful, who had an old 
grudge against Ali, succeeded in making their escape to Irak, 
where at Basra they raised the standard of rebellion. Ali in 
point of fact had no real right to the succession, and moreover 
was apparently actuated not by piety but by ambition and the 
desire of power, so that men of penetration, even although they 
condemned Othman's method of government, yet refused to 
recognize his successor. The new caliph, however, found means 
of disposing of their opposition, and at the battle of the Camel, 
fought at Basra in November 656, Talha and Zobair were slain, 
and Ayesha was taken prisoner. 

But even so Ali had not secured peace. With the murder of 
Othman the dynastic principle gained the twofold advantage of a 
legitimate cry — that of vengeance for the blood of the grey-haired 
caliph and a distinguished champion, the governor Moawiya, 
whose position in Syria was impregnable. The kernel of his 
subjects consisted of genuine Arabs, not only recent immigrants 
along with Islam, but also old settlers who, through contact 
with the Roman empire and the Christian church, had become to 
some extent civilized. Through the Ghassanids these latter 
had become habituated to monarchical government and loyal 
obedience, and for a long time much better order had prevailed 
amongst them than elsewhere in Arabia. Syria was the proper 
soil for the rise of an Arabian kingdom, and Moawiya was just 
the man to make use of the situation. He exhibited Othman's 
blood-stained garment in the mosque at Damascus, and incited 
his Syrians to vengeance. 

Ali's position in Kufa was much less advantageous. The 
population of Irak was already mixed up with Persian elements; it 
fluctuated greatly, and was largely composed of fresh immigrants. 
Islam had its headquarters here; Kufa and Basra were the home 
of the pious and of the adventurer, the centres of religious and 
political movement. This movement it was that had raised Ali 
to the Caliphate, but yet it did not really take any personal 
interest in him. Religion proved for him a less trustworthy and 
more dangerous support than did the conservative and secular 
feeling of Syria for the Omayyads. Moawiya could either 
act or ■ refrain from acting as he chose, secure in either case 

4 Or, at least, so they thought. The history of the letter to 
'Abdallah b. abi Sarh seems to have been a trick played on the 
caliph, who suspected Ali of having ha^ - hand in it. 



of the obedience of his 'subjects. AH, on the other hand, was 
unable to convert enthusiasm for the principle inscribed on his 
banner into enthusiasm for his person. It was necessary that 
he should accommodate himself to the wishes of his supporters, 
which, however, were inconsistent. They compelled him 
suddenly to break off the battle of Siffin, which he was apparently 
on the point of gaining over Moawiya, because the Syrians 
fastened copies of the Koran to their lances to denote that not 
the sword, but the word of God should decide the contest (see 
further below, B. i ; also Axi). But in yielding to the will of the 
majority he excited the displeasure of the minority, the genuine 
zealots, who in Moawiya were opposing the enemy of Islam, 
and regarded Ali's entering into negotiations with him as a 
denial of the faith. When the negotiations failed and war was 
resumed, the Kharijites refused to follow Ali's army, and he had 
to turn his armies in the first instance against them. He 
succeeded in disposing of them without difficulty at the battle of 
Nahrawan, but in his success he lost the soul of his following. 
For they were the true champions of the theocratic principle; 
through their elimination it became clear that the struggle had in 
no sense anything to do with the cause of God. Ali's defeat was 
a foregone conclusion, once religious enthusiasm had failed him; 
the secular resources at the disposal of his adversaries were far 
superior. Fortunately for him he was murdered (end of January 
66 1), thereby posthumously attaining an importance in the eyes 
of a large part of the Mahommedan world (Shl'a) which he had 
never possessed during his life. l 

B. — The Omayyad Dynasty 

Summary of Preceding Movements. — The conquest of Mecca had 
been of the greatest importance to the Prophet, not only because 
Islam thus obtained possession of this important city with its 
famous sanctuary, but above all because his late adversaries 
were at last compelled to acknowledge him as the Envoy of God. 
Among these there were many men of great ability and influence, 
and he was so eager to conciliate them or, as the Arabic ex- 
pression has it, " to mellow their hearts " by concessions and 
gifts, that his loyal helpers ( Ansar) at Medina became dissatisfied 
and could only with difficulty be brought to acquiesce in it. 
Mahomet was a practical man; he realized that the growing 
state needed skilful administrators, and that such were found in 
much greater number among the antagonists of yesterday than 
among the honest citizens of Medina. The most important 
positions, such as the governorships of Mecca and Yemen, were 
entrusted to men of the Omayyad house, or that of the Makhzum 
and other Koreishite families. Abu Bekr followed the Prophet's 
example. In the great revolt of the Arabic tribes after the 
death of Mahomet, and in the invasion of Irak and Syria by the 
Moslems, the principal generals belonged to them. Omar did 
not deviate from that line of conduct. It was he who appointed 
Yazld, the son of Abu Sofian, and after his death, his brother 
Moawiya as governor of Syria L and assigned the province of Egypt 
to Amr-ibn-el-Ass ("Amr b. As). It is even surprising to find 
among the leading men so few-of the house of Hashim, the nearest 
family of the Prophet. The puzzled Moslem doctors explain 
this fact on the ground that the Hashimites were regarded as too 
noble to hold ordinary administrative offices, and that they 
could not be spared at Medina, where their counsel was required 
in all important affairs. There is, however, a tradition in which 
Ali himself calls the Omayyads born rulers. As long as Omar 
lived opposition was silent. But Othman had not the strong 
personality of his predecessor, and, although he practically 
adhered to the policy of Omar, he was accused of favouring the 
( members of his own family — the caliph belonged himself to the 
house of Omayya — at the expense of theHashimitesandthe Ansar. 
The jealousy of the latter two was prompted by the fact that the 
governorship and military commands had become not only much 
more important, but also much more lucrative, while power and 
money again procured many adherents. The truly devout 
Moslems on the other hand were scandalized by the growing 
luxury which relaxed the austere morals of the first Moslems, 
and this also was imputed to Othman. 

We thus see how the power of the house of Omayya developed 
itself, and how there arose against it an opposition, which led in 
the first place to the murder of Othman and the Caliphate of Ali, 
and furthermore; during the whole period of the Omayyad 
caliphs, repeatedly to dangerous outbreaks, culminating in the 
great catastrophe which placed the Abbasids on the throne. 
The elements of this opposition were of very various kinds: — 
(i) The old-fashioned Moslems, sons of the Ansar and Mohajir, 
who had been Mahomet's first companions and supporters, and 
could, not bear the thought that the sons of the old enemies of the 
Prophet in Mecca, whom they nicknamed tolaqa (freedmen), 
should be in control of the imamate, which carried with it the 
management of affairs both civil and religious. This party was 
in the foreground, chiefly in the first period. (2) The partisans 
of Ali, the Shi'a (Shi'ites), who in proportion as their influence 
with the Arabs declined, contrived to strengthen it by obtaining 
the support of the non-Arabic Moslems, aided thereto, especially 
in the latter period, by the Abbasids, who at the decisive 
moment succeeded in seizing the supreme power for themselves. 
(3) The Kharijites, who, in spite of the heavy losses they sus- 
tained at the hands of Ali, maintained their power by gaining 
new adherents from among those austere Moslems, who held both 
Omayyads and Alids as usurpers, and have often been called, not 
unjustly, the Puritans of Islam. (4) The non-Arabic Moslems, 
who on their conversion to Islam, had put themselves under the 
patronage of Arabic families, and were therefore called maula's 
(clients). These were not only the most numerous, but also, in 
virtue of the persistency of their hostility, the most dangerous. 
The largest and strongest group of these were the Persians, who, 
before the conquest of Irak by the Moslems, were the ruling class 
of that country, so that Persian was the dominant language. 
With them all malcontents, in particular the Shi'ites, found 
support; by them the dynasty of the Omayyads and the 
supremacy of the Arabs was finally overthrown. To these 
elements of discord we must add: — (1) That the Arabs, notwith- 
standing the bond of Islam that united them, maintained their 
old tribal institutions, and therewith their old feuds and factions; 
(2) that the old antagonism between Ma'adites 1 (original 
northern tribes) and Yemenites (original southern tribes), 
accentuated by the jealousy between the Meccans, who belonged 
to the former, and the Medinians, who belonged to the latter 
division, gave rise to perpetual conflicts; (3) that more than one 
dangerous pretender — some of them of the reigning family 
itself — contended with the caliph for the sovereignty, and must 
be crushed coute que co&te. It is only by the detailed enumera- 
tion of these opposing forces that we can form an idea of the 
heavy task that lay before the Prince of the Believers, and of the 
amount of tact and ability which his position demanded. 

The description of the reign of the Omayyads is extremely 
difficult. Never perhaps has the system of undermining 
authority by continual slandering been applied on such a scale as 
by the Alids and the Abbasids. The Omayyads were accused by 
their numerous missionaries of every imaginable vice; in their, 
hands Islam was not safe ; it would be a godly work to extirpate 
them from the earth. When the Abbasids had occupied the 
throne, they pursued this policy to its logical conclusion. But 
not content with having exterminated the hated rulers themselves, 
they carried their hostility to a further point. The official 
history of the Omayyads, as it has been handed down to us, is 
coloured by Abbasid feeling to such an extent that we can 
scarcely distinguish the true from the false. An example of this 
occurs at the outset in the assertion that Moawiya deliberately 
refrained from marching to the help of Othman, and indeed that 
it was with secret joy that he heard of the fatal result of the plot. 
The facts seem to contradict this view. When, ten weeks before 
the murder, some hundreds of men came to Medina from Egypt 
and Irak, pretending that they were on their pilgrimage to Mecca, 
but wanted to bring before the caliph their complaints against 
his vicegerents, nobody could have the slightest suspicion that 
the life of the caliph was in danger; indeed it was only during 

1 Ma'ad is in the genealogical system the father of the Modar and 
the Rab'ia tribes. Qais is the principal branch of the Motjar. 



the few days that Othman was besieged in his house that the 
danger became obvious. If the caliph then, as the chroniclers 
tell, sent a message to Moawiya for help, his messenger could not 
have accomplished half the journey to Damascus when the 
catastrophe took place. There is no real reason to doubt that 
the painful news fell on Moawiya unexpectedly, and that he, as 
mightiest representative of the Omayyad house, regarded as his 
own the duty of avenging the crime. He could not but view Ali 
in the light of an accomplice, because if, as he protested, he did 
not abet the murderers, yet he took them under his protection. An 
acknowledgment of Ali as caliph by Moawiya before he had 
cleared himself from suspicion was therefore quite impossible. 

1. The Reign of Moawiya. — Moawiya, son of the well-known 
Meccan chief Abu Sofian, embraced Islam together with his father 
and his brother Yazid, when the Prophet conquered Mecca, and 
was, like them, treated with the greatest distinction. He was even 
chosen to be one of the secretaries of Mahomet. When Abu Bekr 
sent his troops for the conquest of Syria, Yazid, the eldest son of 
Abu Sofian, held one of the chief commands, with Moawiya as 
his lieu tenant. In the year 639 Omar named him governor of 
Damascus and Palestine; Othman added to this province the 
north of Syria and Mesopotamia. To him was committed the 
conduct of the war against the Byzantine emperor, which he 
continued with energy, at first only on land, but later, when the 
caliph had at last given in to his urgent representations, at sea 
also. In the year 34 (a.d. 655) was fought off the coast of Lycia 
the great naval battle, which because of the great number of 
masts has been called "the mast fight," in which the Greek 1 
fleet, commanded by the emperor Constans II. in person, was 
utterly defeated. Moawiya himself was not present, as he was 
conducting an attack (the result of which we do not know) on 
Caesarea in Cappadocia. The Arabic historians are so entirely 
preoccupied with the internal events that they have no eye for 
the war at the frontier. The contention which Moawiya had 
with Ah checked his progress in the north. 

Moawiya was a born ruler, and Syria was, as we have seen, the 
best administered province of the whole empire. He was so 
loved and honoured by his Syrians that, when he invited them 
to avenge the blood of Othman, they replied unanimously, " It is 
your part to command, ours to obey." Ah was a valiant man, 
but had no great talent as a ruler. His army numbered a great 
many enthusiastic partisans, but among them not a few wise- 
acres; there were also others of doubtful loyalty. The battle at 
Siffin (657), near the Euphrates, which lasted two months and 
consisted principally in, sometimes bloody, skirmishes, with 
alternate success, ended by the well-known appeal to the decision 
of the Koran on the part of Moawiya. This appeal has been called 
by a European scholar " one of the unworthiest comedies of the 
whole world's history," accepting the report of very partial 
Arabic writers that it happened when the Syrians were on the 
point of losing the battle. He forgot that Ali himself, before the 
Battle of the Camel, appealed likewise to the decision of the 
Koran, and began the fight only when this had been rejected. 
There is in reality no room for suspecting Moawiya of not having 
been in earnest when making this appeal; he might well regret 
that internecine strife should drain the forces which were so 
much wanted for the spread of Islam. That the Book of God 
could give a solution, even of this arduous case, was doubtless the 
firm belief of both parties. But even if the appeal to the Koran 
had been a stratagem, as Ali himself thought, it would have been 
perfectly legitimate, according to the general views of that time, 
which had been also those of the Prophet. It is not unlikely 
that the chief leader of the Yemenites in Ali's army, Ash'ath b. 
Qais, knew beforehand that this appeal would be made. Cer- 
tainty is not to be obtained in the whole matter. 

On each side an umpire was appointed, Abu Mtisa al-Ash'ari, 
the candidate of Ash'ath, on that of Ah, Amr-ibn-el-Ass (q.v.) on 
that of Moawiya. The arbitrators met in the year 37 (a.d. 658) 
at Adhroh, in the south-east of Syria, where are the ruins of 
the Roman Castra described by Brtinnow and Domaszewsky 
(Die Provincia Arabia, i. 433-463). Instead of this place, the 
1 The Arabs always call them Rum, i.e. Romans. 

historians generally put Dumat-al-Jandal, the biblical Duma, 
now called Jauf , but this rests on feeble authority. The various 
accounts about what happened in this interview are without 
exception untrustworthy. J. Wellhausen, in his excellent book 
Das arabische Reich und sein Stiirz, has made it very probable that 
the decision of the umpires was that the choice of Ali as caliph 
should be cancelled, and that the task of nominating a successor 
to Othman should be referred to the council of notable men 
(shura), as representing the whole community. Ah refusing to 
submit to this decision, Moawiya became the champion of the 
law, and thereby gained at once considerable support for the 
conquest of Egypt, to which above all he directed his efforts. As 
soon as Amr returned from Adhroh, Moawiya sent him with an 
army of four or five thousand men against Egypt. About the 
same time the constitutional party rose against Ali's vicegerent 
Mahommed, son of Abu Bekr, who had been the leader of the 
murderous attack on Othman. Mahommed was beaten, taken 
in his flight, and, according to some reports, sewn in the skin of an 
ass and burned. 

Moawiya, realizing that Ali would take all possible means to 
crush him, took his measures accordingly. He concluded with 
the Greeks a treaty, by which he pledged himself to pay a large 
sum of money annually on condition that the emperor should give 
him hostages as a pledge for the maintenance of peace. Ali, 
however, had first to deal with the insurrection of the Kharijites, 
who condemned the arbitration which followed the battle of Siffin 
as a deed of infidelity, and demanded that Ali should break the 
compact (see above, A. 4) . Freed from this difficulty, Ali prepared 
to direct his march against Moawiya, but his soldiers declined to 
move. One of his men, Khirrit b. Rashid, renounced him 
altogether, because he had not submitted to the decision of the 
umpires, and persuaded many others to refuse the payment of the 
poor-rate. Ali was obliged to subdue him, a task which he 
effected not without difficulty. Not a few of his former partisans 
went over to Moawiya, as already had happened before the days 
of Siffin, amongst others Ali's own brother 'Aqil. Lastly, there 
were in Kufa, and still more in Basra, many Othmaniya or 
legitimists, on whose co-operation he could not rely. Moawiya 
from his side made incessant raids into Ali's dominion, and by his 
agents caused a very serious revolt in Basra. The statement that 
a treaty was concluded between Moawiya and Ali to maintain the 
status quo, in the beginning of the year 40 (a.d. 660), is not very 
probable, for it is pretty certain that just then Ali had raised an 
army of 40,000 men against the Syrians, and also that in the second 
or third month of that year Moawiya was proclaimed caliph at 
Jerusalem. At the same time Bosr b. Abi Artat made his 
expedition against Medina and Mecca, whose inhabitants were 
compelled to acknowledge the caliphate of Moawiya. On the 
murder of Ah in 661, his son Hasan was chosen caliph, but he 
recoiled before the prospect of a war with Moawiya, having 
neither the ambition nor the energy of Ali. Moawiya stood then 
with a large army in Maskin, a rich district lying to the north of 
the later West Bagdad, watered by the Dojail, or Little Tigris, a 
channel from the Euphrates to the Tigris. . The army of Trak was 
near Madain, the ancient Ctesiphon. The reports about what 
occurred are confused and contradictory; but it seems probable 
that Abdallah b. Abbas, the vicegerent of Ali at Basra and 
ancestor of the future Abbasid dynasty, was in command. No 
battle was fought. Hasan and Ibn Abbas opened, each for 
himself, negotiations with Moawiya. The latter made it a 
condition of surrender that he should have the free disposal of the 
funds in the treasury of Basra. Some say that he had already 
before the death of Ali rendered himself master of it. Notwith- 
standing the protest of the Basrians, he transported this booty 
safely to M ecca. When his descendants had ascended the throne 
and he had become a demi-saint, the historians did their best to 
excuse his conduct. Hasan demanded, in exchange for the power 
which he resigned, the contents of the treasury at Kufa, which 
amounted to five millions of dirhems, together with the revenues 
of the Persian province of Darabjird (Darab). When these nego- 
tiations became known, a mutiny broke out in Hasan's camp. 
Hasan himself was wounded and retired to Medina, where he 

2 8 


died eight or nine years afterwards. The legend that he was 
poisoned by order of Moawiya is without the least foundation. 
It seems that he never received the revenues of Dar&bjird, the 
Basrians to whom they belonged refusing to cede them. 

Moawiya now made his entry into Kufa in the summer of a.h. 
41 (a.d. 661) and received the oath of allegiance as Prince of the 
Believers. This year is called the year of union (jamd'a). 
Moghlra b. Sho'ba was appointed governor of Kufa. IJomran b. 
Aban had previously assumed the government of Basra. This 
is represented commonly as a revolt, but as Homran was a client 
of Othman, and remained in favour with the Omayyads, it is 
almost certain that he took the management of affairs only to 
maintain order. 

One strong antagonist to Moawiya remained, in the person of 
Ziyad. This remarkable man was said to be a bastard of Abu 
Sofian, the father of Moawiya, and was, by his mother, the 
brother of Abu Bakra, a man of great wealth and position at 
Basra. He thus belonged to the tribe of Thaqif at Taif, which 
produced many very prominent men. At the age of fourteen 
years Ziyad was charged with the financial administration of the 
Basrian army. He had won the affection of Omar, by his know- 
ledge of the Koran and the Sunna of the Prophet, and by the fact 
that he had employed the first money he earned to purchase the 
freedom of his mother Somayya. He was a faithful servant of Ah 
and put down for him the revolt excited by Moawiya's partisans 
in Basra. Thence he marched into Fars and Kirman, where he 
maintained peace and kept the inhabitants in their allegiance to 
Ali. After Ali's death he fortified himself in his castle near 
Istakhr and refused to submit. Moawiya, therefore, sent Bosr 
b. Abi Artat to Basra, with orders to capture Ziyad's three sons, 
and to force Ziyad into submission by threatening to kill them. 
Ziyad was obdurate/ and it was due to his brother Abu Bakra, 
who persuaded Moawiya to cancel the order, that the threat was 
not executed. On his return to Damascus, Moawiya charged 
Moghlra b. Sho'ba to bring his countryman to reason. Abdallah 
b. 'Amir was made governor of Basra. 

As soon as Moawiya had his hands free, he directed all his 
forces against the Greeks. Immediately after the submission of 
Irak, he had denounced the existing treaty, and as early as 662 
had sent his troops against the Alans and the Greeks. Since then, 
no year passed without a campaign. Twice he made a serious 
effort to conquer Constantinople, in 669 when he besieged it for 
three months, and in 674. On the second occasion his fleet 
occupied Cyzicus, which it held till shortly after his death in 680, 
when a treaty was signed. In Africa also the extension of 
Mahommedan power was pursued energetically. In 670 took 
place the famous march of 'Okba ("Oqba) b. Nafi' and tke founda- 
tion of Kairawan, where the great mosque still bears his name. 
Our information about these events, though very full, is untrust- 
worthy, while of the events in Asia Minor the accounts are scarce 
and short. The Arabic historians are still absorbed by the events 
in Irak and Khorasan. 

The talented prefect of Kufa, Moghlra b. Sho'ba, eventually 
broke down the resistance of Ziyad, who came to Damascus to 
render an account of his administration, which the caliph 
ratified. Moawiya seems also to have acknowledged him as the 
son of Abu Sofian, and thus as his brother; in 664 this recogni- 
tion was openly declared. 1 In the next year Ziyad was appointed 
governor df Basra and the eastern provinces belonging to it. As 
the austere champion of the precepts of Islam, he soon restored 
order in the whole district. Outwardly, this was the case in 
Kufa also. A rising of Kharijites in the year 663 had ended in 
the death of their chief. But the Shi'ites were dissatisfied and 

1 A single genealogist, Abu Yaqazan, says that he was a legiti- 
mate son of Abu Scfian, and that his mother was Asma, daughter 
of A'war. But all others call his mother Somayya, who is said to 
have been a slave-girl of Hind, the wife of Abu Sofian, and who 
became later also the mother of Abu Bakra. We cannot make out 
whether Abu Sofian acknowledged him as his son or not. At a later 
period, the Abbasid caliph Mahdi had the names of Ziyad and his 
descendants struck off the rolls of the Koreish ; but, after his death, 
the persons concerned gained over the chief of the rolls office, and 
had their names replaced in the lists (see Tabari iii. 479). 

even dared to give public utterance to their hostility. Moghlra 
contented himself with a warning. He wasalready aged and had 
no mind to enter on a conflict. He died about the year 670, and 
his province also was entrusted to Ziyad, who appointed 'Amr b. 
Horaith as his vicegerent. At a Friday service in the great mosque 
'Amr was insulted and pelted with pebbles. Ziyad then came 
himself, arrested the leader of the Shi'ites, and sent fourteen rebels 
to Damascus, among them several men of consideration. Seven of 
them who refused to pledge themselves to obedience were put to 
death; the Shi'ites considered them as martyrs and accused 
Moawiya of committing a great crime. But in Kufa peace was 
restored, and this not by military force, but by the headmen of 
the tribes. We must not forget that Kufa and Basra were 
military colonies, and that each tribe had its own quarter of the 
city. A wholesome diversion was provided by the serious re- 
sumption of the policy of eastern expansion, which had been 
interrupted by the civil war. For this purpose Irak had to 
furnish the largest contingent. The first army sent by Ziyad 
into Khorasan recaptured Merv, Herat and Balkh, conquered 
Tokharistan and advanced as far as the Oxus. In 673 'Obai- 
dallah, the son of Ziyad, crossed the river, occupied Bokhara, and 
returned laden with booty taken from the wandering Turkish 
tribes of Transoxiana. He brought 2000 Turkish archers with 
him to Basra, the first Turkish slaves to enter the Moslem empire. 
Sa'id, son of the caliph Othman, whom Moawiya made governor 
of Khorasan, in 674 marched against Samarkand.: Other 
generals penetrated as far as the Indus and conquered Kabul, 
Sijistan, Makran and Kandahar. 1 ■• 

Ziyad governed Irak with the greatest vigour, but as long as 
discontent did not issue in action, he let men alone. At his death 
(672-673), order was so generally restored that " nobody had any 
more to fear for life or estate, and even the unprotected woman 
was safe in her house without having her door bolted." • 

Moawiya was a typical Arab sayyid (gentleman) . He governed, 
not by force, but by his superior intelligence, his self-control, 
his mildness and magnanimity. The following anecdote may 
illustrate this. One of Moawiya's estates bordered on that of 
Abdallah b. Zobair, who complained in a somewhat truculent 
letter that Moawiya's slaves had been guilty of trespassing. 
Moawiya, disregarding his son Yazid's advice that he should 
exact condign punishment for Zobair's disrespect, replied 1 in 
flattering terms, regretting the trespass and resigning both slaves 
and estate to Zobair. In reply Zobair protested his loyalty to 
Moawiya, who thereupon pointed a moral for the instruction of 
Yazid. ' ■ ; ; ) 

Moawiya has been accused of having poisoned more than one of 
his adversaries, among them Malik Ashtar, Abdarrahman the 
son of the great captain Khalid b. Walid, and Hasan b. Ali. As 
for the latter, European scholars have long been agreed that' the 
imputation is groundless. As to Abdarrahman the story is in the 
highest degree improbable. Madaini says that Moawiya was 
prompted to it, because when he consulted the Syrians about the 
choice of his son Yazid as his successor, they had proposed 
Abdarrahman. The absurdity of this is obvious, for Abdarrah- 
man died in the year 666. 1 Others say 2 that Moawiya. was afraid 
lest Abdarrahman should become too popular. Now, Abdarrah- 
man had not only been a faithful ally of Moawiya in the wars r with 
Ali, but after the peace devoted all his energy to the Greek war. 
It is almost incredible that Moawiya out of petty jealousy would 
have deprived himself of one of his best men. The probability is 
that Abdarrahman was ill when returning from the frontier, that 
Moawiya sent him his own medical man, the Christian doctor Ibn 
Othal, and that the rumour arose that the doctor had poisoned 
him. It is remarkable withal that this rumour circulated, not in 
Horns (Emesa), where Abdarrahman died, but in Medina-. There 
a young relation of Abdarrahman was so roused by the taunt 
that the death of his kinsman was unavenged, that he killed Ibn 
Othal near the mosque of Damascus. Moawiya imprisoned him 
and let him pay a high ransom, the law not permitting the talio 
against a Moslem for having killed a Christian. The story that 

1 Aghani xx. p, 13, Ibn abi Osaibia i.'p. 118. 

2 Tabari ii. p. 82. 



this relative was Khalid, the son of Abdarrahman, is absurd in- 
asmuch as Moawiya made this Khalid commander against the 
Greeks in succession to his father. In the third case — that of 
Malik Ashtar — the evidence is equally inadequate. In fact, since 
Moawiya did not turn the weapon of assassination against such 
men as Abdallah b. Zobair and Hosain b. Ali, it is unlikely that 
he used it against less dangerous persons. These two men were 
the chief obstacles to Moawiya's plan for securing the Caliphate 
for his son Yazid. The leadership with the Arabic tribes was as a 
rule hereditary, the son succeeding his father, but only if he was 
personally fit for the position, and was acknowledged as such by 
the principal men of the tribe. The hereditary principle had not 
been recognized by Islam in the cases of Abu Bekr, Omar and 
Othman; it had had some influence upon the choice of Ali, the 
husband of Fatima and the cousin of the Prophet. But it had 
been adopted entirely for the election of Hasan. The example of 
Abu Bekr proved that the caliph had the right to appoint his 
successor. But this appointment must be sanctioned by the 
principal men, as representing the community. Moawiya seems 
to have done his best to gain that approbation, but the details 
given ;by the historians are altogether unconvincing. This only 
seems to. be certain, that the succession of Yazid was' generally 
acknowledged before the death of his father, except in Medina. 
(See Mahommedan Institutions.) 

, Moawiya died in the month of Rajab 60 (a.d. 680) . His last 
words are said to have been: " Fear ye God, the Elevated and 
Mighty, for God, Praise be to Him, protects the man that fears 
Him; he who does not fear God, has no protection." Moawiya 
was, in fact, a religious man and a strict disciple of the precepts of 
Islam. We can scarcely, therefore, credit the charges made by 
the adversaries of his chosen successor Yazid, that he was a 
drinker of wine, fond of pleasure, careless about religion. All the 
evidence shows that, during the reign of the. Omayyads, life in 
Damascus and the rest of Syria was austere and in striking 
contrast to the dissolute manners which prevailed in Medina. 

2. Rule of Yazid. — When Moawiya died, the opposition had 
already been organized. On bis accession Yazid sent a circular 
to all lus prefects, officially announcing his father's death, and 
ordering them to administer the oath of allegiance to their 
subjects. In that sent to Walid b. 'Otba, the governor of 
Medina, he enclosed a private note charging him in particular to 
administer the oath, to Hosain, Abdallah b. Omar and Abdallah 
b. Zobair, if necessary, by force. Walid sent a messenger 
inviting them to a conference, thus giving them time to assemble 
their followers and %o escape to Mecca, where the prefect Omar 
b. Sa'id could do nothing against them. In the month Ramadan 
this Omar was made governor of Medina and sent an army against 
Ibn Zobair. This army was defeated, and from that time Ibn 
Zobair was supreme at Mecca. 

On the news of Yazid's accession, the numerous partisans of 
the family of Ali in Kufa sent addresses to Hosain, inviting him 
to take refuge with them, and promising to have him proclaimed 
caliph in Irak. Hosain, having learned that the majority of the 
inhabitants were apparently ready to support him strenuously, 
prepared to take action. Meanwhile Yazid, having been in- 
formed of the riotous behaviour of the Shi'ites in Kufa, sent 
Obaidallah, son of the famous Ziyad and governor of Basra, to 
restore order. Using the same tactics as his father had used 
before, Obaidallah summoned the chiefs of the tribes and made 
them responsible for the conduct of their men. On the 8th of 
Dhu'l-Hijja Hosain set out from Mecca with all his family, 
expecting to be received with enthusiasm by the citizens of Kufa, 
but on his arrival at Kerbela west of the Euphrates, he was 
confronted by an army sent by Obaidallah under the command of 
Omar, son of the famous Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, the founder of 
Kufa. Hosain gave battle, vainly relying on the promised aid 
from Kufa, and fell with almost all his followers on the 10th of 
Muharram 61 (10th of October 680). 

No other issue of this rash expedition could have been expected. 
But, as it involved the grandson of the Prophet, the son of Ali, 
and so many members of his family, Hosain's devout partisans 
ajt Ku^a, who by their overtures had been the principal cause of 

the disaster, regarded it as a tragedy, and the facts gradually 
acquired a wholly romantic colouring. Omar b. Sa'd and his 
officers, Obaidallah and even Yazid came to be regarded as 
murderers, and their names have ever since been held accursed 
by all Shi'ites. They observe the 10th of Muharram, the day of 
' Ashura, as a day of public mourning. Among the Persians, stages 
are erected on that day in public places, and plays are acted, 
representing the misfortunes of the family of Ali. 1 " Revenge 
for Hosain " became the watchword of all Shi'ites, and the 
Meshed Hosain (Tomb of the martyr Hosain) at Kerbela is to 
them the holiest place in the world (see Kerbela). Obaidallah 
sent the head of Hosain to Damascus, together with the women 
and children and Ali b. Hosain, who, being ill, had not taken part 
in the fight. Yazid was very sorry for the issue, and sent the 
prisoners under safe-conduct to Medina. Ali remained faithful 
to the caliph, taking no share in the revolt of the Medinians, and 
openly condemning the risings of the Shi'ites. 

Ibn Zobair profited greatly by the distress caused by Hosain's 
death. Though he named himself publicly a refugee of the House 
of God, he had himself secretly addressed as caliph, and many of 
the citizens of Medina acknowledged him as such. Yazid, when 
informed of this, swore in his anger to have him imprisoned. But 
remembering the wisdom of his father, he sent messengers with a 
chain made of silver coins, and bearing honourable proposals. 
At the same time he received a number of the chief men of 
Medina, sent by the prefect, with great honour and loaded them 
with gifts and presents. But Ibn Zobair refused, and the 
Medinians, of whom the majority probably had never before 
seen a prince's court, however simple, were only confirmed in 
their rancour against Yazid, and told many horrible tales about 
his profligacy, that he hunted and held wild orgies with Bedouin 
sheikhs, and had no religion. A characteristically Arabic cere- 
mony took place in the mosque of Medina. " I cast off the oath 
of allegiance to Yazid, as I cast off my turban," exclaimed the 
first; and all others followed, casting off one of their garments, 
till a heap of turbans and sandals lay on the floor. Ibn Hanzala 
was made commander. The Omayyads, though they with their 
clients counted more than 1000 men, were not able to maintain 
themselves, and were allowed to depart only on condition of strict 

At last the patience of Yazid was exhausted. An army — the 
accounts about the number vary from 4000 to 20,060— was 
equipped in all haste and put under the command of Moslim b. 
'Oqba, with orders first to exact submission from the Medinians, 
if necessary by force, and then to march against Ibn Zobair. 
Moslim, having met the expelled Omayyads at Wadi '1-Qora, 
encamped near the city (August 683) and gave the inhabitants 
three days in which to return to obedience, wishing to spare the 
ci ty of the Prophet and to prevent the shedding of blood. When, 
however, after the lapse of three days, a final earnest appeal had 
been answered insultingly, he began the battle. The Medinians 
fought valiantly, but could not hold out against the well-dis- 
ciplined Syrians. Moreover, they were betrayed by the Medinian 
family of the Banu. Haritha, who introduced Syrian soldiers into 
the town. Medina lies between two volcanic hills, called harra. 
After one of these the battle has been named " The Day of 
Harra." For three days the city was given up to plunder. It is 
said that a thousand bastards (the " children of the Harra ") 
were born in consequence of these days. The remaining citizens 
were compelled to take the oath of allegiance to Yazid in a 
humiliating form; the few who refused were killed. Ali b. 
Hosain, who had refused to have anything to do with the revolt, 
was treated with all honour. Mahommed b. al-Hanafiya, the 
son of Ali, and Abdallah b. Omar had likewise abstained, but 
they had left Medina for Mecca. 

Moslim then proceeded towards Mecca. He was already ill, and 
died about midway between the two cities, after having given the 
command, according to the orders of the caliph, to Hosain b. 
Nomair. It is quite natural that the man who delivered up the 
city of the Prophet to plunder, and at whose hands so many 
prominent Moslems fell, should have been an object of detestation 
1 See Chodzko, Theatre person (Paris, 1878). 



to the devout. Even some European scholars have drawn a 
false picture of his personality, as has been clearly shown by 
Wellhausen. About Medina also false statements have been 
made. The city recovered very soon from the disaster, and 
remained the seat not only of holy tradition and jurisdiction, 
but also of the Arabic aristocracy. In no city of the empire, 
during the reign of the Omayyads, lived more singers and 
musicians than in Medina. 

Hosain b. Nomair arrived before Mecca in September 683 and 
found Ibn Zobair ready to defend it. A number of the citizens 
of Medina had come to the aid of the Holy City, as well as many 
Kharijites from Yamama under Najda b. "Amir. The siege had 
lasted 65 — others say 40— days, when the news came of the 
death of Yazid, which took place presumably on the 14th of 
Rabia I, 64 (12th November 683). Eleven days before a fire, 
caused by imprudence, had consumed all the woodwork of the 
Ka'ba and burst the black stone in three places. The evidence 
is quite conclusive; yet the fire has been imputed to the Syrians, 
and a tale was invented about ballistas which hurled against the 
House of God enormous stones and vessels full of bitumen. In 
fact, the siege had been confined to enclosure and skirmishes. It 
is said that on the news of the death of Yazid a conference took 
place between Hosain and Ibn Zobair, and that the former offered 
to proclaim the latter as caliph provided he would accompany 
him to Syria and proclaim a general amnesty. Ibn Zobair 
refused haughtily, and Hosain, with a contemptuous criticism of 
his folly, ordered his army to break up for Syria. 

Hitherto Ibn Zobair had confined himself to an appeal to the 
Moslems to renounce Yazid and to have a caliph elected by the 
council (shitrd) of the principal leading men. He now openly 
assumed the title of caliph and invited men to take the oath of 
allegiance. He was soon acknowledged throughout Arabia, in 
Egypt and in Irak. The Omayyads, who had returned to Medina, 
were again expelled. 

Yazid is described in theContinualio Isidori Byz.^2y , as"iucun- 
. dissimus et cunctis nationibus regni eius subditis vir gratissime 
habitus, qui nullam unquam, ut omnibus moris est, sibi regalis 
fastigii causa gloriam appetivit, sed communis 1 cum omnibus 
civiliter vixit." This is confirmed by the fact that Moawiya H. 
is said to have been a mild ruler, like his father, and goes far to 
outweigh the prejudiced account given by his opponents and 
coloured still further by tradition. Against the accusation of 
being a drinker of wine he himself protested in verses which he 
recited when he sent the army against Ibn Zobair. Decisive is 
also the testimony of Ibn al-Hanafiya, who declared that all the 
accusations brought by the Medinians were false. It may be 
true that he was fond of hunting, but he was a peace-loving, 
generous prince. It is uncertain at what age he died. Accounts 
vary between 33 and 39. The latter finds confirmation in the 
statement that he was born in a.h. 25, though another account 
places his birth in 22. As his son Moawiya who succeeded him 
was certainly adult (the accounts vary between 17 and 23), the 
latter date seems to be preferable. 

3. Moawiya II. had reigned a very short time — how long is 
again wholly uncertain — when he fell sick and died. Then 
commenced a period of the greatest confusion. The mother of 
Yazid, Maisun, belonged to the most powerful tribe in Syria, the 
Kalb, and it seems that this and the cognate tribes of Qoda'a 
(Yemenites) had enjoyed certain prerogatives, which had aroused 
the jealousy of the Qais and the cognate tribes of Modar. Im- 
mediately after the death of Yazid, Zofar b. Harith, who had 
already fought with Ibn Zobair against Yazid, had induced 
northern Syria and Mesopotamia to declare for Ibn Zobair. In 
Horns (Emesa) the governor No'man b. Bashlr had pledged 
himself to the same cause. The prefect of Damascus, Dahhak b. 
Qais, seemed to be wavering in his loyalty. Khalid, the brother 
of Moawiya II., was still a youth and appears to have had no 
strength of character. There was, however, a much more 
dangerous candidate, viz. Merwan b. Hakam, of another branch 
of the Omayyads, who had been Othman's right-hand man. He 
had pledged himself after some hesitation to Yazid, but now his 
1 Dozy took communis for a gloss to civiliter. 

turn had come. The amir of the Kalb, Ibn Bahdal, persuaded 
probably by Obaidallah b. Ziyad, conceived that only a man of 
distinction could win the contest, and proclaimed Merwan 
caliph, on condition that his successor should be Khalid b. 
Yazid, and after him 'Amr b. Sa'id al-Ashdaq, who belonged to 
the third branch of the Omayyads. Meanwhile Dahhak had 
declared himself openly for Ibn Zobair. A furious battle (a.d. 
684) ensued at Merj Rahit, near Damascus, in which Dahhak 
and Zofar, though they had the majority of troops, were utterly 
defeated. This battle became the subject of a great many 
poems and had pernicious consequences, especially as regards 
the antagonism between the Qais-Modar and Kalb- Yemenite 

4. Reign of Merwan I. — Merwan strengthened his position 
according to the old oriental fashion by marrying the widow of 
Yazid, and soon felt himself strong enough to substitute his own 
son Abdalmalik for Khalid b. Yazid as successor-designate. 
Khalid contented himself with protesting; he was neither a 
politician nor a soldier, but a student of alchemy and astronomy; 
translations of Greek books have been ascribed to him (Jahiz, 
Baydn, i. p. 126). In the year a.h. 435 there was still in Egypt 
a brazen \dobe attributed to Ptolemy which had belonged to 
Khalid (ibn Qifti, p. 440, 1.15). He was also consulted about 
future events. There were, however, not a few who deplored 
the fact that the throne had passed from the descendants of 
Abu Sofian. This feeling gave rise to the prophecy that there 
should appear later a Sofiani on the throne, who would reign 
with might and wisdom. 'Amr Ashdaq made no opposition till 
the death of Merwan. After the victory at Merj Rahit, Merwan 
conquered Egypt, and installed as governor his second son 
Abd/ilazlz. An army sent to the rescue by Ibn Zobair under the 
command of his brother Mus'ab was beaten in Palestine by 
"Amr Ashdaq. But a division sent by Merwan to the Hejaz was 
cut to pieces. Obaidallah b. Ziyad set out with the purpose of 
subduing Mesopotamia and marching thence against Irak. But 
he was detained a whole year in the former country, by a rising 
of the Shi'ites in Kufa, who were still in mourning for Hosain 
and had formed an army which called itself " the army of the 
penitent." They were routed at Ras 'Ain, but Obaidallah had 
still to fight Zofar. 

Meanwhile Mokhtar (son of that Abu 'Obaid the Thaqifite who 
had commanded the Arabs against the Persians in the un- 
fortunate battle of the Bridge), a man of great talents and still 
greater ambition, after having supported Ibn Zobair in the siege 
of Mecca, had gone to Kufa, where he joined the Shi'ites, mostly 
Persians, and acquired great power. He claimed that he was 
commissioned by Ali's son, Mahommed ibn al-Hanafiya, who 
after the death of Hosain was recognized by the Shi'ites as their 
Mahdi. A vague message from Mahommed, that it was the duty 
of every good Moslem to take part with the family of the Prophet, 
was interpreted in favour of Mokhtar, and thenceforward all the 
Shi'ites, among them the powerful Ibrahim, son of Ali's right 
hand Malik Ashtar, followed him blindly as their chief. After- 
wards Ibn al-Hanafiya seems to have acknowledged him dis- 
tinctly as his vicegerent. . Ibn Zobair's representative in Kufa 
was compelled to flee, and all those who had participated in the 
battle of Kerbela were put to death. An army despatched 
against Obaidallah under Ibrahim routed the Syrians near 
Mosul (battle of Khazir); Obaidallah and Hosain b. Nomair 
were slain. Mokhtar was now at the zenith of power, but Ibn 
Zobair, determined to get rid at all costs of so dangerous an 
enemy, named his brother Mus'ab governor of Basra and ordered 
him to march against Kufa. Basra was at that time full of 
fugitives from Kufa, Arabian chiefs who resented the arrogance of 
Mokhtar's adherents, and desired eagerly to regain their former 
position in Kufa. The troops of Basra had been, since the death 
of Yazid, at war with the Kharijites, who had supported Ibn 
Zobair during the siege of Mecca, but had deserted him later. 
Their caliph, Nafi' b. Azraq, after whom they were called also 
Azraqites, threatened even the city itself, when Mohallab b. Abi 
Sofra, a very able general, compelled them to retire. Mohallab 
then marched with Mus'ab against Kufa. Mokhtar fell, and with 



him the ephemeral dominion of the Persian Shi'ites. This had 
been their first attempt to dispute the authority of their Arabian 
conquerors, but it was not to be the last. Ibrahim b. Ashtar, 
Mokhtar's governor of Mesopotamia, submitted and acknow- 
ledged the Caliphate of Ibn Zobair. 

5. Reign of Abdalmalik. — Merwan died on the 27th of Ramadan 
65 (7th May 685); according to tradition, he was suffocated by 
his wife, because he had insulted her son Khalid and herself. 
The accession of Abdalmalik was attended with no difficulty, 
but the first years of his reign were occupied by troubles in 
northern Syria, where, instigated by the Greeks, the Mardaites 
of the Amanus, called Jarajima by the Arabs, penetrated into 
the Lebanon. He was obliged to conclude an unfavourable 
treaty first with them, later with the emperor of Constantinople. 
Moreover, in the year 68 (a.d. 687-688) Syria was afflicted by a 
serious famine. Ibn Zobair, however, was occupied at Mecca 
with the rebuilding of the Ka'ba, and Mus'ab was harassed not 
only by the Kharijites, but also by a noble freebooter, Obaidallah 
b. Horr, who had created for himself a principality in the vicinity 
of Madain (Ctesiphon). 

The period of the pilgrimage caused a momentary truce to all 
these struggles, and in Dhu '1-hijja, a.h. 68 (January 688), was 
seen the curious spectacle of four different standards planted 
near Mecca, belonging respectively to four chiefs, each of whom 
was a pretender to the empire; the standard of Abdallah b. 
Zobair, caliph of Mecca; that of the caliph of Damascus, 
Abdalmalik; that of Ali's son Mahommed b. al-Hanafiya, Mahdi 
of the Shi'ites; and that of the Kharijites, who were at that time 
under the command of Najda b. "Amir. Such, however, was the 
respect inspired by the holy places, that no disorders resulted. 

When, in the year (69 a.h.) 689 Abdalmalik had at last en- 
camped at Bo^nan IJablb in the vicinity of Kinnesrin (Qinnasrin) , l 
with the purpose of marching against Mu§'ab, his cousin 'Amr 
Ashdaq, to whom by the treaty of Jabia, before the battle of 
Merj Rahit, the succession to Merwan had been promised, took 
advantage of his absence to lay claim to the supreme power, and 
to have himself proclaimed caliph by his partisans. Abdalmalik 
was obliged to retrace his steps and to lay siege to his own capital. 
The garrison of Damascus took fright, and deserted their posts, 
so that 'Amr Ashdaq was compelled to surrender. The caliph 
Abdalmalik summoned him to his palace and slew him with his 
own hand. Abdalmalik has every claim to our esteem as one of 
the ablest monarchs that ever reigned, but this murder remains 
a lasting blot on his career. 

Abdalmalik could now give his whole attention to the pro- 
jected expedition against Irak. Mus'ab was encamped at 
Bajomaira in the neighbourhood of Takrit. But Abdalmalik's 
first task was to subdue Zofar and his Qaisites at Kerkesia 
(Qarqisia), and the rest of the partisans of Mokhtar at Nisibis. 
Meanwhile, Mu§'ab had to curb a violent revolt in Basra, brought 
about by agents of Abdalmalik, and called after a place in the 
city the revolt of the Jof rites. About the middle of a.d. 691 
Abdalmalik at last encamped at Dair al-Jathallq (the monastery 
of the Catholicus) between Maskin, not far from the site of 
Bagdad, and Bajomaira. Mus'ab's best troops were fighting 
under Mohallab against the Kharijites; many Basrians were 
secretly favourable to the Omayyads, nor were the Kufian 
soldiers to be trusted. The people of Irak had never been 
accustomed to discipline, and no improvement had taken place 
during the troubles of the last years. Abdalmalik, therefore, 
wrote secretly to the chiefs of Mus'ab's army, and persuaded them 
to desert to him, with the exception of Ibrahim b. Ashtar, the 
brave son of a brave father, who, after the fall of Mokhtar, had 
become a faithful supporter of Ibn Zobair. His death, in the 
beginning of the battle, decided the fate of Mu§'ab, who was 
slain sword in hand by a Shi'ite of Kufa. 

This victory opened the gates of Kufa to Abdalmalik, and all 
Irak received him with acclamation. Thence, a few days later, 
he sent Hajjaj b. Yusuf at the head of 2000 Syrians against Ibn 
Zobair in Mecca, and despatched a messenger toTariq b.' Amr, who 

1 Formerly the capital of the homonymous province of Syria ; 
it lies a day's march west from Haleb (Aleppo). 

was encamped at Wadi '1-Qora with 5000 men, to make himself 
master of Medina and thence to rejoin Hajjaj. Before the 
arrival of this reinforcement, Hajjaj confined himself to skir- 
mishes, in which his soldiers always had the advantage. Then, 
in Dhu 1 Qa'da 72 (March 25th, 692) Mecca was invested. The 
blockade lasted more than six months, during which the city was 
a prey to all the horrors of siege and famine. Hajjaj had set up a 
balista on the hill of Abu Qobais, whence he poured on the city a 
hail of stones, which was suspended only in the days of the 
pilgrimage. Ibn Zobair employed against him Abyssinians 
armed with Greek-fire-tubes, who, however, quitted him soon 
under the pressure of famine. This at length triumphed over his 
last adherents. Ten thousand fighting men, and even two of the 
sons of the pretender (it is said, on his own advice), left the city 
and surrendered. Mecca being thus left without defenders, Ibn 
Zobair saw that ruin was inevitable. Hajjaj having promised 
him amnesty if he would surrender, he went to his mother Asma, 
the daughter of Abu Bekr, who had reached the age of a hundred 
years, and asked her counsel. She answered that, if he was 
confident in the justice of his cause, he must die sword in hand. 
In embracing him for the last time, she felt the cuirass he wore 
and exclaimed that such a precaution was unworthy of a man 
resolved to die. He, therefore, took off the cuirass, and, when 
the Omayyad troops made their way into the city, attacked them 
furiously, notwithstanding his advanced age, and was slain. • His 
head was cut off, and sent by Hajjaj to Damascus. 

With Ibn Zobair perished the influence which the early 
companions of Mahomet had exercised over Islam. Medina and 
Mecca, though they continued to be the holy cities, had no longer 
their old political importance, which had already been shaken to 
its foundations by the murder of Othman and the subsequent 
troubles. Henceforward we shall find temporal interests, 
represented by Damascus, predominating over those of religion, 
and the centre of Islam, now permanently removed beyond the 
limits of Arabia, more susceptible to foreign influence, and 
assimilating more readily their civilizing elements. Damascus, 
Kufa and Basra will attract the flower of all the Moslem pro- 
vinces, and thus that great intellectual, literary and scientific 
movement, which reached its apogee under the first Abbasid 
Caliphs at Bagdad, steadily becomes more marked. 

After the burning of the Ka'ba during the siege of Mecca by 
Hosain b. Nomair, Ibn Zobair had rebuilt and enlarged the house 
of God. It is said that he thus carried out a design of the 
Prophet, which he had not ventured to undertake for fear of 
offending the newly converted Koreishites. Hajjaj pulled down 
the enlargements and restored the Ka'ba to its old state. Mean- 
while, the caliph committed to him the government of the Hejaz. 
The Medinians, whose loyalty was suspected, were treated by 
him with severity; not a few maulas (clients) were obliged to 
wear a leaden badge on their neck (Tabari, ii. p. 854 seq.). 

Thus the protracted war against Ibn Zobair was brought to an 
end; hence this year (71) also is called the " year of union " 
(jama' a). But the storms in Irak and Mesopotamia had not yet 
altogether subsided. The Qais could not leave unavenged the 
blood shed at Merj Rahit. For about ten years the Syrian and 
Mesopotamian deserts were the scene of a series of raids, often 
marked by great cruelty, and which have been the subject of a 
great many poems. Abdalmalik had need of all his tact and 
energy to pacify ultimately the zealous sectaries, but the 
antagonism between Yemenites (Kalb and Azd) and Modarites 
(Qais and Tamim) had been increased by these struggles, and 
even in the far east and the far west had fatal consequences. 

When Abdalmalik, after a stay of forty days, returned from Irak 
to Syria, he left two Omayyad princes as his vicegerents in Kufa 
and Basra. Mohallab, who at the time of the battle of Bajomaira 
was in the field against the Azraqites (Kharijites), and had put 
himself at the disposal of the caliph, had orders to carry on the 
war. But the two princes proved unequal to their task and did 
not support Mohallab sufficiently, so that the Kharijites gained 
more than one victory. Abdalmalik in alarm made Hajjaj 
governor of Irak with the most extensive powers. The troops of 
Kufa, who accompanied Mohallab in an expedition against the 

3 2 


Kharijites, had abandoned their general and dispersed to their 
homes, and nothing could induce them to return to their duty. 
Then, in the year 75 (a.d. 694),' at the moment when the people 
were assembled in the mosque for morning prayers, an unknown 
young man of insignificant appearance, with a veil over his face, 
ascended the pulpit. It seemed at first that he could not find his 
words. One of the audience, with a contemptuous remark, took 
a handful of pebbles to pelt him with. But he let them fall when 
Hajjaj lifted his veil and began to speak. 

" Men of Kufa," he said, " I see before me heads ripe for the 
sickle, and the reaper- — I am he. It seems to me, as if I saw 
already the blood between your turbans and your shoulders. I 
am not one of those who can be frightened by inflated bags of skin, 
nor need any one think to squeeze me like a fig. The Prince of 
the Believers has spread before him the arrows of his quiver, and 
has tried every one of them by biting its wood. It is my wood 
that he has found the hardest and strongest, and I am the arrow 
which he shoots against you." 

At the end of this address he ordered his clerk to read the 
letter of the caliph. He began: " From the servant of God, 
Abdalmalik, Prince of the Believers, to the "Moslems that are in 
Kufa, peace be with you." As nobody uttered a word in reply, 
Hajjaj said: " Stop, boy," and exclaimed: " The Prince of the 
Believers salutes you, and you do not answer his greeting ! You 
have been but poorly taught. I will teach you afresh, unless 
you behave better. Read again the letter of the Prince of the 
Believers." Then, as soon as he had read: " peace upon ye," 
there remained not a single man in the mosque who did not 
respond, "and upon the Prince of the Believers be peace." 
Thereupon Hajjaj ordered that every man capable of bearing 
arms should immediately join Mohallab in Khuzistari (Susiana), 
and swore that all who should be found in the town after the third 
day should be beheaded. This threat had its effect, and Hajjaj 
proceeded to Basra, where his presence was followed by the same 
results. Mohallab, reinforced by the army of Irak, at last 
succeeded, after a struggle of eighteen months, in subjugating 
the Kharijites and their caliph Qatara b. Foja'a, and was able at 
the beginning of the year 78 (a.d. 697) to return to Hajjaj at 
Basra. The latter loaded him with honours and made him 
governor of Khorasan, whence he directed several expeditions 
into Transoxiana. In the meantime Hajjaj himself had, in 695 
and 696, with great difficulty suppressed Shablb b. Yazid at the 
head of the powerful tribe of Shaiban, who, himself a Kharijite, 
had assumed the title of Prince of the Believers, and had even 
succeeded in occupying Kufa. In the east the realm of Islam 
had been very much extended under the reign of Moawiya, 
when Ziyad was governor of Irak and Khorasan. Balkh and 
Tokharistan, Bokhara, Samarkand and Khwarizm (modern 
Khiva), even Kabul and Kandahar had been subdued; but in 
the time of the civil war a great deal had been lost again. Now 
at last the task of recovering the lost districts could be resumed. 
When, in 697, Hajjaj gave the government of Khorasan to 
Mohallab, he committed that of Sijistan (Seistan) to Obaidallah 
b. Abi Bakra, a cousin of Ziyad. This prefect allowed himself to 
be enticed by Zanbll, prince of Zabulistan, to penetrate into the 
country far from his base, and escaped narrowly, not without 
severe losses. The command over Sijistan was now given to 
Abdarrahman b. Ash'ath, a descendant of the old royal family of 
Kinda, and a numerous army was entrusted to him, so magnifi- 
cently equipped that it was called " the peacock army." Not 
long after his arrival in Sijistan, Ibn Ash'ath, exasperated by the 
masterful tone of Hajjaj, the plebeian, towards himself, the 
high-born, decided to revolt. The soldiers of Irak, who did not 
love: the governor, and disliked the prospect of a long and 
difficult war far from home, eagerly accepted the proposition of 
returning to Irak, and even proclaimed the dethronement of 
Abdalmalik, in favour of Ibn Ash'ath. The new pretender 
entered Fars and Ahwaz (Susiana) , and it was in this last province 
near Tostar (Shuster) that Hajjaj came up with him, after 
receiving from Syria the reinforcements which he had demanded 
in all haste from the caliph. Ibn Ash'ath drove him back to 
Basra, entered the city, and then turned his arms against Kufa. 

of which be took possession with aid from within. Hajjaj, 
afraid lest his communications with Syria should be cut off, 
pitched his camp at Dair Qorra, eighteen miles west from Kufa 
towards the desert, where Mahommed, the brother of the caliph, 
and Abdallah, his son, brought him fresh troops. Ibn Ash'ath 
encamped not far from him at Dair al-Jamajim with a far more 
numerous army. In great alarm Abdalmalik endeavoured to 
stifle the revolt by offering to dismiss Hajjaj from his post. 
The insurgents rejected this offer, and hostilities recommenced. 
At the end of three months and a half, in July 702, a decisive 
action took place. Victory declared for Hajjaj. Ibn Ash'ath 
fled to Basra, where he managed to collect fresh troops; but 
having been again beaten in a furious battle that took place at 
Maskin near the Dojail, he took refuge at Ahwaz, from which he 
was soon driven by the troops of Hajjaj under 'Omara b. Tamlm. 
The rebel then retired to Sijistan, and afterwards sought • an 
asylum with the king of Kabul. His partisans fled before 
'Omara's army and penetrated into Khorasan, where they were 
disarmed by the governor Yazid, son of the celebrated Mohallab, 
who had died in the year 701. The pretender was betrayed by 
the king of Kabul and killed himself. His head was sent to 
Hajjaj and then to Damascus. This happened in the year 703 
or 704. Yazid b. Mohallab was soon after deprived of the 
government of Khorasan, Majjaj accusing him of partiality 
towards the rebels of Yemenite extraction. He appointed in his 
stead first his brother Mofaddal b. Mohallab, and nine months 
after Qotaiba b. Moslim, who was destined in a later period to 
extend the sway of Islam in the east as far as China. 

The struggle of Ibn Ash'ath was primarily a contest for 
hegemony between Irak and Syria. The proud Arabic lords 
could not acquiesce in paying to a plebeian like Hajjaj, invested 
with absolute power by the caliph, the strict obedience he re- 
quired. They considered it further as an injustice that the 
Syrian soldiers received higher pay than those of Irak. This is 
apparent from the fact that one of the conditions of peace 
proposed by Abdalmalik before the battle of Dair al-Jamajim 
had been that henceforth the Irakian troops should be paid 
equally with the Syrian. Moreover, Hajjaj, in order to maintian 
the regular revenue from taxation, had been obliged to introduce 
stringent regulations, and had compelled a great many villagers 
who had migrated to the cities to return to their villages. 
Several of these -werefaqihs, students of Koranic science and law, 
and all these seconded Ibn Ash'ath with all their might. But, as 
Wellhausen has shown, it is not correct to consider the contest as 
a reaction of the maula's (Persian Moslems) against the Arabic 

Immediately after the victories of Dair al-Jamajim and 
Maskin, in 702, Hajjaj, built a new residence on the Tigris, 
between Basra and Kufa, which he called Wasit (" Middle "). 
There his Syrian soldiers were not in contact with the turbulent 
citizens of the two capitals, and were at any moment ready to 
suppress any fresh outburst. 

At the beginning of his reign Abdalmalik had replaced the 
humble mosque built by Omar on the site of the temple at 
Jerusalem by a magnificent dome, which was completed in the 
year 691. Eutychius and others pretend that he desired to 
substitute Jerusalem for Mecca, because Ibn Zobair had occupied 
the latter place, and thus the pilgrimage to the Ka'ba had become 
difficult for the Syrians. This is quite improbable. Abdalmalik 
was born and educated in Islam, and distinguished himself in his 
youth by piety and continence. He regarded himself as the 
champion of Islam and of the communion of the believers, and 
had among his intimates men of acknowledged devoutness such 
as Raja b. Haywa. The idea of interfering with the pilgrimage 
to the House of God at Mecca, which would have alienated from 
him all religious men, and thus from a political point of view 
would have been suicidal, cannot have entered his mind for a 
moment. But the glorification of Jerusalem, holy alike for 
Moslems, Christians and Jews, could not but exalt the glory of 
Islam and its rulers within and without. 

As soon as the expedition to Irak against Mus'ab had termin- 
ated, the holy war against the Greeks was renewed. The 



operations in Asia Minor and Armenia were entrusted to 
Mahommed b. Merwan, the caliph's brother, who was appointed 
governor of Mesopotamia and Armenia, and in 692 beat the 
army of Justinian II. near Sebaste in Cilicia. From this time 
forth the Moslems made yearly raids, the chief advantage of 
which was that they kept the Syrian and Mesopotamian Arabs 
in continual military exercise. After the victorious march of 
Okba (Oqba) b. Nan' through north Africa and the foundation of 
Kairawan, his successor Qais b. Zohair had been obliged to 
retreat to Barca (Cyrenaica). In the year 696 Abdalmalik sent 
Hassan b. No'man into Africa at the head of a numerous army. 
He retook Kairawan, swept the coast as far as Carthage, which he 
sacked, expelling the Greek garrisons from all the fortified places; 
he then turned his arms against the Berbers, who, commanded by 
the Kahina (Diviner), as the Arabs called their queen, beat him 
so completely that he was compelled to retreat to Barca. Five 
years later he renewed the war, defeated and killed the Kahina, 
and subdued the Berbers, who henceforward remained faithful to 
the Arabs. Hassan continued to be governor of Kairawan till 
after the death of Abdalmalik. 

In the meantime Abdalmalik reconstituted the administration 
of the empire on Arabic principles. Up to the year 693 the 
Moslems had no special coinage of their own, and chiefly used 
Byzantine and Persian money, either imported or struck by 
themselves. Moawiya, indeed, had struck dinars and dirhems 
with a Moslem inscription, but his subjects would not accept 
them as there was no cross upon them. Abdalmalik instituted 
a purely Islamitic coinage. If we may believe Theophanes, who 
says that Justinian II. refused to receive these coins in payment 
of the tribute and therefore declared the treaty at an end, we 
must put the beginning of the coinage at least two years earlier. 
Hajjaj coined silver dirhems at Kufa in 694. A still greater 
innovation was that Arabic became the official language of the 
state. In the conquered countries till then, not only had the 
Greek and Persian administration been preserved, but Greek 
remained the official language in the western, Persian in the 
eastern provinces. All officials were now compelled to know 
Arabic and to conduct their administration in that language. 
To this change was due in great measure the predominance of 
Arabic throughout the empire. Lastly, a regular post service 
was instituted from Damascus to the provincial capitals, especi- 
ally destined for governmental despatches. The postmasters 
.were charged with the task of informing the caliph of all important 
news in their respective countries. 

All the great rivals of Abdalmalik having now disappeared, 
he was no longer like his predecessors primus inter pares, but 
dominus. Under his rule the members of the Omayyad house 
enjoyed a greater amount of administrative control than had 
formerly been the case, but high office was given only to com- 
petent men. He succeeded in reconciling the sons of 'Amr 
Ashdaq, and also Khalid b. Yazid, to whom he gave bis own 
daughter in marriage. He himself had married 'Atika, a daughter 
of Yazid, a union which was in all respects a happy one. He 
took great care in the education of his sons, whom he destined 
as his successors. His brother Abdalazlz, governor of Egypt, 
whom Merwan had marked out as his successor, died in the year 
703 or 704, and Abdalmalik chose as heirs to the empire first 
his son Walid, and after him his second son Suleiman. He 
himself died on the 14th Shawwal 86 (9th October 705) at the age 
of about sixty. His reign was one of the most stormy in the 
annals of Islam, but also one of the most glorious. Abdalmalik 
not only brought triumph to the cause of the Omayyads, but 
also extended and strengthened the Moslem power as a whole. 
He was well versed in old Arabic tradition and in the doctrine 
of Islam, and was passionately fond of poetry. His court was 
crowded with poets, whom he loaded with favours, even if they 
were Christians like Akhtal. In his reign flourished also the two 
celebrated rivals of Akhtal, Jarir and Farazdaq. 

6. Reign of Walid I. — This is the most glorious epoch in the 
history of Islam. In Asia Minor and Armenia, Maslama, brother 
of the caliph, and his generals obtained numerous successes 
against the Greeks. Tyana was conquered after a long siege, 

v. 2 

and a great expedition against Constantinople was in preparation. 
In Armenia Maslama advanced even as far as! the Caucasus. In 
Africa, Musa b. Nosair, who succeeded Hassan b. No'man as 
governor, in a short time carried his conquests as far as Fez, 
Tangier and Ceuta, and one of his captains even made -a descent 
on Sicily and plundered Syracuse. When he returned from the 
west to Kairawan, he made his client Tariq (or Tarik) governor 
of Tangier and of the whole western part of Africa. Under him 
the chiefs who had submitted to the Moslem arms retained 
their authority. One of them was the Greek exarch of Tangier, 
Julian, who, supported by the powerful Berber tribe of Ghomera, 
had long resisted and even asked for aid from Spain, but had 
been compelled to surrender and was left governor of Cedta. 
Meanwhile in Spain, after the death of the Gothic king Witiza 
in the year 90 (708-709), anarchy arose, which was terminated 
by the council of noblemen at Toledo electing Roderic, the power- 
ful duke of Baetica, to be his successor in the fifth year of Walid. 
The eldest son of Witiza then applied to Julian, and asked the aid 
of the Arabs for the recovery of his father's throne. Tariq 
forwarded the embassy to Kairawan, and Musa asked the 
caliph's permission to send an expedition into Spain. Authorized 
by Musa, Tariq now sent, in Ramadan 91 (July 710), 500 Berbers 
under the command of Tarif to reconnoitre the country. This 
expedition, seconded by partisans of Witiza, was successful. Ill 
the beginning of a.d. 711 Roderic had been summoned to the 
north on account' of an invasion of Navarra by the Franks', 
caused, it is said, by the conspirators. Tariq s thus certain of 
meeting no serious opposition to his landing; passed into Spain 
himself with an army composed mainly of Berbers of the Ghomera 
tribe under the guidance of Julian. The spot where he landed 
thence acquired the name of Jebel Tariq, " Mountain of Tariq," 
afterwards corrupted into Gibraltar. Having made himself 
master of Algeciras and thereby secured his communication with 
Africa, Tariq set out at once in the direction of Cordova. At the 
news of the invasion Roderic hastened back and led a numerous 
army against the combined forces of Tariq and the partisans of 
Witiza. A fierce battle took place in the plain of Barbata on the 
little river of Guadaleta (north of Medina Sidonia), in which 
Roderic was completely routed. The spoils of the victors were 
immense, especially in horses, but the king himself had dis- 
appeared. Fearing lest he should have escaped to Toledo and 
should there fit out another army, the partisans of Witiza 
insisted that Tariq should march immediately against the capital. 
Tariq complied with their wishes, notwithstanding the express 
command of Musa b. Nosair that he should not venture too far 
into the country, and the protests of Julian. Having made 
himself master of Ecija and having despatched a detachment 
under Moghlth against Cordova, Tariq took Mentesa (Villanueva 
de la Fuente) and marched upon Toledo, which he soon con- 
quered. At the same time Moghlth took Cordova. But, 
notwithstanding these successes, Tariq knew that his situation 
was most critical. King Roderic, who had escaped to Lusitania, 
and the noble Goths, who had fled from Toledo, would certainly 
not be slow in making efforts to regain what they had lost. He 
therefore sent a message in all haste to Musa, entreating him to 
come speedily. Musa, though angered by the disobedience of 
Tariq, hastened to the rescue and embarked in April 712 with 
18,000 men, among them many noble Arabs, and began, advised 
by Julian, a methodical campaign, with the purpose of estab- 
lishing and securing a line of communication between the sea 
and Toledo. After having taken Seville, Carmona and Merida, 
he marched from the latter place by the Via Romana to Sala- 
manca, after having ordered Tariq to rejoin him in order to 
encounter king Roderic. Not far from Tamames the king was 
defeated and killed. King Alphonso the Great found his tomb- 
stone at Viseo with the inscription, " Hie requiescit Rodericus rex 
Gothorum." After this battle Must reconquered Toledo, which, 
after the departure of Tariq, had recovered its independence, 
and entered the capital in tfiumph . Already, before the expedi- 
tion to Salamanca, he had perceived that the sons of Witiza had 
neither military nor political ability. He therefore proclaimed 
the caliph of Damascus as sole ruler of the whole peninsula. 



The Gothic princes must content themselves with honours and 
apanages, in which they readily acquiesced. In the same year 
93 (a.d. 712) Musa struck Moslem coins with Latin inscriptions. 
Musa then continued the subjugation of Spain, till Walid recalled 
him to Damascus. He obeyed after having appointed his son 
Abdalazlz governor of Andalos (Andalusia), as the Arabs named 
the peninsula, and assigned Seville as his residence. AbdalazTz 
consolidated his power by marrying the widow of the late king 
Roderic. Musa left Spain about August 714, and reached 
Damascus shortly before the death of Walid. Notwithstanding 
the immense booty he brought, he did not receive his due reward. 
Accused of peculation, he was threatened with imprisonment 
unless he paid a fine of 100,000 pieces of gold. The old man — 
he was born in the year 640 — was released by Yazid b. Mohallab, 
the then mighty favourite of the caliph Suleiman, but died in 
the same year 716 on his way to Mecca. His son Abdalazlz was 
an excellent ruler, who did much for the consolidation of the 
new conquests, but he reigned only one year and eleven months, 
when he was murdered. His death has been falsely imputed by 
some historians to the caliph Suleiman. 1 

In the East the Moslem armies gained the most astonishing 
successes. In the course of a few years Qotaiba b. Moslim 
conquered Paikend, Bokhara, Samarkand, Khwarizm (mod. 
Khiva), Ferghana and Shash (Tashkent), and even Kashgar on 
the frontiers of China. Meanwhile Mahommed b. Qasim invaded 
Makran, took Daibol, passed the Indus, and marched, after 
having beaten the Indian king Daher, through Sind upon Multan, 
which he conquered and whence he carried off an immense booty. 

Walid was the first caliph, born and trained as prince, who 
felt the majesty of the imamate and wished it to be felt by his 
subjects. He desired to augment the splendours of Islam and 
its sovereign, as Abdalmalik had already done by building the 
dome of Jerusalem. In the time of the conquest of Damascus, 
one half of the great church had been made a mosque, while the 
remaining half had been left to the Christians. Walid annexed 
this part, indemnifying the Christians elsewhere, and restored 
the whole building sumptuously and magnificently. In his time 
many fine palaces and beautiful villas were built in Syria, and 
Becker's conjecture seems not altogether improbable, that from 
this period dates the palace of Mashetta, the facade of which is 
now in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin, as perhaps also 
the country houses discovered by Musil in the land of Moab. 
Walid also caused the mosque of Medina to be enlarged. For 
this purpose, the apartments of the Prophet and his wives were 
demolished, which at first caused much discontent in Medina, 
some crying out that thereby a verse of the Book of God (S. 49, 
v. 4) was cancelled. With this exception, the citizens of Medina 
had nothing to complain of. The vicegerent of Abdalmalik 
had treated them harshly. Walid immediately on his accession 
appointed as governor of Hejaz his cousin Omar b. Abdalazlz, 
who was received there with joy, his devoutness and gentle 
character being well known. But the reputation of Omar 
attracted to the two holy cities a great number of the inhabitants 
of Irak, who had been deeply involved in the rebellion of Ibn 
Ash'ath. Hajjaj, however, was not the man to allow the forma- 
tion of a fresh nucleus of sedition, and persuaded the caliph to 
dismiss Omar in the year 712, and appoint Othman b. H a yyan 
at Medina and Khalid al-Qasri at Mecca. These two prefects 
compelled the refugees to return to Irak, where many of them 
were severely treated and even put to death by Hajjaj. 

Few people have been so slandered as this great viceroy of the 
Orient. In reality he was a man of extraordinary ability, and 
accomplished the task committed to him with vigour and energy. 
To his unflagging constancy was due the suppression of the 
dangerous rebellion of Ibn Ash'ath. After the restoration of 
peace his capacity for organization was displayed in all directions. 

1 This account of the conquest is based partly on the researches 
of Dozy, but mainly on those of Saavedra in his Estudio sobre la 
Invasion de los Arabes en Espana (Madrid, 1892). Some of the 
details, however, e.g. the battle near Tamames and the part played 
by the sons of Witiza, are based, not on documentary evidence, but 
on probable inferences. For other accounts of the deaths of Musa 
and Abdalaziz see Sir Wm. Muir, Caliphate (London, 1891), pp.368-9. 

The draining and tilling of submerged or uncultivated land on a 
large scale, the promotion of agriculture in every way, in par- 
ticular by the digging of channels, and the regulation of the 
system of taxation, were carried out on his initiative. He 
showed the utmost wisdom in the selection of his lieutenants. 
The fear of his name was so great that even in the desert there 
was security for life and property, and his brilliant military 
successes were unquestionably due in a great measure to the 
care which he bestowed on equipment and commissariat. The 
heavy expenses entailed thereby were largely met by the booty 
which he won. Hajjaj was a sincere Moslem; this, however, 
did not prevent him from attacking Ibn Zobair in the Holy 
City, nor again from punishing rebels, though they bore the 
name of holy men. He enjoyed the entire confidence of Abdal- 
malik with Walid, but Suleiman, the appointed successor, 
regarded him with disfavour. Yazid b. Mohallab, whom he had 
recalled from Khorasan, and imprisoned, had escaped and put 
himself under the protection of Suleiman, who made himself 
surety for the fine to which Yazid had been condemned. Hajjaj 
foreboded evil, and prayed eagerly that he might die before 
Walid. His death took place about the end of Ramadan 95 
(June or July 714). 

7. Reign of Suleiman (Solaiman). — Suleiman had early missed 
the throne. Walid wished to have his son Abdalazlz chosen as 
his successor, and had offered Suleiman a large sum of money to 
induce him to surrender bis rights. Walid went still further 
and sent letters to the governors of all the provinces, calling on 
them to take the oath of allegiance to his son. None, except 
Hajjaj and his two generals Qotaiba b. Moslim and Mahommed b. 
Qasim, consented thus to set at naught the order of succession 
established by Abdalmalik; and Suleiman succeeded without 
difficulty on the death of his brother Jornada II. 96 (February 
715). We can easily conceive the hatred felt by Suleiman for 
Hajjaj and for all that belonged to him. Hajjaj himself was 
dead; but Suleiman poured out his wrath on his family and his 
officers. The governors of Medina and Mecca were dismissed; 
Mahommed b. Qasim, the conqueror of India, cousin of Hajjaj, 
was dismissed from his post and outlawed. Qotaiba b. Moslim, 
the powerful governor of Khorasan, tried to anticipate the caliph 
by a revolt, but a conspiracy was formed against him, which 
ended in his murder. Some historians say that he was falsely 
accused of rebellion. 

Yazid b. Mohallab, the enemy of Maj jaj, was made governor • 
of Irak. His arrival was hailed with joy, especially by the 
Azd, to whom his family belonged, and the other Yemenite 
tribes. Yazid discovered soon that the system of taxation as 
regulated by Hajjaj could not be altered without serious danger 
to the finances of the empire, and that he could not afford the 
expenses which his prodigal manner of life involved. He there- 
fore asked the caliph to give him the governorship of Khorasan 
also, and took his residence in Merv, where he was free from 
control. On his return to Khorasan he set on foot a series of 
new expeditions against Jorjan and Tabaristan, with only partial 
success. He sent, however, to the caliph an exaggerated account 
of his victories and the booty he had made. He had cause to 
repent this later. 

Walid had, in the last years of his reign, made preparations 
for a great expedition against Constantinople. Suleiman carried 
them on with energy, and as early as the autumn of a.d. 715 
Maslama invaded Asia Minor at the head of a numerous army, 
whilst a well-equipped fleet under Omar b. Hobaira sailed out 
to second him. It is said that Suleiman was firmly persuaded 
that Constantinople would be conquered during his reign, in 
accordance with a Sibylline prophecy which said that the city 
would be subdued by a caliph bearing the name of a prophet, 
he himself being the first to fulfil this condition. 2 Moreover, the 
Byzantine empire was in these years disturbed by internal 
troubles. The first year of the expedition was not unsuccessful. 
The siege of Amorium in Phrygia was broken up, but Pergamum 
and Sardis were taken. On the 25th of August 716 the blockade 

2 Solaiman is the Arabic form of Solomon. The prophecy is to 
be found in the Kitab al-Oyun, p. 24; cf. Tabari ii. p. 1138. 



of Constantinople began from the land side, and two weeks later 
from the sea side. A few months before, Leo the Isaurian had 
ascended the throne and prepared the city for the siege. This 
lasted about a year. The besieged were hard pressed, but the 
besiegers suffered by the severe winter, and were at last obliged 
to raise the siege. Maslama brought back the rest of his army 
in a pitiful state, while the fleet, on its return, was partly de- 
stroyed by a violent tempest. The Moslems regard this failure 
as one of the great evils that have befallen the human race, and 
one which retarded the progress of the world for ages, 1 the other 
calamity being the defeat in the battle of Tours by Charles Martel. 

Maslama was still on his way back when Suleiman died at 
Dabiq in northern Syria, which was the base of the expeditions 
into Asia Minor. He seems not to have had the firmness of 
character nor the frugality of Walid; but he was very severe 
against the looseness of manners that reigned at Medina, and was 
highly religious. Raja. b. Haywa, renowned for his piety, whose 
influence began under Abdalmalik and increased under Walid, 
was his constant adviser and even determined him to designate 
as his successor his devout cousin Omar b. Abdalazlz. Suleiman 
was kind towards the Alids and was visited by several of them, 
amongst others by Abu Hashim, the son of Mahommed b. al 
Hanaflya, who after his father's death had become the secret 
Imam (head) of the Shi'ites. On his way back to Hejaz this man 
visited the family of Abdallah b. 'Abbas, which resided at 
Homaima, a place situated in the vicinity of 'Amman, and died 
there, after having imparted to Mahommed b. Ali b. Abdallah b. 
Abbas the names of the chiefs of the Shi'a in Irak and Khorasan, 
and disclosed his way of corresponding with them. From that 
time the Abbasids began their machinations against the 
Omayyads in the name of the family of the Prophet, avoiding all 
that could cause suspicion to the Shi'ites, but holding the strings 
firmly in their own hands. 

8. Reign of Omar II. — Omar b. Abdalazlz did his best to 
imitate his grandfather Omar in all things, and especially in 
maintaining the simple manner of life of the early Moslems. He 
was, however, born in the midst of wealth; thus frugality 
became asceticism, and in so far as he demanded the same rigour 
from his relatives, he grew unjust and caused uneasiness and 
discontent. By paying the highest regard to integrity in the 
choice of his officers, and not to ability, he did not advance the 
interests of his subjects, as he earnestly wished to do. In the 
matter of taxes, though actuated by the most noble designs, he 
did harm to the public revenues.. The principle of Islam was, 
that no Moslem, whatever might be his nationality, should pay 
any tax other than the zakdt or poor-rate (see Mahommedan 
Institutions). In practice, this privilege was confined to the 
Arabic Moslems. Omar wished to maintain the principle. The 
original inhabitants had been left on the conquered lands as 
agriculturists, on condition of paying a fixed sum yearly for 
each district. If one of these adopted Islam, Omar permitted 
him to leave his place,' which had been strictly forbidden by 
Hajjaj in Irak and the eastern provinces, because by it many 
hands were withdrawn from the tilling of the ground, and those 
who remained were unable to pay the allotted amount. Omar's 
system not only diminished the actual revenue, but largely 
increased in the cities the numbers of the mania's (clients), 
mainly Persians, who were weary of their dependency on their 
Arabic lords, and demanded equal rights for themselves. Their 
short dominion in Kufa under Mokhtar had been suppressed, but 
the discontent continued. In North Africa particularly, and in 
Khorasan the effect of Omar's proclamation was that a great 
multitude embraced Islam. When it became necessary to impose 
a tribute upon the new converts, great discontent arose, which 
largely increased the number of those who followed the Shi'ite 
preachers of revolt. Conversion to Islam was promoted by the 
severe regulations which Omar introduced for the non-believers, 
such as Christians and Jews. 1 1 was he who issued those humiliat- 
ing rescripts, which are commonly but unjustly attributed to 
Omar I. But he forbade extortion and suppressed more than 

1 Seyid Ameer Ali, A Critical Examination of the Life and Teach- 
ings of Mahomet, pp. 341-343. 

one illegal impost. He endeavoured above all to procure justice 
for all his subjects. Complaints against oppression found in him 
a ready listener, and many unlawfully acquired possessions were 
restored to the legal owners, for instance, to the descendants of 
Ali and Talha. Even to the Kharijites he contrived to give 
satisfaction, as far as possible. In all these matters he followed 
the guidance of divines and devotees, in whose congenial company 
he delighted. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that these 
men saw in Omar the ideal of a prince, and that in Moslem 
history he has acquired the reputation of a saint. 

After the failure of the siege of Constantinople, the advanced 
posts in Asia Minor were withdrawn, but the raids were continued 
regularly. It has been said that it was Omar's intention to give 
up his Spanish conquests, but the facts argue the contrary. The 
governor, named by Omar, Samh b. Abdallah, even crossed the 
Pyrenees and took possession of Narbonne; but he was beaten 
and killed at Toulouse in July 720. But Omar did all he could to 
prevent the degradation of the Holy War, which, instead of being 
the ultimate expedient for the propagation of Islam, if all 6ther 
means had failed, had often degenerated into mere pillaging 
expeditions against peaceful nations. 

9. Reign of Yazid II. — Omar's reign was as short as that of 
his predecessor. He died on the 24th of Rajab 101 (a.d. 9th 
February 720). Yazid II., son of Abdalmalik and, by his mother 
'Atika, grandson of Yazid I., ascended the throne without opposi- 
tion. He had at once, however, to put down a dangerous 
rebellion. Yazid b. Mohallab had returned to Irak, after the 
conquest of Jorjan, when Suleiman was still alive. Shortly after, 
AdI b. Artat, whom Omar II. had appointed governor, arrived, 
arrested Yazid, and sent him to Omar, who called him to account 
for the money he had mentioned in his letter to Suleiman, and 
imprisoned him when he pretended not to be able to pay the 
amount. Yazid II. had personal grounds for ill-will to Yazid b. 
Mohallab. One of the wives of the new caliph, the same who 
gave birth to that son of Yazid II. who afterwards reigned as 
Walid II., was niece to the celebrated Hajjaj, whose family had 
been ill-treated by the son of Mohallab, when he was governor of 
Irak under Suleiman. Aware that Yazid b. Abdalmalik, on 
ascending the throne, would spare neither him nor his family, 
Yazid b. Mohallab had succeeded in escaping to Basra, the home 
of his family, where his own tribe the Azd was predominant. 
Meanwhile 'AdI b. Artat had all the brothers of Yazid and other 
members of the family of Mohallab arrested, and tried to prevent 
Yazid from entering the city. But 'Adi was too scrupulous to 
employ the public money for raising the pay of his soldiers, 
whilst Yazid promised mountains of gold. Yazid stormed the 
castle and took 'AdI prisoner, the public treasury fell into his 
hands, and he employed the money to pay his troops largely and 
to raise fresh ones. A pardon obtained for him from the caliph 
came too late; he had already gone too far. He now proclaimed 
a Holy War against the Syrians, whom he declared to be worse 
enemies of Islam than even the Turks and the Dailam. Notwith- 
standing the warnings of the aged Hasan al-Basri, the friend of 
Omar II., the religious people, took the part of Yazid, and were 
followed by the manias. Though the number of his adherents 
thus increased enormously, their military value was small. 
Ahwaz (Khuzistan), Fars and Kirman were easily subdued, but 
in Khorasan the Azd could not prevail over the Tamlm, who were 
loyal to the caliph. As the rebellion threatened to spread far and 
wide, Yazid II. was obliged to appeal to his brother, the celebrated 
Maslama. With the approach of the Syrians, Yazid b. Mohallab 
tried to forestall them at Kufa. He took his way over Wasit, 
which he mastered — the Syrian garrison seems to have been 
withdrawn in the days of Omar II. — but, before he could get hold 
of Kufa, the Syrian troops arrived. The meeting took place at 
'Aqr in the vicinity of Babel, and Yazid was completely defeated 
and fell in the battle. His brothers and sons fled to Basra; 
thence they went by sea to Kirman and then to Kandabil in 
India; but they were pursued relentlessly and slain with only 
two exceptions by the officers of Maslama. The possessions of 
the Mohallabites were confiscated. 

Maslama was rewarded with the governorship of Irak and 



Khorasan, but was soon replaced by Omar b. Hobaira, who under 
Omar II. had been governor of Mesopotamia. He belonged to 
the tribe of Qais, and was very severe against the Azd and other 
Yemenite tribes, who had more or less favoured the part of Yazid 
b. Mohallab. In these years the antagonism between Qais 
(Modar) and Yemenites became more and more acute, especially 
in Khorasan. The real cause of the dismissal of Maslama was, 
that he did not send the revenue-quota to Damascus. Omar b. 
Hobaira, to supply the deficiency, ordered the prefect of 
Khorasan, Sa'id-al-Harashl, to take tribute from the Sogdians in 
Transoxiana, who had embraced Islam on the promise of Omar II. 
The Sogdians raised a revolt in Ferghana, but were subdued by 
Sa'id and obliged to pay. A still more questionable measure of 
Ibn Hobaira was his ordering the successor of Sa'id Harashi to 
extort large sums of money from several of the most respectable 
Khorasanians. The discontent roused thereby became one of the 
principal causes of the fall of the Omayyads. 

In Africa serious troubles arose from the same cause. Yazid b. 
Abi Moslim, who had been at the head of the financial department 
in Irak under Hajjaj, and had been made governor of Africa by 
Yazid II., issued orders that the villagers who, having adopted 
Islam, were freed from tribute according to the promise of Omar 
II., and had left their villages for the towns, should return to 
their domiciles and pay the same tribute as before their conver- 
sion. The Berbers rose in revolt, slaughtered the unfortunate 
governor, and put in his place the former governor Mahommed b. 
Yazid. The caliph at first ratified this choice, but soon after 
dismissed Mahommed from his post, and replaced him by Bishr b. 
§a£wan, who under Hisham made an expedition against Sicily. 

Yaiid II. was by natural disposition the opposite of his prede- 
cessor. He did not feel that anxiety for the spiritual welfare of 
his subjects which had animated Omar II. Poetry and music, 
not beloved by Suleiman and condemned by Omar, were held 
by him in great honour. Two court-singers, Sallama and Hababa, 
exercised great influence, tempered only by the austerity of 
manners that prevailed in Syria. He was so deeply affected by 
the death of Hababa, that Maslama entreated him not to exhibit 
his sorrow to the eyes of the public. He died a few days later, on 
the 26th of January 724, according to the chroniclers from grief 
for her loss. As his successor he had appointed in the first place 
his brother Hisham, and after him his own son Walid. 

10. Reign of Hisham. — Hisham was a wise and able prince 
and an enemy of luxury, not an idealist like Omar II., nor a 
worldling like Yazid II., but more like his father Abdalmalik, 
devoting all his energy to the pacification of the interior, and to 
extending and consolidating the empire of Islam. But the dis- 
content, which had been sown under his predecessors, had now 
developed to such an extent that he could not suppress it in 
detail. His first care was to put an end to the tyrannical rule 
of, the Qaisites (Modarites) in Irak and Khorasan by dismissing 
Omar b. Hobaira and appointing in his place Khalid al-Qasri. 
This very able man, who under Hajjaj had been prefect of 
Mecca, belonged properly neither to the Qaisites nor to the 
Yemenites, but as he took the place of Ibn Hobaira and dis- 
missed his partisans from their posts, the former considered him 
as. their adversary, the latter as their benefactor. After his 
death, in' particular, the Yemenites celebrated him as their chief, 
and assigned as the reason for their revolt the injuries which he 
suffered, Khalid himself assuredly did not intend it. He was a 
loyal servant of the dynasty, and remained such even after 
receiving very harsh treatment from them. For fifteen years 
Khalid governed the eastern half of the empire, and continued 
to maintain peace with only few exceptions throughout. He 
did much for the reclaiming and improving of lands in Irak, in 
which the caliph himself and several princes took an active part. 
The great revenues obtained thereby naturally caused much 
jealousy. Khalid lived on a very rich scale and was extra- 
ordinarily liberal, and he was charged with having carried out all 
his improvements for his own interests, and upbraided for 
Selling -the corn of his estates only when the prices were high. 
To these charges were added the accusation that he was too 
tolerant ; to Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians. As his mother 

professed the Christian religion, he was accused of infidelity. 
At last a conspiracy, into which the principal engineer of Khalid, 
Hassan the Nabataean, had been drawn, succeeded in inciting 
Hisham against Khalid. They told him that Khalid had used 
disrespectful terms in speaking of the caliph, and that he had 
appropriated revenues belonging to the state. The latter 
imputation especially influenced Hisham, who was very parsi- 
monious. When the dismissal of Khalid had been resolved upon, 
Yusuf b. Omar, his appointed successor, was sent secretly to 
Kuf a, where he seized on Khalid unawares. For eighteen months 
Khalid remained in prison. But when he declined even under 
torture to confess that he had been guilty of extensive peculation, 
he was finally released. He settled at Damascus and made a 
noble return for his injuries by taking an active part in the war 
against the Greeks. In the summer of a.d. 740, while he was in 
Asia Minor, a great fire broke out in Damascus, the guilt of which 
was attributed to Khalid. Though it soon appeared that the 
imputation was false, Khalid, on his return, was furious, and 
uttered very offensive words against the caliph. Hisham, how- 
ever, would not again punish his old servant; on the contrary, 
he seems to have regarded his indignation as a proof of innocence. 

The successor of Khalid in Irak had not long been in office 
when Zaid b. Ali, grandson of Hosain b. Ali, who had come to 
Kufa for a lawsuit, was persuaded by the chiefs of the Shi'a to 
organize a revolt. He succeeded in so far that 15,000 Kufians 
swore to fight with him for the maintenance of the command- 
ments of the Book of God and the Sunna (orthodox tradition) of 
his Prophet, the discomfiture of the tyrants, the redress of 
injury, and last, not least, the vindication of the family of the 
Prophet as the rightful caliphs. The revolt broke out on the 
6th of January 740. Unfortunately for Zaid he had to do with 
the same Kufians whose fickleness had already been fatal to his 
family. He was deserted by his troops and slain. His body was 
crucified in Kufa, his head sent to Damascus and thence to 
Medina. His son Yahya, still a youth, fled to Balkh in Khorasan, 
but was discovered at last and hunted down, till he fell sword in 
hand under Walid II. Abu Moslim, the founder of the Abbasid 
dynasty, proclaimed himself his avenger, and on that occasion 
adopted the black garments, which remained the distinctive 
colour of the dynasty. 

In Khorasan also there were very serious disturbances. The 
Sogdians, though subdued by Sa'id al Harashi, were not 
appeased, but implored the assistance of the Turks, who had 
long been contending earnestly against the Arabs for the 
dominion of Transoxiana. They found besides a most valuable 
ally in Harith b. Soraij, a distinguished captain of the Arabic 
tribe of Tamlm, who, with many pious Moslems, was scandalized 
by the government's perfidy in regard to the new converts. 
Harith put himself at the head of all the malcontents, and raised ■ 
the black flag, in compliance with a Sibylline prophecy, holding 
that the man with the black flag (the Prophet's flag) would put 
an end to the tyranny, and be the precursor of the Mahdi. 1 The 
government troops suffered more than one defeat, but in the 
last month of the year 118 (a.d. 736) the governor Asad al- 
Qasrl, the brother of Khalid, after having defeated* Harith, 
gained a brilliant victory over the Turks, which finally caused 
them to retreat. Asad died almost simultaneously with the 
dismissal of Khalid. Hisham then separated Khorasan from 
Irak and chose as governor of the former Nasr b. Sayyar, a 
valiant soldier who had grown grey in war, and who, besides all 
his other capacities, was an excellent poet. Nasr instituted a 
system of taxation, which, if it had been introduced earlier, 
would perhaps have saved the Arabic domination. It was that 
which later on was generally adopted, viz. that all possessors 
of conquered lands (i.e. nearly the whole empire except Arabia), 
whether Moslems or not, should pay a fixed tax, the latter in 
addition to pay a poll-tax, from which they were relieved on 
conversion to Islam. During thd reign of Hisham, Nasr made 
a successful expedition against Harith and the Turks. The 

1 Cf. Van Vloten, Recherches stir la domination arabe, le Chiitisme 
et les croyances messianiques sous le Khalifat des Omayades (Amster- 
dam, 1894), p. 63 seq. 



propaganda of the Shi'a by the Abbasids was continued in these 
years with great zeal. • 

In India several provinces which had been converted to Islam 
under the Caliphate of Omar II. declared themselves independent, 
because the promise of equal rights for all Moslems was not kept 
under the reign of his successors. This led to the evacuation of 
the eastern part of India (called Hind by the Arabs, Sind being the 
name of the western part) , and to the founding of the strong cities 
of Mahfuza and Mansura for the purpose of controlling the land. 

In the north and north-west of the empire there were no 
internal disorders, but the Moslems had hard work to maintain 
themselves against the Alans and the Khazars. In the year 112 
(a.d. 730) they suffered a severe defeat, in which the general 
Jarrah perished. But the illustrious Maslama b. Abdalmalik, 
and Merwan b. Mahommed (afterwards caliph), governor of 
Armenia' and Azerbaijan (Adherbaijan), succeeded in repelling 
the Khazars, imposing peace on the petty princes of the eastern 
Caucasus, and consolidating the Arab power in that quarter. 
The war against the Byzantines was continued with energy 
during the whole of Hisham's reign. Moawiya, the son of 
Hisham, whose descendants reigned later in Spain, was in com- 
mand till 118 (a.d. 736), when he met his death accidentally in 
Asia Minor by a fall from his horse. After his death, Suleiman, 
another son of the caliph, had the supreme command. Both 
were eager and valiant warriors. But the hero of all the battles 
was Abdallah b. Hosain, surnamed al-Battal (the brave). He 
has been the subject of many romantic tales. Tabarl tells how 
he took the emperor Constantine prisoner in the year 114 (a.d. 
732; but Constantine V. Copronymus only began to reign in. 
740 or 741 a.d.); another Arabic author places this event in 
the year 122, adding that al-Battal, having defeated the Greeks, 
was attacked and slain in returning with his captives. The 
Greek historians say nothing about Constantine having been 
made prisoner. It is probable that the Arabs took another 
Greek soldier for the prince. 1 The victories of the Moslems had 
no lasting results. During the troubles that began in the reign 
of Walid II., the Greeks reconquered Marash (Germanicia), 
Malatia (Malatiyeh) and Erzerum (Theodosiopolis) . 

In Spain the attention of the Moslems was principally turned 
to avenge the defeat of Samh beyond the Pyrenees. As early as 
the second year of the reign of Hisham, 'Anbasa, the governor of 
Spain, crossed the Pyrenees, and pushed on military operations 
vigorously. Carcassonne and Nimes were taken, Autun sacked. 
The death of 'Anbasa in a.d. 725 and internal troubles put a stop 
to further hostilities. The Berbers were the chief contingent of 
the Moslem troops, but were treated by their Arab masters as 
inferior people. They began to resent this, and one of their 
chiefs, Munisa (Munuza) , made himself independent in the north 
and allied himself with Odo, king of Aquitaine, who gave him his 
daughter in marriage. In the year 113 Abdarrahman b. Abdallah 
subdued Munisa, crossed the mountains and penetrated into 
Gascony by the valley of Roncesvalles. The Moslems beat Odo, 
gained possession of Bordeaux, and overran the whole of southern 
Gaul nearly as far as the Loire. But in October 732 their march 
was checked between Tours and Poitiers by Charles Martel and 
after some days of skirmishing a fierce but indecisive battle was 
fought. Abdarrahman was among the slain and the Moslems 
retreated hastily in the night, leaving their camp to the Franks. 
They were, however, not yet discouraged. In 739 the new governor 
of Spain, Oqba (Aucupa) b. Hajjaj, a man of high qualities, 
re-entered Gaul and pushed forward his raids as far as Lyons, 
but the Franks again drove back the Arabs as far as Narbonne. 
Thenceforth the continual revolts of the Berbers in Africa, and 
the internal troubles which disturbed Spain until the reign of 
Abdarrahman I., effectually checked the ambition of the Moslems. 

In Africa the hand of government pressed heavily. The 
Berbers, though they had pledged themselves to Islam and had 
furnished the latest contingents for the Holy War, were treated 
as tributary serfs, notwithstanding the promises given by 
Omar II. The Kharijites, of whom a great many had emigrated 

1 Cf. Wellhausen, Die Kdmpfe der Araber mit den Rom. in der 
Zeit der Umaijiden (Gottingen, 1901), p. 31. 

to Africa, found them eager listeners. Still, they could: not 
believe that it was according to the will of the caliph that they 
here thus treated, until a certain number of their chiefs went as a 
deputation to Hisham, but failed to obtain an audience. There- 
upon a fierce insurrection broke out, against which the governor 
of Africa was powerless. Hisham at once sent an army of more 
than 30,000 men, under the command of Kolthum al-Qoshairl, 
and Balj b. Bishr. Not far from the river Sabu in Algeria, 2 the 
meeting with the army of the insurgents took place (a.d. 740). 
Kolthum was beaten and killed; Balj b. Bishr led the rest of the 
Syrian army to Ceuta, and thence, near the end of 741, to Spain, 
where they aided in the suppression of the dangerous revolt of the 
peninsular Berbers. Balj died in 742. A year later the governor, 
Abu'l-Khattar, assigned to bis troops for settlement divers 
countries belonging to the public domain. 3 An effort of the 
African Berbers to make themselves masters of Kairawan failed, 
their army being utterly defeated by the governor Hanzala. 

Hisham died in February 743, after a reign of twenty years. 
He had not been wanting in energy and ability, and kept the reins 
of the government in his own hands. He was a correct Moslem 
and tolerant towards Christians and Jews. His financial ad- 
ministration was sound and he guarded against any misuse of the 
revenues of the state. But he was not popular. His residence 
was at Rosafa on the border of the desert, and he rarely admitted 
visitors into his presence; as a rule they were received by his 
chamberlain Abrash. Hisham tried to keep himself free from 
and above the rival parties, but as his vicegerents were inexorable 
in the exaction of tribute, the Qaisites against the Yemenites, 
the Yemenites against the Qaisites, both parties alternately had 
reason to complain, whilst the non-Arabic Moslems suffered 
under the pressure and were dissatisfied. He caused a large 
extent of land to be brought into cultivation, and many public 
works to be executed, and he was accused of overburdening his 
subjects for these purposes. Therefore, Yazid III. (as also the 
Abbasids) on taking office undertook to abstain from spending 
money on building and digging. The principle that a well-filled 
treasury is the basis of a prosperous government was pushed by 
him too far. Notwithstanding his activity and his devotion to 
the management of affairs, the Moslem power declined rather 
than advanced, and signs of the decay of the Omayyad dynasty- 
began to show themselves. The history of his four successors, 
Walid II., Yazid III., Ibrahim and Merwan II., is but the history 
of the fall of the Omayyads. 

ir. Reign of Walid II. — Walid II. was a handsome man, 
possessed of extraordinary physical strength, and a distinguished 
poet. But Hisham, to whom he was successor-designate, 
foolishly kept him in the background, and even made earnest 
efforts to get his own son Maslama acknowledged as his successor. 
Walid therefore retired to the country, and passed his time there 
in hunting, cultivating poetry, music and the like, waiting with 
impatience for the death of Hisham and planning vengeance on 
all those whom he suspected of having opposed him. His first 
public action was to increase the pay of all soldiers by 10 
dirhems, that of the Syrians by 20. The Omayyads who came to 
pay their respects to him received large donations. Many 
philanthropic institutions were founded. As to the family of his 
predecessor, he contented himself with confiscating their posses- 
sions, with the single exception of Suleiman b. Hisham, whom he 
had whipped and put in prison. But the Makhzumites, who were 
related to Hisham by his mother, he deprived of all their power 
and had them tortured to death. The vicegerents of Hisham 
were replaced by Qaisites; Yusuf b. Omar, the governor of Irak, 
being a Qaisite, was not only confirmed in his office, but received 
with it the supreme command of Khorasan. He made use of it 
immediately by ordering Nasr b. Sayyar to collect a rich present 
of horses, falcons, musical instruments, golden and silver vessels 
and to offer it to the caliph in person, but before the present was 
ready the news came that Walid had been murdered. 

2 Bayan i. p. 42 ; Dozy, Histoire des musulmans d'Espagne, i. 
p. 246, names the place Bacdoura or Nafdoura, the Spanish chronist 

3 Dozy i. p. 268, 



It is not certain that Walid also suspected Khalid al-Qasrl of 
having intrigued against him. But Yusuf b. Omar did not rest 
until he had his old enemy in his power. It is said that he 
guaranteed Walid a large sum of money, which he hoped to 
extort from Khalid. This unfortunate man died under torture, 
which he bore with fortitude, in Muharram 126 (November 


Walid designated his two sons as heirs to the Caliphate. 
These were still under age and were not the children of a free- 
born, noble mother. Both circumstances, according to the then 
prevailing notions, made them unfit for the imamate. Moreover, 
it was an affront, in particular, for the sons of Walid I., who 
already had considered the nomination of Yazid II. as a slight to 
themselves. A conspiracy arose, headed by Yazid b. Walid I., 
and joined by the majority of the Merwanid princes and many 
Kalbites and other Yemenites who regarded the ill-treatment of 
Khalid al-Qasrl as an insult to themselves. Various stories were 
circulated about the looseness of Walid's manner of life; Yazid 
accused him of irreligion, and, by representing himself as a 
devout and God-fearing man, won over the pious Moslems. The 
conspirators met with slight opposition. A great many troops 
had been detached by Hisham to Africa and other provinces, the 
caliph himself was in one of his country places; the prefect of 
Damascus also was absent. Without difficulty, Yazid made 
himself master of Damascus, and immediately sent his cousin 
Abdalazlz with 2000 men against Walid, who had not more than 
200 fighting men about him. A few men hastened to the rescue, 
among others 'Abbas b. Walid with his sons and followers. 
Abdalazlz interrupted his march, took him prisoner and compelled 
him to take the oath of allegiance to his brother Yazid. Walid's 
small body of soldiers was soon overpowered. After a valiant 
combat, the caliph retired to one of his apartments and sat 
with the Koran on his knee, in order to die just as Othman 
had died. He was killed on the 17th of April 744. His head 
was taken to Damascus and carried about the city at the end of 
a spear. 

On the news of the murder of the caliph, the citizens of Horns 
(Emesa) put at their head Abu Mahommed as-Sofianl, a grandson 
of Yazid I., and marched against Damascus. They were beaten 
by Suleiman b. Hisham at a place called Solaimanla, 12 m. from 
the capital. Abu Mahommed was taken prisoner and shut up 
with several of his brethren and cousins in the Khadra, the old 
palace of Moawiya, together with the two sons of Walid II. One 
or two risings in Palestine were easily suppressed. But the 
reigning family had committed suicide. Their unity was broken. 
The holiness of their Caliphate, their legitimate authority, had 
been trifled with; the hatred of the days of Merj Rahit had been 
revived. The orthodox faith also, whose strong representative 
and defender had hitherto been the caliph, was shaken by the 
fact that Yazid III. belonged to the sect of the Qadaris who 
rejected the doctrine of predestination. The disorganization of 
the empire was at hand. 

12. Reign of Yazid III. — Yazid III., on his accession, made a 
fine speech, in which he promised to do all that could be expected 
from a good and wise ruler, even offering to make place im- 
mediately for the man whom his subjects should find better 
qualified for the Caliphate than himself. He cancelled, however, 
the increase of the pay granted by Walid and thus earned the 
nickname of the Ndqis (diminisher). As he owed his position to 
the aid of the Kalbites, he chose his officers from among them. 
The governorship of Irak was confided to a Kalbite, Mansur b. 
Jomhur, a hot-headed and unscrupulous man. Yusuf b. Omar 
was unable to offer resistance, and was ultimately taken and 
confined in the Khadra. Mansur had hardly been three months 
in office when Yazid replaced him by Abdallah, son of Omar II. 
The distant provinces, with the exception of Sind and Sijistan, 
renounced the authority of the new caliph. In Africa Abdarrah- 
man b. Hablb, a descendant of the famous 'Oqba b. Nafi", was 
almost independent. In Spain every amir tried to free himself 
from a suzerainty which appeared to him only nominal. Nasr b. 
Sayyar, the governor of Khorasan, had not yet decided whether 
he ought to take the oath of allegiance when Yazid died; after a 

reign of only five months and a half, on the 12th of Dhu'l-Hijja 
•a.h. 126 (25th September a.d. 744). 

13. Yazid III. left his brother Ibrahim as his successor. He 
was acknowledged as caliph only in a part of Syria, and reigned 
no longer than two months, when he was obliged to abdicate and 
to submit to the authority of Merwan II. 

14. Merwan II., the son of Mahommed b. Merwan and cousin 
of Maslama, was a man of energy, and might have revived the 
strength of the Omayyad dynasty, but for the general disorder 
which pervaded the whole empire. In 73 2 Hisham had entrusted 
to him the government of Armenia and Azerbaijan, which he 
held with great success till the death of Walid II. He had great 
military capacity and introduced important reforms. On the 
murder of Walid he prepared to dispute the supreme power with 
the new caliph, and invaded Mesopotamia. Yazid III., in 
alarm, offered him as the price of peace the government of this 
province together with Armenia and Azerbaijan. Merwan 
resolved to accept those conditions, and sent a deputation to 
Damascus, which, however, had just reached Manbij (Hiera- 
polis) when Yazid died. Leaving his son Abdalmalik with 40,000 
men in Rakka, Merwan entered Syria with 80,000 men. Sulei- 
man b. Hisham, at the head of 120,000 men, was defeated at 'Ain 
al-Jarr, between Baalbek and Damascus. Merwan made many 
prisoners, whom he treated with the greatest mildness, granting 
them freedom on condition that they should take the oath of 
allegiance to the sons of Walid II. He then marched upon 
Damascus. But Suleiman b. Hisham, Yazid, the son of Khalid 
al-Qasri, and other chiefs, hastened to the Khadra and killed the 
two princes, together with Yusuf b. Omar. Suleiman then made 
himself master of the treasury and fled with the caliph Ibrahim 
to Tadmor (Palmyra). Only Abu Mahommed as-Sofianl escaped 
the murderers. When Merwan entered Damascus this man 
testified that the sons of Walid II., who had just become adult, 
had named Merwan successor to the Caliphate, and was the first 
to greet him as Prince of the Believers. All the generals and 
officers followed his example and took the oath of allegiance 
(7th December a.d. 744). Merwan did all he could to pacify 
Syria, permitting the Arabs of the four provinces to choose 
their own prefects, and even acquiescing in the selection as 
prefect of Palestine of Thabit b. No'aim, who had behaved very 
treacherously towards him before, but whom he had forgiven. 
He did not, however, wish to reside in Damascus, but trans- 
planted the seat of government to his own town, Harran in 
Mesopotamia. Suleiman b. Hisham and Ibrahim tendered 
their submission and were pardoned. 

But the pacification was only on the surface. Many Omayyad 
princes considered Merwan as an upstart, his mother being a 
slave-girl; the Damascenes were angry because he had chosen 
Harran for his residence; the Kalbites felt themselves slighted, 
as the Qaisites predominated. Thabit b. No'aim revolted in 
Palestine, Emesa (Homs) and Tadmor were turbulent, Damascus 
was besieged by Yazid b. Khalid al QasrI. Merwan, who wanted 
to march against Irak, was obliged to return to Syria, where he 
put an end to the troubles. This time Thabit b. No'aim had to 
pay for his perfidy with his life. After this new pacification, 
Merwan caused the Syrians to acknowledge his two sons as heirs 
to the Caliphate, and married them to two daughters of Hisham. 
All the Omayyad princes were invited to the wedding, Merwan 
hoping still to conciliate them. He then equipped 10,000 
Syrians, and ordered them to rejoin the army of 20,000 men 
from Kinnesrin (Qinnasrin) and Mesopotamia, who, under Yazid 
b. Omar b. Hobaira, were already on the march towards Irak. 
When these Syrians came to Rosafa (Rusafa), Suleiman b. 
Hisham persuaded them to proclaim himself caliph, and made 
himself master of Kinnesrin. From all sides Syrians flocked to 
his aid till he had 70,000 men under his orders. Merwan im- 
mediately ordered Ibn Hobaira to stop his march and to wait for 
him at Durln, and marched with the main force against Suleiman, 
whom he Utterly defeated at Khosaf in the district of Kinnesrin. 
Suleiman fled to Horns and thence to Tadmor and on to Kufa, 
leaving his brother ^a'id in Homs. The siege of this place by 
Merwan lasted rfearly five nfdnths. After the victoty the walls 



were demolished, and likewise those of Baalbek, Damascus, 
Jerusalem and other towns. Syria was utterly crushed, and 
therewith the bulwark of the dynasty was destroyed. Not until 
the summer of 128 (a.d. 746) could Merwan resume his campaign 
against Irak. 

The governor of this province, Abdallah, the son of Omar II., 
was a man of small energy, whose principal care was his personal 
ease and comfort. An ambitious man, Abdallah b. Moawiya, a 
great-grandson of Ali's brother Ja'far, put himself at the head of 
a band of Shi'ites and manias, made himself master of Kufa and 
marched upon Hira, where, since Yusuf b. Omar, the governor 
and the Syrian troops had resided. The rebels were defeated, 
and Kufa surrendered (October 744) under condition of amnesty 
for the insurgents and freedom for Abdallah b. Moawiya. This 
adventurer now went into Media (Jabal), where a great number 
of manias and Shi'ites, even members of the reigning dynasty 
and of the Abbasid family, such as the future caliph Mansur, 
rejoined him. With their help he became master of a vast 
empire, which, however, lasted scarcely three years. 

Ibn Omar did not acknowledge Merwan as caliph. For the 
moment Merwan coald do no more than send a new governor, 
Ibn Sa'id al IJarashi. This officer was supported only by the 
Qaisite troops, the Kalbites, who were numerically superior, 
maintaining Ibn Omar in his residence at Hira. There were 
many skirmishes between them, but a common danger soon 
forced them to suspend their hostilities. The general disorder 
after the death of Hisham had given to the Khawarij an oppor- 
tunity of asserting their claims such as they had never had 
before. They belonged for the greater part to the Rabl'a, who 
always stood more or less aloof from the other Arabs, and had a 
particular grudge against the Modar. Their leading tribe, the 
Shaiban, possessed the lands on the Tigris in the province of 
Mosul, and here, after the murder of Walid II., their chief 
proclaimed himself caliph. Reinforced by many Kharijites out 
of the northern provinces, he marched against Kufa. Ibn Omar 
and Ibn Sa'id al Harash! tried to defend their province, but 
were completely defeated. Harashi fled to Merwan, Ibn Omar 
to Hira, which, after a siege of two months, he was obliged to 
surrender in Shawwal 127 (August a.d. 745). Mansur b. Jomhflr 
was the first to pass over to the Khawarij; then Ibn Omar 
himself took the oath of allegiance. That a noble Koreishite, 
a prince of the reigning house, should pledge himself to follow 
Dahhak the Shaibanite as his Imam, was an event of which 
the Khawarij were very proud. Ibn Omar was rewarded with 
the government of eastern Irak, KhQzistan and Fars. 

Whilst Merwan besieged Horns, Dahhak returned to Meso- 
potamia and took Mosul, whence he threatened Nisibis, where 
Abdallah, the son of Merwan, maintained himself with difficulty. 
Suleiman b. Hisham also had gone over to the Khawarij, who 
now numbered 1 20,000 men. Mesopotamia itself was in danger, 
when Merwan at last was able to march against the enemy. In a 
furious battle at Kafartutha (September a.d. 746) the Khawarij 
were defeated; Dahhak and his successor Khaibari perished; 
the survivors were obliged to retire to Mosul, where they crossed 
the Tigris. Merwan followed them and encamped on the 
western bank. Immediately after the battle of Kafartutha, 
Yazid b. Omar b. Hobaira directed his troops towards Irak. He 
beat the Kharijites repeatedly and entered Kufa in May or June 
747. Ibn Omar was taken prisoner; Mansur b. Jomhur fled to 
Ibn Moawiya. Ibn Hobaira was at last free to send Ibn Dobara 
with an army to Mesopotamia. At his approach the Kharijites 
left their camp and fled to Abdallah b. Moawiya, who was now at 
the height of his power. But it was not destined to last. The 
two generals of Ibn Hobaira, Ibn Dobara and Nobata b. Hanzala 
defeated his army; Ibn Moawiya fled to Khorasan, where he met 
his death; the chief of the Kharijites, Shaiban Yashkori went to 
eastern Arabia; Suleiman b. Hisham and Mansur b. Johmur 
escaped to India. Thus, at last, the western and south-eastern 
parts of the empire lay at the feet of Merwan. But in the north- 
east, in Khorasan, meanwhile a storm had arisen, against which 
bis resources and his wisdom were alike of no avail. 

When the news of the murder of Walid II. reached Khorasan, 

Nasr b. Sayyar did not at once acknowledge the Caliphate of 
Yazid III., but induced the Arab chiefs to accept himself as amir 
of Khorasan, until a caliph should be universally acknowledged. 
Not many months later (Shawwal 126) he was confirmed in his 
post by Yusuf b. Orriar, the governor of Irak. But Nasr had a 
personal enemy, the chief of the Azd (Yemenites) Jodai' al- 
Kirmanl, a very ambitious man. A quarrel arose, and in a short 
time the Azd under, supported by the Rabl'a, who 
always were ready to join the opposition, were in insurrection, 
which Nasr tried in vain to put down by concessions. 

So stood matters when Harith b. Soraij, seconded by Yazid III;, 
reappeared on the scene, crossed the Oxus and came to Merv. 
Nasr received him with the greatest honour, hoping to get his aid 
against Kirmani, but Harith, to whom 3000 men of his tribe, the 
Tamim, had gone over, demanded Nasr's abdication and tried to 
make himself master of Merv. Having failed in this, he allied 
himself with Kirmani. Nasr could hold Merv no longer, and 
retired to Nishapur. But the Tamim of Harith could not endure 
the supremacy of the Azd. In a moment the allies were divided 
into two camps; a battle ensued, in which Harith was defeated 
and killed. Originally, Harith seems to have had the highest 
aims, but in reality he did more than any one else to weaken the 
Arabic dominion. He brought the Turks into the field against 
them; he incited the native population of Transoxiana against 
their Arab lords, and stirred up discord between the Arabs 
themselves. . Being a Tamimite, he belonged to the Modar, on 
whom the government in Khorasan depended; but he aided the 
Yemenites to gain the upper hand of them. Thus he paved the 
way for Abu Moslim. 

Since the days of Ali there had been two tendencies among the 
Shi'ites. The moderate party distinguished itself from the other 
Moslems only by their doctrine that the imamate belonged 
legally to a man of the house of the Prophet. The other party, 
that of the ultra-Shi'ites, named Hashimiya after Abu Hashim 
the son of Mahommed b. al-Hanafiya, preached the equality of all 
Moslems, Arabs or non-Arabs, and taught that the same divine 
spirit that had animated the Prophet, incorporated itself again 
in his heirs (see Shi'ites). After the death of Hosain, they chose 
for their Imam Mahommed b. al-Hanafiya, and at his decease his 
son Abu Hashim, from whom Mahommed b. Ali, the grandson of 
Abdallah b. Abbas, who resided at Homaima in the south-east of 
Syria, obtained the secrets of the party and took the lead (a.h. 
98, see above). This Mahommed, the father of the two first 
Abbasid caliphs, was a man of unusual ability and great ambition. 
He directed his energies primarily to Khorasan. The missionaries 
were charged with the task of undermining the authority of the 
Omayyads, by drawing attention to all the injustices that took 
place under their reign, and to all the luxury and wantonness of 
the court, as contrasted with the misery of many of their subjects. 
God would not suffer it any longer. As soon as the time was ripe 
— and that time could not be far off — He would send a saviour 
out of the house of the Prophet, the Mahdi, who would restore 
Islam to its original purity. All who desired to co-operate in 
this holy purpose must pledge themselves to unlimited obedience 
to the Imam, and place their lives and property at his disposal. As 
a proof of their sincerity they were required at once to pay a fixed 
sum for the Imam. The missionaries had great success, especially 
among the non- Arabic inhabitants of Khorasan and Transoxiana. 

Mahommed b. Ali died a.h. 126 (a.d. 743-744), and his son 
Ibrahim, the Imam, took his place. Ibrahim had a confidant 
about whose antecedents one fact alone seems certain, that he 
was a mania (client) of Persian origin. This man, Abu Moslim by 
name, was a man of real ability and devoted to his master's 
cause. To him,in 745-746, the management of affairs in Khorasan 
was entrusted, with instructions to consult in all weighty matters 
the head of the mission, the Arab Suleiman b. Kathir. At first 
the chiefs of the mission were by no means prepared to recognize 
Abu Moslim as the plenipotentiary of the heir of the Prophet. 
In the year 129 he judged that the time for open manifestation 
had arrived. His partisans were ordered to assemble from all sides 
on a fixed day at Siqadenj in the province of Merv. Then, on the 
1st Shawwal (15th June 747), the first solemn meeting took 



place and the black flags were unfolded. On that occasion 
Suleiman b. Kathlr was still leader, but by the end of the year 
. Abu Moslim, whom the majority believed to belong himself to 
the family of the Prophet, was the acknowledged head of a strong 
. army. Meantime, Nasr had moved from Nishapur to Merv, and 
here the two Arabic armies confronted each other. Then, at last, 
the true significance of Abu Moslim's work was recognized. Nasr 
warned the Arabs against their common enemy, " who preaches 
a religion that does not come from the Envoy of God, and whose 
chief aim is the extirpation of the Arabs." In< vain he had 
entreated Merwan and Ibn Hobaira to send him troops before it 
should be too late. When at last it was possible to them to fulfil 
his wish, it was in fact too late. For a moment it seemed as 
though the rival Arab factions, realizing their common peril, 
would turn their combined forces against the Shi'ites. But Abu 
Moslim contrived to re-awaken their mutual distrust and jealousy, 
and, taking advantage of the opportunity, made himself master 
of Merv, in Rabia II. a^h. i3o(December747). Nasr escaped only 
by a headlong flight to Nishapur. This was the end of the Arabic 
dominion in the East. Many Arab chiefs were killed, partly by 
order of Abu Moslim, partly by their clients. The latter, however, 
was strictly forbidden by Abu Moslim. So severe indeed was the 
discipline he exercised, that one of the chief missionaries, who by 
a secret warning had rendered possible the escape of Nasr from 
Merv, paid for it with his life. 

As soon as Abu Moslim had consolidated his authority, he sent 
his chief general Qahtaba against Nishapur. Nasr's son Tamlm 
was vanquished and killed, and Nasr retreated to Kumis (Qumis) 
on the boundary of Jorjan, whither also advanced from the other 
side Nobata at the head of an army sent by Merwan. Qahtaba 
detached his son Hasan against Nasr and went himself to meet 
Nobata, whom he beat on the ist of Dhu'l-hijja 130 (6th August 
748). Nasr could not further resist. He reached Sawa. in the 
vicinity of Hamadan, where he died quite exhausted, at the age of 
eighty-five years. Rei and Hamadan were taken without serious 
difficulty. Near Nehawend, Ibn Dobara, at the head of a large 
army, encountered Qahtaba, but was defeated and killed. In 
themonthof Dhu'l-qa'da 131 (June 749) Nehawend (Nehavend) 
surrendered, and thereby the way to Irak lay open to Qahtaba. 
Ibn Hobaira was overtaken and compelled to retire to Wasit. 
Qahtaba himself perished in the combat, but his son Hasan 
entered Kufa without any resistance on the 2nd of September 740. 

Merwan had at last discovered who was the real chief of the 
movement in Khorasan, and had seized upon Ibrahim the Imam 
■ and imprisoned him at Harran. There he died, probably from 
the plague, though Merwan was accused of having killed him. 
When the other Abbasids left Homaima is not certain. But they 
arrived at Kufa in the latter half of September 749, where in the 
meantime the head of the propaganda, Abu Salama, called the 
wazir of the family of Mahomet, had previously undertaken the 
government. This Abu Salama seems to have had scruples 
against recognizing Abu'l-Abbas as the successor of his brother 
Ibrahim, and to have expected that the Mahdi, whom he looked 
for from Medina, would not be slow in making his appearance, 
little thinking that an Abbasid would present himself as such. 
But Abu Jahm, on the instructions of Abu Moslim, declared to 
the chief officers of the Khorasanian army that the Mahdi was in 
their midst, and brought them to Abu'l-Abbas, to whom they 
swore allegiance. Abu Salama also was constrained to take the 
oath. On Friday, the 12th Rabia II. a.h. 132 (28th November 
749) Abu'l-Abbas was solemnly proclaimed caliph in the principal 
mosque of Kufa. The trick had been carried out admirably. On 
the point of gathering the ripe fruit, the Alids were suddenly 
pushed aside,' and the fruit was snatched away by the Abbasids. 
The latter gained the throne and they took good care never to be 
deprived of it. 

After the conquest of Nehawend, Qahtaba had detached one 
of his captains, Abu 'Aun, to Shahrazur, where he defeated the 
Syrian army which was stationed there. Thereupon Abu 'Aun 
occupied the land of Mosul, where he obtained reinforcements 
from Kufa, headed by Abdallah b. AH, an uncle of Abu'l-Abbas, 
who was to have the supreme command. Merwan advanced 

to meet him, and was completely defeated near the Greater Zab, 
an affluent of the Tigris, in a battle which lasted eleven days. 
Merwan retreated to Harran, thence to Damascus, and finally to 
Egypt, where he fell in a last struggle towards the end of 132 
(August 750). His head was cut off and sent to Kufa. 1 Abu 
Aun, who had been the real leader of the campaign against 
Merwan, remained in Egypt as its governor. Ibn Hobaira, 
who had been besieged in Wasit for eleven months, then con- 
sented to a capitulation, which was sanctioned by Abu'l-Abbas. 
Immediately after the surrender, Ibn Hobaira and his principal 
officers were treacherously murdered. In Syria, the Omayyads 
were persecuted with the utmost rigour. Even their graves were 
violated, and the bodies crucified and destroyed. In order that 
no members of the family should escape, Abdallah b. Ali pre- 
tended to grant an amnesty to all Omayyads who should come 
in to him at Abu Fotros (Antipatris) and acknowledge the new 
caliph, and even promised them the restitutionof alltheirproperty. 
Ninety men allowed themselves to be entrapped, and Abdallah 
invited them to a banquet. When they were all collected, a 
body of executioners rushed into the hall and slew them with 
clubs. He then ordered leathern covers to be thrown upon the 
dying men, and had the banquet served upon them. In Medina 
and Mecca Da'ud b. Ali, another uricle of Abu'l-Abbas, con- 
ducted the persecution; in Basra, Suleiman b. Ali. Abu'l-Abbas 
himself killed those he could lay his hands on in Hira and Kufa, 
amongst them Suleiman b. Hisham, who had been the bitterest 
enemy of Merwan. Only a few Omayyads escaped the massacre, 
several of whom were murdered later. A grandson of Hisham, 
Abdarrahman, son of his most beloved son Moawiya, reached 
Africa and founded in Spain the Omayyad dynasty of Cordova. 

With the dynasty of the Omayyads the hegemony passes 
finally from Syria to Irak. At the same time the supremacy of 
the Arabs came to an end. Thenceforth it is not the contingents 
of the Arabic tribes which compose the army, and on whom the 
government depends; the new dynasty relies on a standing 
army, consisting for the greater part of non-Arabic soldiers. 
The barrier that separated the Arabs from the conquered nations 
begins to crumble away. Only the Arabic religion, the Arabic 
language and the Arabic civilization maintain themselves, and 
spread more and more over the whole empire. 

C. — The Abbasids 

We now enter upon the history of the new dynasty, under 
which the power of Islam reached its highest point. 

1. Abu'l-Abbas inaugurated his Caliphate by a harangue 
in Which he announced the era of concord and happiness which 
was to begin now that the House of the Prophet had been 
restored to its right. He asserted that the Abbasids were the 
real heirs of the Prophet, as the descendants of his oldest uncle 
Abbas. Addressing the Kufians, he said, " Inhabitants of Kufa, 
ye are those whose affection towards us has ever been constant 
and true; ye have never changed your mind, nor swerved from 
it, notwithstanding all the pressure of the unjust upon you. At 
last our time has come, and God has brought you the new era. 
Ye are the happiest of men through us, and the dearest to us. 
I increase your pensions with 100 dirhems; make now your 
preparations, for I am the lavish shedder of blood 2 and the 
avenger of blood." 

Notwithstanding these fine words, Abu'l-Abbas did not trust 

1 Merwan has been nicknamed al-Ja'di and al-Himar (the Ass). 
As more than one false interpretation of these names has been 
given, it is not superfluous to cite here Qaisarani (ed. de Jong, p. 
31), who says on good authority that a certain al-Ja'd b. Durham, 
killed under the reign of Hisham for heretical opinions, had followers 
in Mesopotamia, and that, when Merwan became caliph, the Khora- 
sanians called him a Ja'd, pretending that all'Ja'd had been 
his teacher. As to al-Himar this was substituted also by the 
Khorasanians for his usual title, al-Faras, " the race-horse." 

2 The Arabic word for " shedder of blood," as-Saffah, which by 
that speech became a name of the caliph, designates the liberal host 
who slaughters his camels for his guests. European scholars have 
taken it unjustly in the sense of the bloodthirsty, and found in it 
an allusion to the slaughter of the Omayyads and many others. 
At the same time, it was not without much bloodshed that Abu'l- 
Abbas finally established his power. 



the Kufians. He resided outside the town with the Khorasanian 
troops, and with them went first to Hira, then to Hashimiya, 
which he caused to be built in the neighbourhood of Anbar. 
For their real sympathies, he knew, were with the house of Ali, 
and Abu Salama their leader, who had reluctantly taken the oath 
of allegiance, did not conceal his disappointment. Abu Jahm, 
the vizier {q.v.; also Mahommedan Institutions), or " helper," 
of Abu Moslim, advised that Abu Ja'far, the caliph's brother, 
should be sent to Khorasan to consult Abu Moslim. . The result 
was that Abu Salama was assassinated, and at the same time 
Suleiman b. Kathlr, who had been the head of the propaganda 
in Khorasan, and bad also expected that the Mahdi would belong 
to the house of Ali. It is said that Abu Ja'far, whilst in Khorasan, 
was so impressed by the unlimited power of Abu Moslim, and 
saw so clearly that, though he called his brother and himself 
his masters, he considered them as his creatures, that he vowed 
his death at the first opportunity. , 

The ruin of the Omayyad empire and the rise of the new 
dynasty did not take place without mighty convulsions. In 
Bathanlya and the Hauran, in the north of Syria, in Mesopo- 
tamia and Irak Khorasan insurrections had to be put down 
with fire and sword. The new caliph then distributed the 
provinces among the principal members of his family and his 
generals. To his brother Abu Ja'far he gave Mesopotamia, 
Azerbaijan and Armenia; to his uncle Abdallah b. AH, Syria; 
to his uncle Da'ud, Hejaz, Yemen and Yamama (Yemama); 
to his cousin 'Isa b. Musa, the province of Kufa. Another uncle, 
Suleiman b. Ali, received the government of Basra with Bahrein 
and Oman; Isma 'il b. Ali that of Ahwaz; Abu Moslim, Khora- 
san and Transoxiana; Mahommed b. Ash'atb, Fars; Abu 'Aun, 
Egypt. In Sind the Omayyad governor, Mansur b. Jomhur, 
had succeeded in maintaining himself, but was defeated by an 
army sent against him under Musa b. Ka'b, and the black 
standard of the Abbasids was raised over the city of Mansura. 
Africa and Spain are omitted from this catalogue, because the 
Abbasids never gained any real footing in Spain, while Africa 
remained, at least in the first years, in only nominal subjection 
to the new dynasty. In 754 Abu Moslim came to Irak to visit 
Abu'l- Abbas and to ask his permission to make the pilgrimage 
to Mecca. He was received with great honour, but the caliph 
said that he was sorry not to be able to give him the leadership 
of the pilgrimage, which he had already purposely entrusted to 
his brother, Abu Ja'far. 

Abu'l-Abbas died on the 13th of Dhu'l-hijja 136 (5th June 
754). He seems to have been a man of limited capacity, and 
had very little share in the achievements accomplished in his 
name. He initiated practically nothing without the consent of 
Abu Jahm, who was thus the real ruler. In the few cases where 
he had to decide, he acted under the influence of his brother 
Abu Ja'far. 

2. Reign of Mansur. — Abu'l-Abbas had designated as his 
successors first Abu Ja'far, surnamed al-Mansur (the victorious), 
and after him his cousin 'Isa b. Musa. Abu Ja'far was, according 
to the historians, older than Abu'l-Abbas, but while the mother 
of the latter belonged to the powerful Yemenite tribe of al- 
Harith b. Ka'b, the mother of Abu Ja'far was a Berber slave-girl. 
But he was a son of Mahommed b. Ali, and was therefore pre- 
ferred by Abu Moslim to his uncles and cousins. Abu'l-Abbas, 
however, had promised the succession to his uncle Abdallah b. 
Ali, when he marched against Merwan. When the news of the 
death of Abu'l-Abbas reached Abdallah, who at the head of a 
numerous army was on the point of renewing the Byzantine war, 
he came to Harran, furious at his exclusion, and proclaimed 
himself caliph. Abu Moslim marched against him, and the two 
armies met at Nisibis, where, after a number of skirmishes, a 
decisive engagement took place ( 2 8th November 754). Abdallah 
was defeated and escaped to Basra, where he found a refuge with 
his brother Suleiman. A year later he asked for pardon, and 
took the oath of allegiance to Mansur. The caliph spared his 
life for a time, but he did no.t forget. In 764 Abdallah met his 
death by the collapse of his house, which had been deliberately 

The first care of Mansur was now to get rid of the' powerful Abu 
Moslim, who had thus by another brilliant service strengthened 
his great reputation. On pretence of conferring with him on 
important business of state, Mansur induced him, in spite of 
the warnings of his best general, Abu Nasr, to come to Madain 
(Ctesiphon), and in the most perfidious manner caused him to be 
murdered by his guards. Thus miserably perished the real, 
founder of the Abbasid dynasty, the Sahib addaula, as he is 
commonly called, the Amin (trustee) of the House of the Prophet. 
A witty man, being asked his opinion about Abu Ja'far (Mansur) 
and Abu Moslim, said, alluding to the Koran 21, verse 22, "if 
there were two Gods, the universe would be ruined." The 
Khorasanian chiefs were bribed into submission, and order was at 
last re-established by Mansur's general Khazim b. Khozaima in 
Mesopotamia, and by Abu Da'ud, the governor of Khorasan in 
the east. 

About the same time Africa 1 and Spain escaped from the 
dominion of the eastern Caliphate; the former for a season, 
the latter permanently. The cause of the revolt of Africa was 
as follows. Mansur had written to Abdarrahman, announcing 
the death of Abu'l-Abbas, and requiring him to take the oath of 
allegiance. Abdarrahman sent in his adhesion, together with a 
few presents of little value. The caliph replied by a threatening 
letter which angered Abdarrahman. He called the people to- 
gether at the hour of. prayer, publicly cursed Mansur from the 
pulpit and declared him deposed. He next caused a circular 
letter, commanding all Maghribins to refuse obedience to the 
caliph, to be read from the pulpit throughout the whole extent 
of the Maghrib (western North Africa) . A brother of Abdarrah- 
man, Ilyas, saw in this revolt an opportunity of obtaining the 
government of Africa for himself. Seconded by many of the 
inhabitants of Kairawan, who had remained faithful to the cause 
of the Abbasids, he attacked his brother, slew him, and pro- 
claimed himself governor in his stead. This revolution in favour 
of the Abbasids was, however, not of long duration. Hablb, 
the eldest son of Abdarrahman, who had fled in the night of his 
father's murder, was captured, but the vessel which was to convey 
him to Spain having been detained by stress of weather, his 
partisans took arms and rescued him. Ilyas was marching 
against them, when the idea occurred to Habib of challenging 
him to single combat. Ilyas hesitated, but his own soldiers 
compelled him to accept the challenge. He measured arms 
with Habib, and was slain. The party of independence thus 
triumphed, but in the year 144 (761) Mahommed b. Ash'ath^ 
the Abbasid general, entered Kairawan and regained posses- 
sion of Africa in the name of the eastern caliph. From the 
year 800, it must be added, Africa only nominally belonged 
to the Abbasids; for, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid, 
Ibrahim b. al-Aghlab, who was invested with the government 
of Africa, founded in that province a distinct dynasty, that of 
the Aghlabites. 

At the same time as the revolt in Africa, the independent 
Caliphate of the western Omayyads was founded in Spain. The 
long dissensions which had preceded the fall of that dynasty 
in the East had already prepared the way fcr the independence 
of a province so distant from the centre of the empire. Every: 
petty amir then tried to seize sovereign power for himself, and the 
people groaned under the consequent anarchy. Weary of these 
commotions, the Arabs of Spain atjast came to an understanding 
among themselves for the election of a caliph, and their choice 
fell upon one of the last survivors of the Omayyads, Abdarrah- 
man b. Moawiya, grandson of the caliph Hisham. This prince 
was wandering in the deserts' of Africa, pursued by his implacable 
enemies, but everywhere protected and concealed by the desert 
tribes, who pitied his misfortunes and respected his illustrious 
origin. A deputation from Spain sought him out in Africa and 
offered him the Caliphate, which he accepted with joy. On the 
1st Rabia I. 138 (14th August 755) Abdarrahman landed in the 
Iberian peninsula, where he was universally welcomed, and 

1 The rule of the caliphs in Morocco, which had never been firmly 
established, had already, 1 in 740, given place to that of independent 
princes (see Morocco, History). 

4 2 


speedily founded at Cordova the Western Omayyad Caliphate 
(see Spain: History). 

While Mansur was thus losing Africa and Spain, be was trying 
to redeem the losses the empire had sustained on the northern 
frontier by the Byzantines. In 750-751 the emperor Constantine 
V. (Copronymus) had unsuccessfully blockaded Malatia; but 
five years later he took it by force and razed its wall to the ground. 
Mansur now sent in 757 an army of 70,000 men under the com- 
mand of his cousin Abdalwahhab, the son of Ibrahim the Imam, 
whom he had made governor of Mesopotamia, the real chief 
being Hasan b. Qahtaba. They rebuilt all that the emperor 
had destroyed, and made this key of Asia Minor stronger than 
ever before. The Moslems then made a raid by the pass of 
Hadath (Adata) and invaded the land of the Byzantines. Two 
aunts of the caliph took part in this expedition, having made a 
vow that if the dominion of the Omayyads were ended they 
would wage war in the path of God. Constantine advanced 
with a numerous army, but was afraid of attacking the invaders. 
The Moslems also rebuilt Mopsuestia. But from 758 till 763 
Mansur was so occupied with his own affairs that he could not 
think of further raids. 

In 758 (others say in 753 or 754) a body of 600 sectaries, called 
Rawendls (?.».), went to Hashimiya, the residence of the caliph, 
not far from Kufa. They believed that the caliph was their 
lord, to whom they owed their daily bread, and came to pay him 
divine honours. They began by marching in solemn procession 
round the palace, as if it had been the Ka'ba. Mansur being told 
of it said: " I would rather they went to hell in obedience to 
us, than to heaven in disobedience." But as they grew tumul- 
tuous, and he saw that this impious homage gave offence to his 
men, he caused the principal leaders to be seized and thrown 
into prison. The Rawendls immediately rose in revolt, broke 
the prison doors, rescued their chiefs, and returned to the palace. 
The unfortunate fanatics were hunted down and massacred to 
the last man, and thereby the ties that bound the Abbasids to 
the ultra-Shi'ites were severed. From that time forward the 
Abbasid caliphs became the maintainers of orthodox Islam, 
just as the Omayyads had been. The name of Hashimiya, which 
the reigning family still retained, was henceforward derived 
not from Abu Hashim, but from Hashim, the grandfather of 
Abbas, the great-grandfather of the Prophet. 

A much greater danger now threatened Mansur. In the last 
days of the Omayyads, the Shi'ites had chosen as caliph, 
Mahommed b. Abdallah b. Hasan, whom they called the Mahdi 
and the " pure soul," and Mansur had been among those who 
pledged themselves to him by oath. Not unnaturally, the Alids 
in Medina were indignant at being supplanted by the Abbasids, 
and Mansur's chief concern was to get Mahommed into his 
power. Immediately after his occupying the throne, he named 
Ziyad b. Obaidallah governor of Medina, with orders to lay 
hands on Mahommed and his brother Ibrahim, who, warned 
betimes, took refuge in flight. In 758 Mansur, informed that a 
revolt was in preparation, came himself to Medina and ordered 
Abdallah to tell him where his sons were. As he could not or 
would not tell, he together with all his brothers and some other 
relatives were seized and transported to Irak, where Abdallah 
and bis brother AH were beheaded and the others imprisoned. 
Notwithstanding all these precautions, a vast conspiracy was 
formed. On the same day Mahommed was to raise the standard 
of revolt in Medina, Ibrahim in Basra. But the Alids, though 
not devoid of personal courage, never excelled in politics or in 
tactics. In a.d. 762 Mahommed took Medina and had himself 
proclaimed caliph. The governor of Kufa, 'Isa b. Musa, received 
orders to march against him, entered Arabia, and captured 
Medina, which, fortified by Mahommed by the same means as the 
Prophet had employed against the besieging Meccans, could not 
hold out against the well-trained Khorasanians. Mahommed 
was defeated and slain. His head was cut off and sent to Mansur. 
When on the point of death, Mahommed gave the famous sword 
of the Prophet called Dhu'l-Fiqar to a merchant to whom he 
owed 400 dinars. It came later, into the possession of Harun 
al-Rashid. In the meanwhile Ibrahim had not only gained 

possession of Ba$ra, Ahwaz and Fars, but had even occupied 
Wasit. The empire of the Abbasids was in great jeopardy. For 
fifty days Mansur stayed in his room, neither changing his 
clothes nor allowing himself a moment's repose. The greater 
part of his troops were in Rei with his son al-Mahdi, who had 
conquered Tabaristan, in Africa, with Mahommed b. Ash'ath, 
and in Arabia with 'Isa b. Musa. Had Ibrahim marched at once 
against Kufa he might have crushed Mansur, but he let slip the 
opportunity. A terrible conflict took place at Ba-Khamra, 
48 m. from Kufa. Homaid b. Qahtaba, the eommander 
of Mansur's army, was defeated, only a small division under 
'Isa b. Musa holding its ground. At that moment Salm, 
the son of the famous Qotaiba b. Moslim, came to the rescue by 
attacking the rear of Ibrahim. Homaid rallied his troops, and 
Ibrahim was overpowered. At last he fell, pierced by an arrow, 
and, in spite of the desperate efforts of his followers, his body 
remained in the hands of the enemy. His head was cut off and 
brought to Mansur. 

Mansur could now give his mind to the founding of the new 
capital. When the tumult of the Rawendls took place he saw 
clearly that his personal safety was not assured in Hashimiya, 1 
where a riot of the populace could be very dangerous, and his 
troops were continually exposed to the perverting influence of the 
fickle and disloyal citizens of Kufa. He had just made choice of 
the admirable site of the old market-town of Bagdad when the 
tidings came of the rising of Mahommed in Medina. In those 
days he saw that he had been very imprudent to denude himself 
of troops, and decided to keep henceforth always with him a body 
of 30,000 soldiers. So Bagdad, or properly " the round city " of 
Mansur, on the western bank of the Tigris, was built as the 
capital. Strictly it was a huge citadel, in the centre of which 
was the palace of the caliph and the great mosque. But around 
this nucleus there soon grew up the great metropolis which was 
to be the centre of the civilized world as long as the Caliphate 
lasted. 2 The building lasted three years and was completed in 
the year 149 (a.d. 766). That year is really the beginning of the 
new era. " The Omayyads," says the Spanish writer Ibn Hazm, 
" were an Arabic dynasty; they had no fortified residence, nor 
citadel; each of them dwelt in his villa, where he lived before 
becoming caliph; they did not desire that the Moslems should 
speak to them as slaves to their master, nor kiss the ground 
before them or their feet; they only gave their care to the 
appointment of able governors in the provinces of the empire. 
The Abbasids, on the contrary, were a Persian dynasty, under 
which the Arab tribal system, as regulated by Omar, fell to 
pieces; the Persians of Khorasan were the real rulers, and the 
government became despotic as in the days of Chrosroes." The 
reign of Abu'l- Abbas and the first part of that of Mansur had been 
almost a continuation of the former period. But now his equals 
in birth and rank, the Omayyads and the Alids, had been crushed; 
the principal actors in the great struggle, the leaders of the 
propaganda and Abu Moslim were out of the way; the caliph 
stood far above all his subjects; and his only possible an- 
tagonists were the members of his own family. 

'Isa b. Musa had been designated, as we have seen, by Abu'l- 
Abbas as successor to Mansur. The latter having vainly tried 
to compel 'Isa to renounce his right of succession, in favour of 
Mansur's son Mahommed al-Mahdi, produced false witnesses who 
swore that he had done so. However unwillingly, 'Isa was 
obliged at last to yield, but it was understood that, in case of 
Mahommed's death, the succession should return to 'Isa. One of 
the false witnesses was, it is asserted, Khalid b. Barmak, the 
head of that celebrated family the Barmecides (q.v.), which 
played so important a part in the reign of Harun al-Rashid. 
This Khalid, who was descended from an old sacerdotal family 
in Balkh, and had been one of the trusty supporters of Abu 
Moslim, Mansur appointed as minister of finance. 

A son of Mahommed the Alid had escaped lo India, where, 

1 This Hashimiya near Kufa is not to be confused with that 
founded by Abu'l-Abbas near Anbar. 

2 Cf. G. le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (Oxford, 



with the connivance of the governor Omar b. IJaf s Hazarmerd, 
he had found refuge with an Indian king. Mansur discovered 
his abode, and caused him to be killed. His infant son was sent 
to Medina and delivered to his family. Omar Hazarmerd lost 
his government and received a command in Africa, where he 
died in 770. 

In a.h. 158 (a.d. 775) Mansur undertook a pilgrimage to 
Mecca, but succumbed to dysentery at the last station on the 
route. He was about sixty-five years of age, and had reigned 
for twenty-two years. He was buried at Mecca. He was a man 
of rare energy and strength of mind. His ambition was boundless 
and no means, however perfidious, were despised by him. But 
he was a great statesman and knew how to choose able officers 
for all places. He was thrifty and anxious to leave to his son a 
full treasury. He seems, to have cherished the ideal that this son, 
called Mahommed b. Abdallah, after the Prophet, should fulfil 
the promises of peace and happiness that had been tendered to 
the believers, and therefore to have called him al-Mahdi. For 
that purpose it was necessary that he should have the means not 
only to meet all state expenses, but also to be bounteous. But 
from the report of the historian Haitham b. 'AdI x about the last 
discourse which father and son had together, we gather that the 
. former had misgivings in regard to the fulfilment of his wishes. 

Khalid b. Barmak took the greatest care of the revenues, but 
contrived at the same time to consult his own interests. Mansur 
discovered this in the same year in which he died, and threatened 
him with death unless he should pay to the treasury three millions 
of dirhems within three days. Khalid already had so many 
friends that the sum was brought together with the exception of 
30,000 dirhems. At that moment tidings came about a rising in 
the province of Mosul, and a friend of Khalid said to the caliph 
that Khalid was the only man capable of putting it down. 
Thereupon Mansur overlooked the deficiency and gave Khalid 
the government of Mosul. " And," said a citizen of that town, 
" we had such an awe and reverence for Khalid, that he appeased 
the disorders, almost without punishing anybody." 

3. Reign of Mahdi. — As soon as Mansur was dead, Rabl", his 
client and chamberlain, induced all the princes and generals who 
accompanied the caliph, to take the oath of allegiance to his son 
Mahommed al-Mahdi, who was then at Bagdad. Isa b. Musa 
hesitated, but was compelled to give in. In 776 Mahdi constrained 
him for a large bribe to renounce his right of succession in favour 
of his sons, Musa. and Harun. Mansur wrote in his testament to 
his son that he had brought together so much money that, even 
if no revenue should come in for ten years, it would suffice for all 
the wants of the state. Mahdi, therefore, could afford to be 
munificent, and in order to make his accession doubly welcome to 
his subjects, he began by granting a general amnesty to political 
prisoners. Among these was a certain Ya'qiib b. Da'ud, who, 
having insinuated himself into the Confidence of the caliph, 
especially by discovering the hiding places of certain Alids, was 
afterwards (in 778) made prime minister. The provincial 
governors in whom his father had placed confidence, Mahdi 
superseded by creatures of his own. 

In Khorasan many people were discontented. The promises 
made to them during the war against the Omayyads had not been 
fulfilled, and the new Mahdi did not answer at all to their ideal. 
A revolt in 160 under the leadership of a certain Yusuf b. Ibrahim, 
surnamed al-Barm, was suppressed by Yazid b. Mazyad, who, 
after a desperate struggle, defeated Yusuf , took him prisoner and 
brought him in triumph to Bagdad, where he with several of his 
officers was killed and crucified. In the following year, Mahdi was 
menaced by a far more dangerous revolt, led by a sectary, known 
generally as Mokanna (q.v.), or " the veiled one," because he 
always appeared in public wearing a mask. He took up his abode 
in the Transoxianian province of Kish and Nakhshab, where he 
gathered around him a great number of adherents. After some 
successes, the pretender was ultimately cornered at the castle of 
Sanam near Kish, and took poison together with all the members 
of his family. His head was cut off and sent to Mahdi in the year 

1 Tabari iii. p. 443 seq. 

Mahdi had been scarcely a year on the throne when he resolved 
to accomplish the pilgrimage to Mecca. The chroniclers relate 
that on this occasion for the first time camels loaded with ice for 
the use of the caliph came to Mecca. Immediately on his arrival 
in the Holy City he applied himself, at the request of the inhabi- 
tants, to the renewal of the curtains which covered the exterior 
walls of the Ka'ba. For a very long time no care had been taken 
to remove the old covering when a new one was put on; and the 
accumulated weight caused uneasiness respecting the stability of 
the walls. Mahdi caused the house to be entirely stripped and 
anointed with perfumes, and covered the walls again with a single 
cloth of great richness. The temple itself was enlarged and 
restored. On this occasion he distributed considerable largesses 
among the Meccans. From Mecca Mahdi went to Medina, where 
he caused the mosque to be enlarged, and where a similar distribu- 
tion of gifts took place. During his stay in that city he formed for 
himself a guard of honour, composed of 500 descendants of the 
Ansar, 2 to whom he assigned a quarter in Bagdad, named after 
them the Qatfa (Fief) of the Ansar. Struck by the difficulties 
of every kind which had to be encountered by poor pilgrims to 
Mecca from Bagdad and its neighbourhood, he ordered Yaqtin, 
his freedman, to renew the milestones, to repair the old reservoirs, 
and to dig wells and construct cisterns at every station of the 
road where they were missing. He also had new inns built and 
decayed ones repaired. Yaqtin remained inspector of the road 
till 767. 

During the reign of Mansur the annual raids against the 
Byzantines had taken place almost without intermission, but 
the only feat of importance had been the conquest of Laodicea, 
called "the burnt" (17 KaraKeKavnivrj), by Ma'yuf b. Yahya in 
the year 770. At first the armies of Mahdi were not successful. 
The Greeks even conquered Marash (Germanicia) and annihilated 
the Moslem army sent from Dabiq. In 778, however, Hasan b. 
Qahtaba made a victorious raid as far as Adhruliya (Dorylaeum) ; 
it was on his proposition that Mahdi resolved on building the 
frontier town called Hadath (Adata), which became an outpost. 
In 779 the caliph decided on leading his army in person. He 
assembled his army in the plains of Baradan north of Bagdad 
and began his march in the early spring of 780, taking with him 
his second son Harun, and leaving his elder son Musa as his 
lieutenant in Bagdad. Traversing Mesopotamia and Syria, he 
entered Cilicia, and established himself on the banks of the Jihan 
(Pyramus). Thence he despatched an expeditionary force, nomi- 
nally under the command of Harun,. but in reality under that 
of his tutor, the Barmecide Yahya b.' Khalid. Harun captured 
the fortress Samalu after a siege of thirty-eight days, the inhabi- 
tants surrendering on condition that they should not be killed or 
separated from one another. The caliph kept faith with them, 
and settled them in Bagdad, where they built a monastery called 
after their native place. In consequence of this feat, Mahdi made 
Harun governor of the whole western part of the empire, including 
Azerbaijan and Armenia. Two years later war broke out afresh 
between the Moslems and the Greeks. Leo IV., the East 
Roman emperor, had recently died, leaving the crown to Constan- 
tine VI. This prince being only ten years old, his mother Irene 
acted as regent and assumed the title Augusta. By her orders 
an army of 90,000 men, under the command of Michael Lachano- 
drakon, entered Asia Minor. The Moslems, on their side, invaded 
Cilicia under the orders of Abdalkabir who, being afraid of 
encountering the enemy, retired with his troops. Irritated by 
this failure, the caliph in 781 sent Harun, accompanied by his 
chamberlain Rabf, with an army of nearly 100,000 men, with 
orders to carry the war to the very gates of Constantinople. The 
patrician Nicetas, count of Opsikion, who sought to oppose his 
march, was defeated by Harun's general, Yazid b. Mazyad, and 
put to flight. Harun then marched against Nicomedia, where he 
vanquished the domesticus, the chief commander of the Greek 
forces, and pitched his camp on the shores of the Bosporus. 
Irene took alarm, sued for peace, and obtained a truce for three 
years, but only on the humiliating terms of paying an annual 

2 The first citizens of Medina who embraced Islam were called 
Ansar ("helpers "). 



tribute of 90,000 denarii, and supplying the Moslems with guides 
and markets on their way home. This brilliant success so 
increased Mahdi's affection for Harun that he appointed him 
successor-designate after Musa and named him al-Rashld (" the 
follower of the right cause "). Three years later, he resolved 
even to give to him the precedence in the succession instead of 
Musa, yielding to the importunity of Khaizoran, the mother of 
the two princes, and to his own predilection. It was necessary 
first to obtain from Musa a renunciation of his rights; and for 
that purpose he was recalled from Jorjan, where he was engaged 
on an, expedition against the rebels of Tabaristan. Musa, 
informed of his father's intentions, refused to obey this order, 
and Mahdi determined to march in person against him. But, 
after his arrival at Masabadhan, a place in Jabal (Media, the later 
Persian Irak), he died suddenly, at the age of only forty-three. 
Some attribute his death to an accident met with in hunting; 
others believe him to have been poisoned. Some European 
scholars have suspected Musa of having been concerned in it, but 
of this we have no proof whatever. 

The reign of Mahdi was a time of great prosperity. Much was 
done for the organization of the huge empire; agriculture and 
commerce flourished; the revenues were increasing, whilst the 
people fared well. The power of the state was acknowledged even 
in the far east: the emperor of China, the king of Tibet, and 
many Indian princes concluded treaties with the caliph. He was 
an ardent champion of the orthodox faith, repudiating all the 
extravagant doctrine preached by the Abbasid missionaries and 
formerly professed by his father. In particular he persecuted 
mercilessly the Manichaeans and all kinds of freethinkers. 

4. Reign of Modi. — On the death of Mahdi, Harun, following 
the advice of Yahya b. Khalid, sent the insignia of the Caliphate, 
with letters of condolence and congratulation, to Musa in Jorjan, 
and brought the army which had accompanied Mahdi peacefully 
back from Media to Bagdad. Musa returned in all haste to the 
capital, and assumed the title of ahHadi (" he who directs"). 
The accession of a new caliph doubtless appeared to the partisans 
of the house of Ali a favourable opportunity for a rising. Hosain 
,b. AIT b. Hasan III. raised an insurrection at Medina with the 
support of numerous adherents, and proclaimed himself caliph. 
.Thence he went to Mecca, where on the promise of freedom many 
slaves flocked to him, and many pilgrims also acknowledged him. 
Suleiman b. Mansur, the caliph's representative in the pilgrimage 
of that year, was entrusted with the command against him. 
Hosain was attacked at Fakh, 3 m. from Mecca, and perished in 
the combat with many other Alids. His maternal uncle, Idris b. 
Abdallah, a brother of Mahommed and Ibrahim, the rivals of 
Mansur, succeeded in escaping, and fled to Egypt, whence by the 
help of the postmaster, himself a secret partisan of the Shi'ites, 
he passed into West Africa, where at a later period his son founded 
the Idrisite dynasty in Fez (see Morocco) . 

: Hadi, who had never been able to forget that he had narrowly 
escaped being supplanted by his brother, formed a plan for 
excluding him from the Caliphate and transmitting the succes- 
sion to his own son Ja'far. To this he obtained the assent 
of his ministers and the principal chiefs of his army, with the 
exception of Yahya b. Khalid, Harun's former tutor, who showed 
such firmness and boldness that Hadi cast him into prison and 
resolved on his death. Some historians say that he had already 
given orders for his execution, when he himself was killed 
(September 14th, 786) by bis mother Khaizoran, who had 
systematically and successfully intrigued against him with the 
object of gaining the real power for herself. Hadi, indignant at 
the fact that she was generally regarded as the real source of 
authority, had attempted to poison her, and Khaizoran, hoping 
to find a more submissive instrument of her will in her second 
and favourite son, caused Hadi to be smothered with cushions by 
two young slaves whom she had presented to him. She herself 
died three years later. 

5. Reign of Harun al-Rashld. — We have now reached the most 
celebrated name among the Arabian caliphs, celebrated not only 
in the East, but in the West as well, where the stories of the 
Thousand and One Nights have made us familiar with that world 

which the narrators represent in such brilliant colours. Harun 
ascended the throne without opposition. His first act was to 
choose as prime minister his former tutor, the faithful Yahya, b. 
Khalid, and to confide important posts to the two sons of Yahya. 
Fadl and Ja'far, of whom the former was bis own foster-brother, 
the latter his intimate friend. The Barmecide family were 
endowed in the highest degree with those qualities of gsnerosity 
and liberality which the Arabs prized so highly, and the chronicles 
never weary in their praises. Loaded with all the burdens of 
government, Yahya brought the most distinguished abilities' to 
the exercise of his office. He put the frontiers in a good state Of 
defence; he filled the public treasury, and carried the splendour 
of the throne to the highest point. His sons, especially Fadl, 
were worthy of their father. 

Although the administration of Harun's states was committed 
to skilful hands, yet the first years of his long reign were not free 
from troubles. Towards the year 176 (a.d. 792-793) a man of the 
house of Ali, named Yahya b. Abdallah, another brother' of 
Mahommed and Ibrahim, who had taken refuge in the land of 
Dailam on the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea, succeeded 
in forming a powerful party, and publicly claimed the Caliphate. 
Harun immediately sent against him an army of 50,000 men, 
under the command of Fadl, whom he made governor of all the 
Caspian provinces. Reluctant, however, to fight against a 
descendant of the Prophet, Fadl first attempted to induce him 
to submit by promising him safety and a brilliant position at the 
court of Bagdad. Yahya accepted the proposal, but required 
that the caliph should send him letters of pardon countersigned 
by the highest legal authorities and the principal personages of 
the empire. Harun consented and Yahya went to Bagdad, 
where he met with a splendid reception. At the end of some 
months, however, he Was calumniously accused of conspiracy, 
and the caliph, seizing the opportunity of ridding himself of a 
possible rival, threw him into prison, where he died, according to 
the majority of the historians, of starvation. Others say that 
Ja'far b. Yahya b. Khalid, to whose care he had been entrusted; 
suffered him to escape, and that this was the real cause of Harun's 
anger against the Barmecides (q.v.). Dreading fresh insurrections 
of the Alids, Harun secured the person of another descendant of 
Ali, Musa b. Ja'far, surnamed al-Kazim, who enjoyed great 
consideration at Medina, and had already been arrested and 
released again by Mahdi. The unfortunate man was brought by 
the caliph himself to Bagdad, and there died, apparently by 

Meanwhile Harun did not forget the hereditary enemy of 
Islam. In the first year of his reign all the strong places of 
Kinnesrin and Mesopotamia were formed into a special pro- 
vince, which received the name of al-'Awasim (" the defending for- 
tresses ") , with Manbij (Hierapolis) as its capital. The building 
of the fortress of Hadath having been completed, Harun com- 
mitted to Faraj the Turk the task of rebuilding and fortifying the 
city of Tarsus. Thanks to these and similar measures, the Mos- 
lem armies were able to advance boldly into Asia Minor. Almost 
every year successful raids were made, in the year 797 under the 
command of the caliph himself, so that Irene was compelled to 
sue for peace. An attack by the Khazars called the caliph's 
attention from his successes in Asia Minor. This people had 
made an irruption into Armenia, and their attack had been so 
sudden that the Moslems and Christians were unable to defend 
themselves, and 100,000 had been reduced to captivity. Two 
valiant generals, Khozaima b. Khazim and Yazld b. Mazyad, 
marched against the Khazars and drove them out of Armenia. 

In the midst of the cares of war, Harun was assiduous in his 
religious duties, and few years passed without his making the 
pilgrimage. Having determined to fix the order of succession in 
so formal a manner as to take away all pretext for future con- 
tentions, he executed a deed by which he appointed his eldest son 
Mahommed his immediate heir, and after him the second, 
Abdallah, and after Abdallah the third, Qasim. Mahommed 
received the surname of al-Amtn (" the Sure "), Abdallah that 
of al-Ma'mun ("he in whom men trust "), and Qasim that of 
al-Mo'tamin billah (" he who trusts in God "). Harun further 



stipulated that Mamun should have as his share during the life- 
time of his brother the government of the eastern part of the 
empire. Each of the parties concerned swore to observe faithfully 
every part of this deed, which the caliph caused to be hung up in 
the Ka'ba, imagining that it would be thus guaranteed against all 
violation on the part of men, a precaution which was to be rendered 
vain by the perfidy of Amin. 

• It was in the beginning of the following year, at the very 
moment when the Barmecides thought their position most secure, 
that Harun brought sudden ruin upon them. The causes of 
their disgrace have been differently stated by the annalists (see 
Barmecides). The principal cause appears to have been that 
they abused the sovereign power which they exercised. Not a 
few were jealous of their greatness and sought for opportunities 
of instilling distrust against them into the mind of Hartin, and of 
making him feel that he was caliph only in name. The secret 
dissatisfaction thus aroused was increased, according to some 
apparently well-informed authorities, by the releasing of the 
Ahd Yahya b. Abdallah, already mentioned. Finally Harun 
resolved on their destruction, and Ja'far b. Yahya, who had just 
taken leave of him after a day's hunting, was arrested, taken to 
the castle of Harun, and beheaded. The following day, his father 
Yahya, his brother "Fadl, and all the other Barmecides were 
arrested and imprisoned; all their property was confiscated. 
The only Barmecide who remained unmolested with his family 
was Mahommed the brother of Yahya, who had been the cham- 
berlain of the caliph till 795, when Fadl b. Rabi' got his place. 
This latter had henceforward the greatest influence at court. 

In the same year a revolution at Constantinople overthrew the 
empress Irene. The new emperor Nicephorus, thinking himself 
strong enough to refuse the payment of tribute, wrote an insulting 
letter to Harun, who contented himself with replying: " Thou 
shall not hear, but see, my answer." He entered Asia Minor and 
took Heraclea, plundering and burning along his whole line of 
march, till Nicephorus, in alarm, sued for peace. Scarcely had 
the caliph returned into winter quarters when Nicephorus broke 
the treaty. When the news came to Rakka, where Harun was 
residing, not one of the ministers ventured to tell him, until at 
last a poet introduced it in a poem which pleased the monarch. 
Notwithstanding the rigour of the season, Harun retraced his 
steps, and Nicephorus was compelled to observe his engagements. 
In' 805 the first great ransoming of Moslem prisoners took place 
on the banks of the little river Lamus in Cilicia. But Nicephorus:, 
profiting by serious disturbances in Khorasan, broke the treaty 
again, and overran the country as far as Anazarha and Kanisat 
as-sauda (" the black church ") on the frontier,. where he took 
many prisoners, who were, however, recovered by the garrison of 
Mopsuestia. Thus Harun was obliged to take the field again. 
He entered Asia Minor with an army of 135,000 regulars, beside 
volunteers and camp followers. Heraclea was taken, together 
with many other places, and Tyana was made a military station. 
At the same time his admiral, Homaid b. Ma'yuf, conquered 
Cyprus, which had broken the treaty, and took 16,000 of its 
people captive. Nicephorus was now so completely beaten that 
he was compelled to submit to very harsh conditions. In the 
year 808 the second ransoming between the Moslems and the 
Greeks took place near the river Lamus. 

The disturbances in Khorasan were caused by the malversa- 
tions of the governor of that province, Ali b. 'Isa. b. Mahan. 
The caliph went in person to Merv, in order to judge of the 
reality of the complaints which had reached him. Ali b. 'Isa 
hastened to meet the caliph on his arrival at Rai (Rhagae), 
near the modern Teheran, with a great quantity of costly 
presents, which he distributed with such profusion among the 
princes and courtiers that no one was anxious to accuse him. 
Harun confirmed him in his post, and, after having received the 
chiefs of Tabaristan who came to tender their submission, 
returned through Bagdad to Rakka on the Euphrates, which 
city was his habitual residence. In the following year Rafi' b. 
Laith, a grandson of Nasr b. Sayyar, raised the standard of revolt 
in Samarkand, and, at the head, of a numerous army, defeated 
the son of Ali b. 'Isa. Thereupon Ali fled from Balkh, leaving 

the treasury, which was plundered by the populace after his 
departure. The caliph on learning that the revolt was due to 
Ali's tyranny, sent Harthama b. A'yan with stringent orders 
to seize Ali and confiscate his possessions. This order was carried 
out, and it is recorded that 1 500 camels were required to transport 
the confiscated treasures. The caliph's hope that Rafi' would 
submit on condition of receiving a free pardon was not fulfilled, 
and he resolved to set out himself to Khorasan, taking with him 
his second son Mamun. On the journey he was attacked by an 
internal malady, which carried him off, ten months after his 
departure from Bagdad, a.h. 193 (March 809), just on his arrival 
at the city of Tus. Hartin was only forty-five years of age. He 
was far from having the high qualifications of his grandfather 
Mansur; indeed he did not even possess the qualities of his 
father and his brother. When the latter asked him to renounce 
his right of succession, he was willing to consent; saying that 
a quiet life with his beloved wife, the princess Zobaida, was 
his highest wish, but he obeyed his mother and Yahya b. Khalid. 
As long as the Barmecides were in office, he acted only on 
their direction. After their disgrace he was led into many 
impolitic actions by his violent and often cruel propensities. 
But the empire was, especially in the earlier part of his reign, 
in a very: prosperous state, and was respected widely by foreign 
powers. Embassies passed between Charlemagne and Hartin 
in the years 180 (a.d. 797) and 184 (a.d. 801), by which the 
former obtained facilities for the pilgrims to the Holy Land, the- 
latter probably concessions for the trade on the Mediterranean 
ports. The ambassadors brought presents with them; on one 
of these occasions the first elephant reached the land of the 
Franks. . ; . 

Under the reign of Hartin, Ibrahim b. al-Aghlab, the governor 
of Africa, succeeded in making himself independent of the central 
government, on condition of paying a fixed annual tribute -to his 
suzerain the caliph. This was, if we do not take Spain into the 
account, the first instance of dismemberment, later to be followed 
by many others. 

In the days of this caliph the first paper factories were founded 
in Bagdad. 

6. Reign of Amin.- — On the death of Hartin his minister, 
Fadl b. Rabi", with the view of gaining the new caliph's con- 
fidence, hastened to call together all the troops of the late caliph 
and to lead them back to Bagdad, in order to place them in the 
hands of the new sovereign, Amin. He even, in direct violation 
of Harun's will, led back the corps which was intended to occupy 
Khorasan under the authority of Mamun. Aware, however, 
that in thus acting he was making Mamun his irreconcilable 
enemy, he persuaded Amin to exclude Mamun from the succes- 
sion. Mamun, on receiving his brother's invitation to go to 
Bagdad, was greatly perplexed; but his tutor and later vizier, 
Fadl b. Sahl, a Zoroastrian of great influence, who in 806 had 
adopted Islam, reanimated his courage, and pointed out to him 
that certain death awaited him at Bagdad. Mamun resolved 
to hold out, and found pretexts for remaining in Khorasan. 
Amin, in anger, caused the will of his father, which, as we have 
seen, was preserved in the Ka'ba, to be destroyed, declared on 
his own authority that Mamun's rights of succession were 
forfeited, and caused the army to swear allegiance to his own son 
Mtisa, a child of five, on whom he bestowed the title of an^Natiq 
bil-Haqq (" he who speaks according to truth "), a.h. 194 (a.d. 
809-810). On hearing the news, Mamun, strong in the rightful- 
ness of his claim, retaliated by suppressing the caliph's name in 
all public acts. Amin immediately despatched to Khorasan an 
army of 40,000 under the command of Ali b. 'Isa, who had re- 
gained his former influence, and told the caliph that, at his 
coming to Khorasan, all the leading men would come over to his 
side. Zobaida, the mother of the caliph, entreated Ali to treat 
Mamun kindly when he should have made him captive. It is 
said that Fadl b. Sahl had, through a secret agent, induced 
Fadl b. Rabi' to select Ali, knowing that the dislike felt towards 
him by the Khorasanians would double their strength in fighting 
against him. Mamun; on his side, sent in all haste an army of 
less than 4000 men of his faithful Khorasanians, and entrusted 



their command to Tahir b. Hosain, who displayed remarkable 
abilities in the war that ensued. The two armies met under the 
walls of Rai (Shaaban 195, May 811). By a bold attack, in the 
manner of the Kharijites of yore, Tahir penetrated into the centre 
of the hostile army and killed Ah. The frightened army fled, 
leaving the camp with all its treasures to Tahir, who from that 
day was named " the man with the two right hands." A 
courier was despatched immediately to Merv, who performed the 
journey, a distance of about 750 miles, in three days. On 
the very day of his arrival, Harthama b. A'yan had left Merv 
with reinforcements. Mamun now no longer hesitated to take 
the title of caliph. 

When the news of Ali's defeat came to Bagdad, Amln sent 
Abdarrahman b. Jabala to Hamadan with 20,000 men. Tahir 
defeated him, forced Hamadan to surrender, and occupied all 
the strong places in Jabal (Media). The year after, Amln placed 
in the field two new armies commanded respectively by Ahmad 
b. Mazyad and Abdallah b. Homaid b. Qah^aba. The skilful 
Tahir succeeded in creating divisions among the troops of his 
adversaries, and obtained possession, without striking a blow, 
of the city of Holwan, an advantage which opened the way to 
the very gates of Bagdad. He was here reinforced by troops 
sent from Khorasan under the command of Harthama b. A'yan, 
who was appointed leader of the war against Amln, with orders 
to send Tahir to Ahwaz. Tahir continued his victorious march, 
conquered Ahwaz, took Wasit and Madain, and pitched his camp 
near one of the gates of the capital, where he was rejoined by 
Harthama. One after the other the provinces fell away from 
Amln, and he soon found himself in possession of Bagdad alone. 
The city, though blockaded on every side, made a desperate 
defence for nearly two years. Ultimately the eastern part of 
the city fell into the hands of Tahir, and Amln, deserted by his 
followers, was compelled to surrender. He resolved to treat with 
Harthama, as he was averse to Tahir; but this step caused his 
ruin. Tahir succeeded in intercepting him on his way to Har- 
thama, and immediately ordered him to be put to death. His 
head was sent to Mamun (September 813). It was presented to 
him by his vizier, Fadl, b. Sahl, surnamed Dhu'l-Riyasatain, or 
" the man with two governments," because his master had 
committed to him both the ministry of war and the general 
administration. Mamun hid his joy beneath a feigned display of 

■ Amln was only twenty-eight years old. As a ruler he was 
wholly incompetent. He hardly comprehended the importance 
of the affairs with which he was called upon to deal. He acted 
invariably on the advice of those who for the time had his 
confidence, and occupied himself mainly with the affairs of his 
harem, with polo, fishing, wine and music. The five years of his 
reign were disastrous to the empire, and in particular to Bagdad 
which never entirely recovered its old splendour. 

7. Reign of Mamun. — On the day following the death of 
Amln Tahir caused Mamun to be proclaimed at Bagdad, and 
promised in his name a general amnesty. The accession of this 
prince appeared likely to restore to the empire the order necessary 
for it3 prosperity. It was not so, however. The reign of Mamun — 
that reign in which art, science and letters, under the patronage 
of the caliph, threw so brilliant a lustre — had a very stormy 
beginning. Mamun was in no haste to remove to Bagdad, but 
continued to reside at Merv.. In his gratitude to Fadl b. Sahl, 
to whose service he owed his success, he not only chose him as 
prime minister of the empire, but also named his brother, Hasan 
b. Sahl, governor of Media, Fars, Ahwaz, Arabia and Irak. The 
two generals to whom he owed still more were not treated as 
they deserved. Harthama was ordered to return to Khorasan; 
Tahir was made governor of Mesopotamia and Syria, with the 
task of subduing Nasr b. Shabath, who with numerous adherents 
refused submission to the caliph. The Alids seized on the eleva- 
tion of Mamun as a pretext for fresh revolts. At Kufa a certain 
Ibn Tabataba placed an army in the field under Abu'l-Saraya, 
who had been a captain in the army of Harthama. An army 
sent by Hasan b. Sahl was defeated, and Abu'l-Saraya, no longer 
content to play a second part, poisoned his chief, Ibn Tabataba, 

and put in his place another of the family of Ali, Mahoriuned 
b. Mahommed, whom, on account of his extreme youth, he 
hoped to govern at his will. Abu'l-Saraya's success continued, 
and several cities of Irak — Basra, Wasit and Madain — fell into 
his hands. Mecca, Medina and Yemen also were mastered by 
the Alids, who committed all kinds of atrocities and sacrilege. 
Abu'l-Saraya, who even struck money in Kufa, began to menace 
the capital, when Hasan b. Sahl hastily sent a messenger to 
Harthama b. A'yan, who was already at Holwan on his way back 
to Merv, entreating him to come to his aid. Harthama, who 
was deeply offended by his dismissal, refused at first, but at last 
consented, and at once checked the tide of disaster. The troops 
of the Alids were everywhere driven back, and the whole of Irak 
fell again into the hands of the Abbasids. Kufa opened its 
gates; Basra was taken by assault. Abu'l-Saraya and 
Mahommed b. Mahommed fled to Mesopotamia, but were made 
prisoners. The former was decapitated, the, latter was sent to 
Khorasan, the revolt in Arabia was quickly suppressed, and 
peace seemed within reach. This, however, was by no means 
the case. The disorder of civil war had caused a multitude of 
robbers and vagabonds to emerge from the purlieus of Bagdad. 
These ruffians proceeded to treat the capital as a conquered city, 
and it became necessary for all good citizens to organize them- 
selves into a regular militia. Harthama, having vanquished 
Abu'l-Saraya, did not go to Hasan b. Sahl, but proceeded 
towards Merv with the purpose of telling Mamun that the state 
of affairs was not as Fadl b. Sahl represented it to him, and 
urging him to come to Bagdad, where his presence was necessary. 
Fadl, informed of his intentions, filled the caliph's mind with 
distrust against the old general, so that when Harthama arrived 
Mamun had him cast into prison, where he died shortly after- 
wards. When the tidings of his disgrace came to Bagdad, the 
people expelled the lieutenant of Hasan b. Sahl, called by them 
the Majuzl (" the Zoroastrian "), who had chosen Madain for his 
residence, and put at their head Mansur, a son of Mahdi, who 
refused to assume the title of caliph, but consented to be Mamun's 
vicegerent instead of Hasan b. Sahl. 

Meanwhile, at Merv, Mamun was adopting a decision which 
fell like a thunderbolt on the Abbasids. In a.h. 201 (a.d. 817), 
under pretence of putting an end to the continual revolts of the 
partisans of Ali, and acting on the advice of his prime minister 
Fadl, he publicly designated as his successor in the Caliphate Ali 
ar-Rida, a son of that Musa al-Kazim who perished in the prison 
of Mahdi, a direct descendant of Hosain, the son of Ali, and 
proscribed black, the colour of the Abbasids, in favour of that of 
the house of Ali, green. This step was well calculated to delight 
the followers of Ali, but it could not fail to exasperate the 
Abbasids and their partisans. The people of Bagdad refused to 
take the oath to Ali b. Musa, declared Mamun deposed, and 
elected his uncle, Ibrahim, son of Mahdi, to the Caliphate. 1 It 
was only indirectly that the news reached the caliph, who then 
saw that Fadl had been treating him as a puppet. His anger 
was great, but he kept it carefully to himself. Fadl was one day 
found murdered, and Ah b. Musa died suddenly. The historians 
bring no open accusation against Mamun, but it seems clear 
that the opportune removal of these men was not due to chance. 
Mamun affected the profoundest grief, and, in order to disarm 
suspicion, appointed as bis prime minister the brother of Fadl, 
Hasan b. Sahl, whose daughter Buran he afterwards married. 
Soon after the news came to him that Hasan b. Sahl had become 
insane. Mamun appointed an officer to act as his lieutenant, 
and wrote that he was coming to Bagdad in a short time. From 
that moment the pseudo-caliph Ibrahim found himself deserted, 
and was obliged to seek safety in concealment. His precarious 
reign had, however, lasted nearly two years. Mamun had found 
out also that the general uneasiness was largely due to bis treat- 
ment of Harthama and Tahir, the latter having been put in a 
rebellious country without the men and the money to maintain 
his authority. The caliph therefore wrote to Tahir to meet him 
at Nahrawan, where he was received with the greatest honour. 

1 On this event, see a remarkable essay by Barbier de Meynard 
in the Journal Asiatique for March-April, 1869. 



Having taken all precautions, Mamun now made his solemn 
entry into Bagdad, but, to show that he came as a master, he 
still displayed for several days the green colours, though at last, 
at the request of Tahir, he consented to resume the black. From 
this time, a.h. 204 (August 819), the real reign of Mamun began, 
freed as he now was from the tutelage of Fadl. 

When welcoming Tahir, Mamun bade him ask for any reward 
he might desire. Tahir, fearing lest the caliph, not being able to 
endure the sight of the murderer of his brother, should change 
his mind towards him, contrived to get himself appointed 
governor of Khorasan. Like most of the great Moslem generals, 
Tahir, it is said, had conceived the project of creating an inde- 
pendent kingdom for himself. His death, a.h. 207 (a.d. 822), 
prevented its realization; but as his descendants succeeded him 
one after the other in the post of governor, he may be said in 
reality to have founded a dynasty in Khorasan. His son Abdallah 
b. Tahir was a special favourite of Mamun, He brought Nas,r b. 
Shabath to subjection in Mesopotamia, and overcame by great 
ability a very dangerous rebellion in Egypt. When he returned 
thence, the caliph gave him the choice between the government 
of Khorasan and that of the northern provinces, where he would 
have to combat Babak the Khorramite. Abdallah chose the 
former (see below, § 8). 

The pseudo-caliph, Ibrahim, who, since Mamun's entry into 
Bagdad, had led a wandering life, was eventually arrested. But 
Mamun generously pardoned him, as well as Fadl b. Rabf, the 
chief promoter of the terrible civil war which had so lately 
shaken the empire. After that time, Ibrahim lived- peacefully 
at the court, cultivating the arts of singing and music. 

Tranquillity being now everywhere re-established, Mamun 
gave himself up to science and literature. He caused works on 
mathematics, astronomy, medicine and philosophy to be trans- 
lated from the Greek, and founded in Bagdad a kind of academy, 
called the " House of Science," with a library and an observatory. 
It was also by his orders that two learned mathematicians 
undertook the measurement of a degree of the earth's circum- 
ference. Mamun interested himself too in questions of religious 
dogma. He had embraced the Motazilite doctrine about free will 
and predestination, and was in particular shocked at the opinion 
which had spread among the Moslem doctors that the Koran 
was the uncreated word of God. In the year 212 (a.d. 827) he 
published an edict by which the Motazilite (Mu'tazilite) doctrine 
was declared to be the religion of the state, the orthodox faith 
condemned as heretical. At the same time he ordered all his 
subjects to honour Ali as the best creature of God after the 
Prophet, and forbade the praise of Moawiya. In a.h. 218 (a.d. 
833) a new edict appeared by which all judges and doctors 
were summoned to renounce the error of the uncreated word of 
God. Several distinguished doctors, and, among others, the 
celebrated Ahmad b. Hanbal (q.v.), founder of one of the four 
orthodox Moslem schools, were obliged to appear before an 
inquisitorial tribunal; and as they persisted in their belief 
respecting the Koran, they were thrown into prison. Mamun, 
being at Tarsus, received from the governor of Bagdad the report 
of the tribunal, and ordered that the culprits should be sent off 
to him. Happily for these unfortunate doctors, they had 
scarcely reached Adana, when news of the caliph's death 
arrived and they were brought back to Bagdad. The two 
successors of Mamun maintained the edicts — Ahmad b. Hanbal, 
who obstinately refused to yield, was flogged in the year 834 — 
but it seems that Motasim did not himself take much interest in 
the question, which perhaps he hardly understood, and that the 
prosecution of the inquisition by him was due in great part to 
the charge which was left him in Mamun's will. In the reign of 
Motawakkil the orthodox faith was restored, never to be assailed 
again. 1 

In spite of these manifold activities Mamun did not forget the 
hereditary enemy of Islam. In the years 830, 831 and 832 he 
made expeditions into Asia Minor with such success that Theo- 
philus, the Greek emperor, sued for peace, which Mamun 

1 Cf. W. M. Patton, Ahmed ibn Hanbal and the Mihna (Leiden, 
1897) ; and article Mahommedan Religion. « 

haughtily refused to grant. Accordingly, he decided on marching 
in the following year against Amorium, and thence to Constanti- 
nople itself. Having sent before him his son Abbas to make 
Tyana a strong fortress, he set out for Asia Minor to put himself 
at the head of the army, but died of a fever brought on by 
bathing in the chill river, Pedendon, 40 m. from Tarsus, in Rajab 
218 (a.d. August 833), at the age of forty-eight. 

Mamun was a man of rare qualities, and one of the best rulers 
of the whole dynasty after Mansur. By him the ascendancy of 
the Persian element over the Arabian was completed. Moreover, 
he began to attract young Turkish noblemen to his court, an 
example which was followed on a much larger scale by his 
successor and led to the supremacy of the Turks at a later period. 

8. Reign of Motasim. — Abu Ishak al-Mo'tasnn had for a long 
time been preparing himself for the succession. • Every year he 
had bought Turkish slaves, and had with him in the last expedi- 
tion of Mamun a bodyguard of 3000. Backed by this force he 
seems to have persuaded the ailing caliph to designate him as his 
successor. The chroniclers content themselves with recording 
that he himself wrote in the name of the caliph to the chief 
authorities in Bagdad and elsewhere that he was to be the 
successor. His accession, however, met at first with active 
opposition in the army, where a powerful party demanded, 
that Abbas should take the place of his father. Abbas, however, 
publicly renounced all pretension to the Caliphate, and the whole 
army accepted Motasim, who immediately had the fortifications 
of Tyana demolished and hastened back to Bagdad, where he 
made his public entry on the 20th of September 833. 

Motasim wanted officers for his bodyguard. Immediately 
after his coming to Bagdad, he bought all the Turkish slaves 
living there who had distinguished themselves. Among them 
were Ashnas, Itakh, Wasif, Slma, all of whom later became men 
of great influence. The guard was composed of an undisciplined 
body of soldiers, who, moreover, held in open contempt the 
religious precepts of Islam. Tired of the excesses committed 
by these Turks, the people of Bagdad beat or killed as many of 
them as they could lay hands on, and Motasim, not daring to 
act with severity against either his guard or the citizens, took the 
course of quitting the city. Having bought in 834 territories at 
Samarra, a small place situated a few leagues above Bagdad, 
he caused a new residence to be built there, whose name, which 
could be interpreted " Unhappy is he who sees it," was changed 
by him into Sorra-man-ra'a, " Rejoiced is he who sees it." 
Leaving the government of the capital in the hands of his son 
Harun al-Wathiq, he established himself at Samarra in 836. 
This resolution of Motasim was destined to prove fatal to his 
dynasty; for it placed the caliphs at the mercy of their prae- 
torians. In fact, from the time of Wathiq, the Caliphate became 
the plaything of the Turkish guard, and its decline was continuous. 

In the time of the civil war the marshlands in Irak between 
Basra and Wasit had been occupied by a large population of 
Indians, called yat, or, according to the Arabic pronunciation, 
Zott, who infested the roads and levied a heavy tribute from the 
ships ascending and descending the Tigris. From the year 821 
onwards Mamun had tried in vain to bring them to submission. 
When Motasim came back to Bagdad, after the death of his 
brother, he found the people in great distress, their supply of 
dates from Basra having been cut off by the Zott, and resolved 
to put them down with all means. After seven months of 
vigorous resistance, they at last yielded on condition of safety 
of life and property. In January 835 the Zott in their national 
costume and with their own music were conducted on a great 
number of boats through Bagdad. Thence they were transported 
to Ainzarba (Anazarba) on the frontier of the Greek empire. 
Twenty years later they entered Asia Minor, whence in a later 
period they came into Europe, under the name of Athinganoi 
(Ziganes) and Egyptians (gipsies). 2 

A far more difficult task lay before Motasim, the subjection of 
Babak al-Khorraml in Azerbaijan. Though the name Khorrami 
is often employed by the Moslem writers to designate such 

2 See M. J. de Goeje, Memoire sur les migrations des Ziganes a 
travers VAsie (Leiden, 1903) ; also Gipsies. 



extravagant Moslem sectaries as the Hashimlya,the real Khorrami 
were not Moslems, but Persian Mazdaqites, or communists. 
The name Khorrami, or Khorramdlni, " adherent of the pleasant 
religion," seems to be a nickname. As they bore red colours, 
they were also called Mohammira, or Redmakers. Their object 
was to abolish Islam and to restore " the white religion." We 
find the first mention of them in the year 808, when Harun 
al-Rashid sent an army against them. During the civil war 
their power was steadily increasing, and spread not only over 
Azerbaijan, but also over Media (Jabal) and Khorasan. The 
numerous efforts of Mamun to put them down had been all in 
vain, and they were now in alliance with the Byzantine emperor. 
Therefore, in the year 835, Motasim made Afshln, a Turkish 
prince who had distinguished himself already in the days of 
Mamun, governor of Media, with orders to take the lead of the 
war against Babak. After three years' fighting, Babak was 
taken prisoner. He was carried to Samarra, led through the city 
on the back of an elephant, and then delivered to the execu- 
tioners, who cut off his arms and legs. His head was sent to 
Khorasan, his body was crucified. For long afterwards the place 
where this happened bore the name of " Babak's Cross." 

In the hope of creating a diversion in Babak's favour, Theo- 
philus in 837 fell upon and laid waste the frontier town of 
Zibatra. There and in several other places he took a great 
number of prisoners, whom he mutilated. The news arrived just 
after that of the capture of Babak, and Motasim swore to take 
exemplary vengeance. He assembled a formidable army, 
penetrated into Asia Minor, and took the city of Amorium, 
where he gained rich plunder. During his return the caliph 
was informed of a conspiracy in the army in favour of 'Abbas 
the son of Mamun, of which 'Ojaif b. 'Anbasa was the ringleader. 
The unfortunate prince was arrested and died soon after in prison. 
.The conspirators were killed, many of them with great cruelty. 
(For the campaign see Bury in J.H.S., 1909, xxix. pt. i.) 

Motasim had just returned to Samarra when a serious revolt 
broke out in Tabaristan, Maziyar, one of the hereditary chiefs 
of that country, refusing to acknowledge the authority of Abdallah 
Ibn Tahir, the governor of Khorasan, of which Tabaristan was 
a province. The revolt was suppressed with great difficulty, 
and it came out that it was due to the secret instigation of 
Afshln, who hoped thereby to cause the fall of the Tahirids, 
and to take their place, with the ulterior object of founding an 
independent kingdom in the East. Afshln, who stood at that 
moment in the highest favour of the caliph, was condemned 
and died in prison. Motasim died a year later, January 842. 

9. Reign of Wathiq. — His son Wathiq, who succeeded, though 
not in the least to be compared with Mamun, had yet in common 
with him a thirst for knowledge — perhaps curiosity would be a 
more appropriate term — which prompted him, as soon as he 
became caliph, to send tbe famous astronomer Mahommed b. 
Musa into Asia Minor to find out all about the Seven Sleepers 
which he discovered in the neighbourhood of Arabissus, 1 and 
Sallam the Interpreter to explore the situation of the famous 
wall of Gog and Magog, which he reached at the north-west 
frontier of China. 2 For these and other personal pursuits he 
raised money by forcing a number of high functionaries to dis- 
gorge their gains. In so vast an empire the governors and 
administrators had necessarily enjoyed an almost unrestricted 
power,. and this had enabled them to accumulate wealth. Omar 
had already compelled them to furnish an account of their riches, 
and, when he found that they had abused their trust, to relin- 
quish half to the state. As time went on, nomination to an office 
was more and more generally considered a step to wealth. 
During the reign of the Omayyads a few large fortunes were 
made thus. But with the increasing luxury after Mansur, the 
thirst for money became universal, and the number of honest 
officials lessened fast. Confiscation of property had been 

1 See M. J. de Goeje, " De legende der Zevenslapers van Efeze," 
Versl. en Meded. der K. Akad. v. Wetensch. Afd. Letterk. 4 e Reeks, iii., 

2 See M. J. de Goeje, " De muur van Gog en Magog," Versl. en 
Meded. 3° Reeks, v., 1888. 

employed with success by Harun al-Rashid after the disgrace of 
the Barmecides, and occasionally by his successors, but Wathiq 
was the first to imprison high officials and fine them heavily on 
the specific charge of peculation. 

The caliph also shared Mamun's intolerance on the doctrinal 
question of the uncreated Koran. He carried his zeal to such a 
point that, on the occasion of an exchange of Greek against 
Moslem prisoners in 845, he refused to receive those Moslem 
captives who would not declare their belief that the Koran was 
created. The orthodox in Bagdad prepared to revolt, but were 
discovered in time by the governor of the city. The ringleader 
Ahmad b. Nasr al-Khoza'I was seized and brought to Samarra, 
where Wathiq beheaded him in person. The only other event 
of importance in the reign of Wathiq was a rising of the Arabian 
tribes in the environs of Medina, which the Turkish general 
Bogha with difficulty repressed. When he reached Samarra with 
his prisoners, Wathiq had just died (August 846). That the 
predominance of the praetorians was already established is clear 
from the fact that Wathiq gave to two Turkish generals, Ash n as 
and Itakh respectively, the titular but lucrative supreme govern- 
ment of all the western and all the eastern provinces. In his days 
the soldiery at Samarra was increased by a large division of 
Africans (Maghribls). 

10. Reign of Motawakkil. — As Wathiq had appointed no 
successor the vizier Mahommed Zayyat had cast his eye on 
his son Mahommed, who was still a child, but the generals Wasif 
and Itakh, seconded by the upper cadi Ibn abi Da'ud, refused 
their consent, and offered the supreme power to Wathiq's 
brother Ja'far, who at his installation adopted the name of 
al-Motawakkil 'aid 'llah (" he who trusts in God "). The new 
caliph hated the vizier Zayyat, who had opposed his election, and 
had him seized and killed with the same atrocious cruelty which 
the vizier himself had inflicted on others. His possessions, and 
those of others who had opposed the caliph's election, were 
confiscated. But the arrogance of Itakh, to whom he owed his 
Caliphate, became insufferable. So, with the perfidy of his race, 
the caliph took him off his guard, and had him imprisoned and 
killed at Bagdad. He was succeeded by Wasif. 

About this time an impostor named Mahmud b. Faraj had set 
himself up as a prophet, claiming to be Dhu'l-Qarnain (Alexander 
the Great) risen from the dead. Asserting that Gabriel brought 
him revelations, he had contrived to attract twenty -seven 
followers. The caliph had him flogged, and compelled each of 
the twenty-seven to give him ten blows on the head with his 
fist. The " prophet " expired under the blows (850). 

One of the first acts of Motawakkil was the release of all those 
who had been imprisoned for refusing to admit the dogma of the 
created Koran, and the strict order to abstain from any litigation 
about the Book of God. The upper cadi Ibn abi Da'ud, the 
leader of the movement against orthodoxy, who had stood in 
great esteem with Mamun and had fulfilled his high office under 
the reigns of Motasim and Wathiq, had a stroke of paralysis in 
the year 848. His son Mahommed was put in his place till 851, 
when all the members of the family were arrested. They released 
themselves by paying the enormous sum of 240,000 dinars and 
16,000,000 dirhems, which constituted nearly their whole 
fortune, and were then sent to Bagdad, where father and son 
died three years later. An orthodox upper cadi was named 
instead, and the dogma of the created Koran was declared 
heresy; therewith began a persecution of all the adherents of 
that doctrine and other Motazilite tenets. Orthodoxy triumphed, 
never again to lose its place as the state religion. Hand in hand 
with these reactionary measures came two others, one against 
Jews and Christians, one against the Shi'ites. The first caliph 
who imposed humiliating conditions on the Dhimmls, or Cove- 
nanters, who, on condition of paying a certain not over-heavy 
tribute, enjoyed the protection of the state and the free exercise 
of their cult, was Omar II., but this policy was not continued. 
A proposition by the cadi Abu Yiisuf to Harun al-Rashid to 
renew it had not been adopted. Motawakkil, in 850, formulated 
an edict by which these sectaries were compelled to wear a 
distinctive dress and to distinguish their houses by a figure of 


the devil nailed to the door, excluding them at the same time 
from all public employments, and forbidding them to send their 
children to Moslem schools. Nevertheless, he kept his Christian 
medical men, some of whom were high in favour. He showed 
his hatred for the Shi'ites by causing the mausoleum erected over 
the tomb of Hosain at Kerbela, together with all the buildings 
surrounding it, to be levelled to the ground and the site to be 
ploughed up, and by forbidding any one to visit the spot. A year 
before, a descendant of Hosain, Yahya b. Omar, had been arrested 
and flogged on his orders. He escaped afterwards, rose in 
rebellion at Kufa in 864, and was killed in battle. It is reported 
that the caliph even permitted one of his buffoons to turn the 
person of Ali into mockery. 

In the year 848-849 Ibn Ba'ith, who had rendered good service 
in the war against Babak, but had for some cause been arrested, 
fled from Samarra to Marand in Azerbaijan and revolted. Not 
without great difficulty Bogha, the Turkish general, succeeded 
in taking the town and making Ibn Ba'ith prisoner. He was 
brought before Motawakkil and died in prison. In the year 237 
(a.d. 851-852) a revolt broke out in Armenia. Notwithstanding 
a vigorous resistance, Bogha subdued and pacified the province 
in the following year. In that same year, 852-853, the Byzan- 
tines made a descent on Egypt with 300 vessels. 'Anbasa the 
governor had ordered the garrison of Damietta to parade at the 
capital Fostat. The denuded town was taken, plundered and 
burned. The Greeks then destroyed all the fortifications at the 
mouth of the Nile near Tinnis, and returned with prisoners and 
booty. The annual raids of Moslems and Greeks in the border 
districts of Asia Minor were attended with alternate successes, 
though on the whole the Greeks had the upper hand. In 856 
they penetrated as far as Amid (Diarbekr), and returned with 
10,000 prisoners. But in the year 859 the Greeks suffered a 
heavy defeat with losses of men and cattle, the emperor Michael 
himself was in danger, whilst the fleet of the Moslems captured 
and sacked Antalia. This was followed by a truce and an 
exchange of prisoners in the following year. 

In 855 a revolt broke out in Horns (Emesa), where the harsh 
conditions imposed by the caliph on the Christians and Jews 
had caused great discontent. It was repressed after a vigorous 
resistance. A great many leading men were flogged to death, 
all churches and synagogues were destroyed and all the Christians 

In the year 851 the Boja (or Beja), a wild people living between 
the Red Sea and the Nile of Upper Egypt, the Blemmyes of the 
ancients, refused to pay the annual tribute, and invaded the 
land of the gold and emerald mines, so that the working of the 
mines was stopped. The caliph sent against them Mahommed 
al-Qomml, who subdued them in 856 and brought their king 
Ali Baba to Samarra before Motawakkil, on condition that he 
should be restored to his kingdom. 

About this time Sijistan liberated itself from the supremacy 
of the Tahirids. Ya'qub b. Laith al-Saffar proclaimed himself 
amir of that province in the year 860, and was soon after con- 
firmed in this dignity by the caliph. 

In 858 Motawakkil, hoping to escape from the arrogant 
patronage of Wasif, who had taken the place of Itakh as head 
of the Turkish guard, transferred his residence to Damascus. 
But the place did not agree with him, and he returned to Samarra, 
where he caused a magnificent quarter to be built 3 m. from the 
city, which he called after his own name Ja'fariya, and on which 
he spent more than two millions of dinars (about £900,000). 
He found the means by following the example of his predecessor 
in depriving many officials of their ill-gotten gains. He contrived 
to enrol in his service nearly 12,000 men, for the greater part 
Arabs, in order to crush the Turks. In the year of his elevation 
to the Caliphate, he had regulated the succession to the empire 
in his own family by designating as future caliphs his three sons, 
al-Montasir billah (" he who seeks help in God "), al-Mo'tazz 
billah (" he whose strength is of God "), and al-Mowayyad billah 
(" he who is assisted by God "). By and by he conceived an 
aversion to his eldest son, and wished to supplant him by Motazz, 
the son of bis favourite wife Qablha. The day had been fixed on 1 

which Montasir, Wasif and several other Turkish generals were 
to be assassinated. But Wasif and Montasir had been informed, 
and resolved to anticipate him. In the night before, Shawwal 
a.h. 247 (December 861), Motawakkil, after one of his wonted 
orgies, was murdered, together with his confidant, Fath b. Khaqan. 
The official report, promulgated by his successor, was that Fath 
b. Khaqan had murdered his master and had been punished for 
it by death. For the administrative system in this reign see 
Mahommed an Institutions. 

11. Reign of Montasir. — On the very night of his father's 
assassination Montasir had himself proclaimed caliph. He was 
a man of very feeble character, and a mere puppet in the hands 
of his vizier Ahmad b. Khaslb and the Turkish generals/ He 
was compelled to send Wasif, the personal enemy of Ibn Khaslb, 
to the frontier for a term of four years, and then to deprive his 
two brothers Motazz and Mowayyad, who were not agreeable to 
them, of their right of succession. He died six months after, by 
poison, it is said. 

12. Reign of Mosta'in. — The Turkish soldiery, now the chief 
power in the state, chose, by the advice of Ibn Khaslb, in suc- 
cession to Montasir, his cousin Ahmad, who took the title of 
al-Mosta'in billah (" he who looks for help to God ")• In the 
reign of this feeble prince the Greeks inflicted serious losses on 
the Moslems in Asia Minor. A great many volunteers from all 
parts, who offered their services, were hunted down as rioters 
by the Turkish generals, who were wholly absorbed by their 
own interests. The party which had placed Mosta'in on the 
throne, led by Ibn Khaslb and Otamish, were soon overpowered 
by Wasif and Bogha. Ibn Khaslb was banished to Crete, 
Otamish murdered. The superior party, however, maintained 
Mosta'in on the throne, because they feared lest Motaizz should 
take vengeance upon them for the murder of his father Mota- 
wakkil. But in the year 865 Wasif and Bogha fled with Mosta'in 
to Bagdad, and Motazz was proclaimed caliph at Samarra. A 
terrible war ensued; Mosta'in was obliged to abdicate, and was 
killed in the following year. 

In 864 a descendant of Ali, named Hasan b. Zaid, gained 
possession of Tabaristan and occupied the great city of Rai 
(Rey) near Teheran. A year later the province was reconquered 
by the Tahirid governor of Khorasan, so that Hasan was obliged 
to retreatfor refuge to the land of the Dailam. But he returned 
soon, and after many reverses ruled over Tabaristan and Jorjan 
for many years. 

13. Reign of Motazz. — Motazz, proclaimed caliph at Bagdad 
in the first month of 252 (January 866), devoted himself to the 
object of freeing himself from the omnipotent Turkish generals, 
especially Wasif and Bogha, who had opposed his election. But 
such a task demanded an ability and energy which he did not 
possess. He was obliged to grant them amnesty and to recall 
them to Samarra. He mistrusted also his brothers Mowayyad 
and Mowaffaq, who had interceded for them. He put the former 
to death and drove the latter into exile to Bagdad. Some time 
after he had the satisfaction of seeing Wasif killed by his own 
troops, and succeeded, a year later, in having Bogha assassinated. 
But a more difficult problem was the payment of the Turkish, 
Persian and African guards, which was said to have amounted 
in a.h. 252 to 200,000,000 dirhems 1 (about £6,500,000), 01 
apparently twice the revenue derived from the land tax. As the 
provincial revenues annually decreased, it became impossible 
to pay this sum, and Salih the son of Wasif, in spite of the 
remonstrances of the caliph, confiscated the property of state 
officials. Upon a further demand, Motazz, having failed to 
procure money from his mother Qablha, who was enormously 
rich, was seized upon and tortured, and died of starvation in 
prison (Shaaban 255, July 868). 

The dismemberment of the empire continued fast in these 
years, and the caliph was compelled to recognize the virtual 
independence of the governors Ya'qub the Saffarid (see Saf- 
farids and Persia, History, § B) in Seistan, and Ahmad 
b. Tulun in Egypt. 

1 " Dinars " in the text of Tabari iii. 1685, must be an error 
for " dirhems." 



14. Reign of Mohtadi, — Immediately after the seizure of 
Motazz, the Turks, led by Salih b. Waslfy proclaimed as caliph 
one of the sons of Wathiq with the title of al-Mohtadi billah 
(" the guided by God "), who, however, refused to occupy the 
throne until his predecessor had solemnly abdicated. Mohtadi, 
who was a man of noble and generous spirit and had no lack of 
energy, began by applying the precarious measure of power 
which was left him to the reform of the court. He banished the 
musicians and singers, and forbade all kinds of games; he 
devoted himself to the administration of justice, and gave 
public audiences to the people for the redress of their grievances. 
At the same time he contrived to elevate the power of the Abna, 
the descendants of those Persian soldiers who had established 
the dynasty of the Abbasids, in order to break the supremacy 
of the Turks and other mercenaries. But Mohtadi came too 
late, and the Turks did not leave him time to finish his work. 

On the news of the conspiracy against Motazz, Musa, the son 
of the famous general Bogha, 1 then governor of Media (Jabal), 
ordered his deputy-general Moflih to return at once from a pro- 
posed invasion of Dailam, and moved with his army towards 
Samarra, notwithstanding the peremptory orders of the caliph. 
At his approach Salih, who was afraid of Musa, hid himself, 
but was soon discovered and killed. At that moment a Kharijite, 
named Mosawir, who in 867 had risen in Mesopotamia and 
beaten more than one general of the government, took Balad 
and menaced Mosul. Musa could not refuse to comply with the 
formal command of the caliph to march against him. During 
the absence of these troops, Mohtadi seems to have tried to get 
rid of the principal Turkish leaders. A brother of Musa and one 
of his best generals, Bayikbeg (Baiekbak), were killed, but the 
soldiery he had gained over for himself were not strong enough. 
Mohtadi was overwhelmed and killed, Rajab 256 (June 870). 

15. Reign of Motamid. — Whether from weariness or from 
repentance, the Turkish soldiery discontinued for a time their 
hateful excesses, and their new leader, Musa b. Bogha, was 
without the greed and ambition of his predecessors. A son of 
Motawakkil was brought out of prison to succeed his cousin, and 
reigned for twenty-three years under the name of al-Mo'tatnid 
'ala'lldh ("he whose support is God ") . He was a feeble, pleasure- 
loving monarch, but Mohtadi had regained for the Caliphate 
some authority, which was exercised by Obaidallah b. Khaqan, 
the able vizier of Mohtadi, and by Motamid's talented brother 
Abu Ahmad al-Mowaffaq; Miisa b. Bogha himself remained till 
his death a staunch servant of the government. During the 
reign of Motamid great events took place. The great power long 
wielded by the Tahirids, not only in the eastern provinces, but 
also at Bagdad itself, had been gradually diminishing, and came 
to an end in the year 873, when Ya'qub the Saffarid occupied 
Nishapur and imprisoned Mahommed b. Tahir with his whole 
family. The power of Ya'qub then increased to such an extent 
that he was not content with the caliph's offer to recognize him 
as supreme in the provinces he had conquered, and military 
governor of Bagdad, but marched against Irak. The caliph 
himself, wearing the mantle and the staff of the Prophet, then 
went out against him, and after a vigorous resistance he 'was 
beaten by Mowaffaq, who had the command of the troops, and 
fled to Jondisapur in Khuzistan, where he died three years later, 
leaving his empire to his brother 'Amr. This prince maintained 
himself in power till the year 900, when he was beaten and taken 
prisoner by Isma'Il b. Ahmed the Samanid. The Samanids had 
been governors of Transoxiana from the time of Mamun, and 
after the fall of the Tahirids, had been confirmed in this office 
by the caliph. After 287 (900) they were independent princes, 
and under their dominion these districts attained to high 

Motamid had also to deal with a rising of the negro slaves in 
the province of Basra, led by one Ali b. Mahommed, who called 
himself a descendant of Ali. It lasted from 869 to 883, and tasked 
the government to its utmost. 2 

'This Bogha was called al-Kabir, or major; the ally of Wasif, 
a man of much inferior consideration, al-Saghir, or minor. 
8 See Noldeke, Orientalische Skizzen, pp. 155 seq. 

In the west, Ahmad b. Ttilun became a mighty prince, whose 
sway extended over Syria and a part of Mesopotamia. Motamid, 
who wished to free himself from the guardianship of his brothel 
Mowaffaq, concerted with him a plan to emigrate to Egypt, 
Ahmad being himself angered against Mowaffaq on personal 
grounds. Motamid's flight was stopped by his vizier Ibn 
Makhlad, and the caliph himself was reconducted to Samarra 
as a prisoner in the year 882. From that time there was war 
between the Abbasids and the Tfllunids. Ahmad died in 270 
(884). His son Khomaruya succeeded him, and maintained 
himself in power till his death in 896, in which year his daughter 
was married to the caliph Motadid. Ten years later Egypt was 
conquered by a general of the caliph Moktafl. 

During the reign of Motamid the emperor Basil I. conducted 
the war against the Moslems with great success, till in the year 
270 (a.d. 884) his army suffered a terrible defeat near Tarsus, 
in which the greater part of the army, the commander Andreas, 
and many other patricians perished. 

Motamid had appointed his son al-Mofawwid as successor to 
the Caliphate, and after him his brother Mowaffaq. When the 
latter died in the year 891, his son Abu '1-' Abbas, al-Mo'tadid 
("he who seeks his support in God"), was put in his place. 
Next year Mofawwid was compelled to abdicate in favour of his 
cousin. Shortly after Motamid died, Rajab 279 (October 892). 
Not long before these events, the seat of the Caliphate bad been 
restored to Bagdad. 

16. Reign of Motadid.— Motadid may be called, after Mansur, 
the most able and energetic of all the Abbasid rulers. He took 
good care of the finances, reformed the administration, was an 
excellent commander in war, and maintained order as far as 
possible. The Kharijites in Mesopotamia, who for many years 
had molested the government, were finally crushed with the aid 
of their former ally Hamdan, who became the founder of the 
well-known dynasty of the Hamdanites. The mighty house 
of Abu Dolaf in the south-west of Media, which had never 
ceased to encroach on the Caliphate, was put down. The 
governor of Azerbaijan and Armenia, belonging to the powerful 
Turkish house of the Sajids or Sajites, whose loyalty was always 
doubtful, planned an invasion of Syria and Egypt. Motadid 
frustrated it by a quick movement. The citizens of Tarsus who 
were involved in the plot were severely punished. The chief 
punishment, however, the burning of the fleet, wa/ a very 
impolitic measure, as it strengthened the hands of the Byzantines. 

Almost simultaneously with the rising of the negro slaves 
in Basra there arose in the province of Kufa the celebrated 
sect of the Carmathians (q.v.) , Fatimites 3 or Isma'ilites. This 
powerful sect, which save for a difference of opinion would have 
joined the negro rising, remained outwardly quiet during 
Motamid's reign, but under Motadid the government began to 
have misgivings about them. Abu Sa'Id al-Jannabl, who had 
founded a Carmathian state in Bahrein, the north-eastern 
province of Arabia (actually called Lahsa), which could become 
dangerous for the pilgrim road as well as for the commerce of 
Basra, in the year 900 routed an army sent against him by 
Motadid, and warned the caliph that it would be safer to let the 
Carmathians alone. In the same year the real chief of the sect, 
whose abode had been discovered by the caliph, fled from 
Salamia in Syria, where he lived, to Africa, and hid himself at 
Sijilmasa (in Tafilalt) in the far west, whence he reappeared 
ten years later at Kairawan as the Mahdi, the first caliph of the 
Fatimites. 4 

Motadid died in Rabia II. a.h. 289 (March 902), leaving the 
Caliphate to his son al-Mokt&fl billah (" he who sufficeth himself 
in God "). 

17. Reign of'Moktafi. — Moktafi inherited his father's intre- 
pidity, and seems to have had high personal qualities, but his 
reign of six years was a constant struggle against the Carmathians 
in Syria, who defeated the Syrian and Egyptian troops, and 

s For the connexion between Carmathians and Fatimites see under 

1 M. J. de Goeje, Memoire sur les Carmathes du Bahrain el les 
Fatimides (Leiden, 1886). 



conquered Damascus and other cities. Moktafi led his troops 
in person, and his general, Mahommed b. Suleiman, gained a 
signal victory. Three of their chiefs were taken and put to death. 
But, to avenge their defeat, they lay in wait for the great pilgrim 
caravan on its return from Mecca in the first days of 294 (906), 
and massacred 20,000 pilgrims, making an immense booty. 
This horrible crime raised the whele Moslem world against 
them. Zikriiya their chief was defeated at last and perished. 

After the defeat of the Syrian Carmathians, Mahommed b. 
Suleiman was sent by the caliph to Egypt, where he overthrew 
the dominion of the TulQnids. 'Isa b. Mahommed al-Naushari 
was made governor in their stead (905). 

The war with the Byzantines was conducted with great energy 
during the reign of Moktafi. In the year 905 the Greek general 
Andronicus took Marash, and penetrated as far as Haleb 
(Aleppo), but the Moslems were successful at sea, and in 907 
captured Iconium, whilst Andronicus went over to the caliph's 
side, so that the Byzantine emperor sent an embassy to Bagdad 
to ask for a truce and an exchange of prisoners. 

18. Reign of Moqtadir. — The sudden death of Moktafi, Dhu'l- 
qa'da 295 (August 908), was a fatal blow to the prestige of the 
Caliphate, which had revived under the successive governments of 
Mowaffaq, Motadid and himself. The new caliph, al-Moqtadir 
billah (" the powerful through God "), a brother of Moktafi, was 
only thirteen years of age when he ascended the throne. Owing 
to his extreme youth many of the leading men at Bagdad rebelled 
and swore allegiance to Abdallah, son of the former caliph 
Motazz, a man of excellent character and of great poetical gifts; 
but the party of the house of Motadid prevailed, and the rival 
caliph was put to death. Moqtadir, though not devoid of noble 
qualities, allowed himself to be governed by his mother and her 
ladies and eunuchs. He began by squandering the 15,000,000 
dinars which were in the treasury when his brother died in 
largesses to his courtiers, who, however, merely increased their 
demands. His very able vizier, the noble and disinterested 
Ali b. 'Isa, tried to check this foolish expenditure, but his efforts 
were more than counterbalanced by the vizier Ibn abi'l-Forat 
and the court. The most shameless bribery and the robbery 
of the well-to-do went together with the most extravagant 
luxury. The twenty-four years of Moqtadir's reign are a period 
of rapid decay. The most important event in the reign was the 
foundation of the Fatimite dynasty, which reigned first in the 
Maghrib and then in Egypt for nearly three centuries (see 
Fatimites and Egypt: History, " Mahommedan "). 

Far more dangerous, however, for the Caliphate of Bagdad 
at the time were the Carmathians of Bahrein, then guided by 
Abu Tahir, the son of Abu Sa'Id Jannabl. In 311 (a.d. 923) 
they took and ransacked Basra; in the first month of the 
following year the great pilgrim caravan on its return from 
Mecca was overpowered; 2500 men perished, while an even larger 
number were made prisoners and brought to Lahsa, the residence 
of the Carmathian princes, together with an immense booty. 
The caravan which left Bagdad towards the end of this year 
returned in all haste before it had covered a third of the way. 
Then Kufa underwent the fate that had befallen Basra. In 313 
(a.d. 926) the caravan was allowed to pass on payment of a large 
sum of money. The government of Bagdad resolved to crush 
the Carmathians, but a large army was utterly defeated by Abu 
Tahir in 315 (927), and Bagdad was seriously threatened. Next 
year Mecca was taken and plundered; even the sacred Black 
Stone was transported to Lahsa, where it remained till 339 (950), 
when by the express order of the Imam, the Fatimite caliph, it 
was restored to the Ka'ba. 

In 317 (929) a conspiracy was formed to dethrone Moqtadir, 
to which Munis, the chief commander of the army, at first 
assented, irritated by false reports. Very soon he withdrew, 
and though he could not prevent the plundering of the palace, 
and the proclamation as caliph of another son of Motadid with 
the title al-Qahir billah (" the victorious through God "), he 
rescued Moqtadir and his mother, and at the same time his 
imprisoned friend Ali b. 'Isa, and brought them to his own house. 
A few days later, a counter-revolution took place; the leaders 

of the revolt were killed, and Moqtadir, against his wish, was 
replaced on the throne. In 320 (a.d. 932) Munis, discovering 
a court intrigue against him, set out for Mosul, expecting that 
the Hamdanids, who owed to him their power, would join him. 
Instead of doing this, they opposed him with a numerous army, 
but were defeated. Munis took Mosul, and having received 
reinforcements from all parts, marched against Bagdad. The 
caliph, who wished nothing more than to be reconciled to his old 
faithful servant, was forced to take arms against him, and fell in 
battle Shawwal 320 (October 932), at the age of 38 years. His 
reign, which lasted almost twenty-five years, was in all respects 
injurious to the empire. 

19. Reign of Qahir. — After the victory Munis acted with 
great moderation and proclaimed a general amnesty. His own 
wish was to call Abu Ahmad, a son of Moktafi, or a son of Moq- 
tadir, to the Caliphate, but the majority of generals preferring 
Qahir because he was an adult man and had no mother at his 
side, he acquiesced, although he had a personal dislike for him, 
knowing his selfish and cruel character. Qahir was a drunkard, 
and derived the money for his excesses from promiscuous con- 
fiscation. He ill-treatetl the sons of Moqtadir and Abu Ahmad, 
and ultimately assassinated his patrons Munis and Yalbak, 
whose guardianship he resented. In Jornada I. 322 (April 
934) he was dethroned and blinded, and died in poverty seven 
years later. 

During the last years of Moqtadir and the reign of Qahir a 
new dynasty rose. Buya, the chief of a clan of the Dailam, a 
warlike people who inhabit the mountainous country south-west 
of the Caspian Sea, had served under the Samanids, and found a 
footing in the south of Media (Jabal), whence his three sons — 
well known under the titles they assumed at a later period: 
Tmad addaula (" prop of the dynasty "), Rokn addaula (" pillar 
of the dynasty "), and Mo'izz addaula (" strengthener of the 
dynasty ") — succeeded in subduing the province of Fars, at the 
time of Qahir's dethronement (see Persia: History). 

20. Reign of Radi. — Moqtadir's son, who was then proclaimed 
caliph under the name of ar-Rddi billah (" the content through 
God"), was pious and well-meaning, but inherited only the 
shadow of power. The vizier Ibn Moqla tried to maintain his 
authority at least in Irak and Mesopotamia, but without success. 
The treasury was exhausted, the troops asked for pay, the people 
in Bagdad were riotous. In this extremity the caliph bade 
Ibn Raiq, who had made himself master of Basra and Wasit, 
and had command of money and men, to come to his help. He 
created for him the office of Amir al-Omara, " Amir of the 
Amirs," which nearly corresponds to that of Mayor of the Palace 
among the Franks. 1 Thenceforth the worldly power of the 
Caliphate was a mere shadow. The empire was by this time 
practically reduced to the province of Bagdad; Khorasan and 
Transoxiana were in the hands of the Samanids, Fars in those 
of the Buyids; Kirman and Media were under independent 
sovereigns; the Hamdanids possessed Mesopotamia; the Sajids 
Armenia and Azerbaijan; the Ikshldites Egypt; as we have 
seen, the Fatimites Africa, the Carmathians Arabia. The Amir 
al-Omara was obliged to purchase from the latter the freedom 
of the pilgrimage to Mecca, at the price of a disgraceful treaty. 

During the troubles of the Caliphate the Byzantines had made 
great advances; they had even taken Malatia and Samosata 
(Samsat). But the great valour of the Hamdanid prince Saif- 
addaula checked their march. The Greek army suffered two 
severe defeats and sued for peace. 

21. Reign of Mottaqi. — Radi diedinRabial. A.H.329 (December 
940). Another son of Moqtadir was then proclaimed caliph 
under the name of al-Mottaqi billah (" he who guards himself by 
God ") . At the time of his accession the Amir al-Omara was the 
Turkish general Bajkam, in whose favour Ibn Raiq had been 
obliged to retire. Unfortunately Bajkam died soon after, and 
his death was followed by general anarchy. A certain Barldl, 
who had carved out for himself a principality in the province of 
Basra, marched against Bagdad and made himself master of 
the capital, but was soon driven out by the Dailamite general 

1 See Defremery, Memoire sur les Emirs al-Omara (Paris, 1848). 



Kurtakln. Ibn Raiq came back and reinstated himself as Amir 
al-Omara. But Barldl again laid siege to Bagdad, and Mottaqi 
fled to Nasir addaula the Hamdanid prince of Mosul, who then 
marched against Bagdad, and succeeded in repelling Barldl. 
In return he obtained the office of Amir al-Omara. But the 
Dailamite and Turkish soldiery did not suffer him to keep this 
office longer than several months. Tuzun, a former captain of 
Bajkam, compelled him to return to Mosul and took his place. 
Mottaqi fled again to Mosul and thence to Rakka. The Ikshid, 
sovereign of Egypt and Syria, offered him a refuge, but Tuzun, 
fearing to see the caliph obtain such powerful support, found 
means to entice him to his tent, and had his eyes put out, Saphar 
333 (October 944). 

22. Reign of Mostakfi. — As successor Tuzun chose al-Mostakfi 
billdh ("he who finds full sufficiency with God"), a son of 
Moktafi. This prince, still more than his predecessors, was 
a mere puppet in the hands of Tuzun, who died a few months 
later, and his successor Ibn Shirzad. Such was the weakness 
of the caliph that a notorious robber, named Hamdl, obtained 
immunity for his depredations by a monthly payment of 25,000 
dinars. One of the Buyid princes, wtiose power had been 
steadily increasing, marched about this time against Bagdad, 
which he entered in Jornada I. a.h. 334 (December 945), and was 
acknowledged by the caliph as legal sovereign, under the title 
of Sultan. He assumed at this time the name of Mo'izz addaula. 
Mostakfi was soon weary of this new master, and plotted against 
him. At least Mo'izz addaula suspected him and deprived him 
of his eyesight, Jornada II. a.h. 334 (January 946). There were 
thus in Bagdad three caliphs who had been dethroned and 
blinded, Qahir, Mottaqi and Mostakfi. 

23. Reign of Moti. — Mo'izz addaula soon abandoned his 
original idea of restoring the title of caliph to one of the descend- 
ants of Ali, fearing a strong opposition of the people, and also 
dreading lest this should lead to the recovery by the caliphs of 
their former supremacy. His choice fell on a son of Moqtadir, 
who took the title of al-Motl' billdh ("he who obeys God"). 
The sultan, reserving to himself all the powers and revenues of 
the Caliphate, allowed the caliph merely a secretary and a pension 
of 5000 dirhems a day. Though in public prayers and on the 
coins the name of the caliph remained as that of the supreme 
authority, he had in reality no authority out of the palace, so 
that the saying became proverbial, " he contents himself with 
sermon and coin." 

The Hamdanid prince of Mosul, who began to think his 
possessions threatened by Mo'izz addaula, tried without success 
to wrest Bagdad from him, and was obliged to submit to the 
payment of tribute. He died in 358 (a.d. 969), and ten years 
later the power of this branch of the Hamdanids came to an end. 
The representative of the other branch, Saif addaula, the prince 
of Haleb (Aleppo), conducted the war against the Byzantines 
with great valour till his death in 356 (a.d. 967), but could not 
stop the progress of the enemy. His descendants maintained 
themselves, but with very limited power, till a.h. 413 (a.d. 1022). 

Mo'izz addaula died in the same year as Saif addaula, leaving 
his power to his son Bakhtiyar Tzz addaula, who lacked his 
father's energy and loved pleasure more than business. 

While the Abbasid dynasty was thus dying out in shame and 
degradation, the Fatimites, in the person of Mo'izz li-din-allah 
(or Mo'izz Abu Tamin Ma'add) (" he who makes God's religion 
victorious "), were reaching the highest degree of power and 
glory in spite of the opposition of the Carmathians, who left 
their old allegiance and entered into negotiations with the court 
of Bagdad, offering to drive back the Fatimites, on condition of 
being assisted with money and troops, and of being rewarded 
with the government of Syria and Egypt. The former condition 
was granted, but the caliph emphatically refused the latter 
demand, saying: " Both parties are Carmathians, they profess 
the same religion and are enemies of Islam." The Carmathians 
drove the Fatimites out of Syria, and threatened Egypt, but, 
notwithstanding their intrepidity, they were not able to cope 
with their powerful rival, who, however, in his turn could not 
bring them to submission. In 978-979 peace was made on 

condition that the Carmathians should evacuate Syria: for an 
annual payment of. 70,000 dinars. But the losses sustained by 
the Carmathians during that struggle had been enormous. 
Their power henceforward declined, and came to an end in a.h. 
474 (a.d. 1081). 

Mo'izz addaula, as we have seen, professed a great veneration 
for the house of Ali. He not only caused the mourning for the 
death of Hosain and other Shi'ite festivals to be celebrated at 
Bagdad, but also allowed imprecations against Moawiya and 
even against Mahomet's wife Ayesha and the caliphs Abu 
Bekr, Omar and Othman, to be posted up at the doors of the 
mosques. These steps annoyed the people and the Turkish 
soldiery, who were Sunnites, and led at last to an insurrection. 
Moti was compelled to abdicate, and Bakhtiyar was driven out 
of Bagdad Dhu'l-qa'da 363 (August 974). 

24. Reign of Tai. — Moti left the empty title of caliph to his son 
al-Td'i li-amri'lldh (" the obedient to the command of God "). 
The Turks who had placed him on the throne could not maintain 
themselves, but so insignificant was the person of the caliph 
that 'Adod addaula, who succeeded his cousin Bakhtiyar in 
Bagdad, did not think of replacing him by another. Under this 
prince, or king, as he was called, the power of the Buyids reached 
its zenith. His empire stretched from the Caspian to the Persian 
Sea, and in the west to the eastern frontier of Syria. He did 
his best to remedy the misery caused by the intestine wars, 
repaired the ruined mosques and other public edifices, founded 
hospitals and libraries — his library in Shiraz was one of the 
wonders of the world — and improved irrigation. It was also he 
who built the mausoleum of Hosain at Kerbela, and that of Ali 
at Kufa. But after his death in the year 372 (a.d. 983), his 
sons, instead of following the example of their predecessors, 
the three sons of Buya, fought one against the other. In 380 
(a.d. 990) the youngest of them, Baha addaula, had the upper 
hand. This prince, who was as avaricious as he was ambitious, 
wishing to deprive the caliph Ta'i of his possessions, compelled 
him to abdicate a.h. 381 (a.d. 991). 

25. Reign of Qddir. — A grandson of Moqtadir was then made 
caliph under the name of al-Qddir billdh (" the powerful through 
God "). The only deed of power, however, that is recorded of 
him, is that he opposed himself to the substitution of a Shi'ite 
head cadi for the Sunnite, so that Baha addaula had to content 
himself with giving to the Shi'ites a special judge, to whom he 
gave the title of naqib (superintendent). During this caliphate 
the Buyid princes were in continual war with one another. 
Meanwhile events were preparing the fall of their dynasty. In 
350 (a.d. 961) a Turkish general of the Samanids had founded for 
himself a principality in Ghazni, arid at his death in 366 (a.d. 
976) his successor Sabuktagin had conquered Bost in Sijistan 
and Qosdar in Baluchistan, beaten the Indian prince Diaya 
Pala, and been acknowledged as master of the lands west of the 
Indus. At his death in 387 his son Mahmud conquered the 
whole of Khorasan and Sijistan, with a great part of India. He 
then attacked the Buyids, and would have destroyed their 
dynasty but for his death in the year 421 (a.d. 1030). 

In 389 (a.d. 999) Uek-khan, the prince of Turkistan, took 
Bokhara and made an end to the glorious state of the Samanids, 
the last prince of which was murdered in 395 (a.d. 1005). The 
Samanids had long been a rampart of the Caliphate against the 
Turks, whom they held under firm control. From their fall 
dates the invasion of the empire by that people. The greatest 
gainer for the moment was Mahmud of Ghazni. In Mesopotamia 
and Irak several petty states arose on the ruins of the dominions 
of the Hamdanids and of the Abbasids. 

Qadir died in the last month of a.h. 422 (November 1031). 
He is the author of some theological treatises. 

26. Reign of QditH.—He was succeeded by his son, who at his 
accession took the title of al-Qdim bi-amri'lldh (" he who main- 
tains the cause of God "). During the first half of his long reign 
took place the development of the power of the Ghtizz, a great 
Turkish tribe, who took the name Seljuk from Seljuk their chief in 
Transoxiana. Already during the reign of Mahmud large bodies 
had passed the Oxus and spread over Khorasan and the adjacent 



countries. In the time of his successor the bulk of the tribe 
followed, and in the year 429 (a.d. 1038) Toghrul Beg, their 
chief, beat the army of the Ghaznevids and made his entry into 
Nishapur. Thenceforth this progress was rapid (see Seljuks). 
The situation in Bagdad had become so desperate that the caliph 
called Toghrul to his aid. This prince entered Bagdad in the 
month of Ramadan a.h. 447 (December 1055), and overthrew 
finally the dynasty of the Buyids. 1 In 449 (a.d. 1058) the caliph 
gave him the title of " King of the East and West." But in the 
following year, 450, during his absence, the Shi'ites made them- 
selves masters of the metropolis, and proclaimed the Caliphate 
of the Fatimite prince Mostansir. They were soon overthrown 
by Toghrul, who was now supreme, and compelled the caliph 
to give him his daughter in marriage. Before the marriage, 
however, he died, and was succeeded by his nephew Alp Arslan, 
who died in 465 (25th December) (a.d. 1072). Qaim died two 
years later, Shaaban a.h. 467 (April 1075). 

In the year 440 Mo'izz b. Badls, the Zeirid ruler of the Maghrib, 
made himself independent, and substituted in prayer the name 
of the Abbasid caliph for that of Mostansir. In order to punish 
him, the latter gave permission to the Arab tribes in Egypt to 
cross the Nile, and granted them possession of all the lands they 
should conquer. This happened in 442 (a.d. 1050) and was of 
the greatest significance for the subsequent fate of Africa. 

27. Reign of Moqtadi.- — In the first year of the Caliphate of 
al-Moqladi bi-amri'lldh (■" he who follows the orders of God "), a 
grandson of Qaim, the power of the Seljuk empire reached its 
zenith. All the eastern provinces, a great part of Asia Minor, 
Syria, with the exception of a few towns on the shore, the main 
part of West Africa acknowledged the caliph of Bagdad as the 
Imam. Yemen had been subjected, and at Mecca and Medina 
his name was substituted in the public prayers for that of the 
Fatimite caliph. But after the death of Malik-Shah a contest 
for the sultanate took place. The caliph, who had in 1087 
married the daughter of Malik-Shah, had been compelled two 
years after to send her back to her father, as she complained of 
being neglected by her husband. Just before his death, the 
Sultan had ordered him to transfer his residence from Bagdad to 
Basra. After his death he stayed and supported the princess 
Turkan Khatiin. This lost him his life. The day after Barki- 
yaroq's triumphant entry into Bagdad, Muharram 487 (February 
1094), he died suddenly, apparently by poison. 

28. Reign of Mostazhir. — Al-Mostazhir billdh (" he who seeks 
to triumph through God "), son of Moqtadi, was only sixteen 
years old when he was proclaimed caliph. His reign is memorable 
chiefly for the growing power of the Assassins (q.v.) and for the 
first Crusade (see Crusades) . The Seljuk princes were too much 
absorbed by internal strife to concentrate against the new 
assailants. After the death of Barkiyaroq in November 1104, 
his brother Mahommed reigned till April n 18. His death was 
followed about four months later by that of Mostazhir. 

29. Reign of Mostarshid. — Al-Mostarshid billdh (" he who asks 
guidance from God ."), who succeeded his father inRabia II. 512 
(August 1118), distinguished himself by a vain attempt to re- 
establish the power of the caliph. Towards the end of the year 
529 (October 1134) he was compelled to promise that he would 
confine himself to his palace and never again take the field. Not 
long after he was assassinated. About the same time Dobais 
was killed, a prince of the family of the Banu Mazyad, who had 
founded the Arabian state of Hillah in the vicinity of the ruins 
of Babel in 1102. 

30. Reign of Rdshid. — Al-Rdshid billdh ("the just through 
God") tried to follow the steps of his father, with the aid of 
Zengi, the prince of Mosul. But the sultan Mas'ud beat the army 
of the allies, took Bagdad and had Rashid deposed (August 1 136) . 
Rashid escaped, but was murdered two years later. 

31. Reign of Moqtafi. — His successor Al-Moqtafi li-amri'lldh 
(" he who follows the orders of God "), son of Mostazhir, had 
better success. He was real ruler not only of the district of 
Bagdad, but also of the rest of Irak, which he subdued by force. 

1 Henceforward the history of thp Caliphate is largely that of the 
Seljuk princes (see Seljuks). 

He died in the month of Rabia II. 555 (March 1 160). Under his 
reign the central power of the Seljuks was rapidly sinking. In 
the West of Atabeg (prince's guardian) Zengi, the prince of 
Mosul, had extended his dominion over Mesopotamia and the 
north of Syria, where he had been the greatest defender of Islam 
against the P'ranks. At his death in the year 541 (a.d. 1146), 
his noble son, the well-known Nureddm, who was called " the 
just king," continued his father's glorious career. Transoxiana 
was conquered by the heathen hordes of Khata, who towards the 
end of 535 (a.d. 1141) under the king Ghurkhan defeated the 
great army of the Seljuk prince and compelled the Turkish 
tribes of the Ghuzz to cross the Oxus and to occupy Khorasan. 

32. Reign of Mostanjid. — Al-Mostanjid billdh ("he who 
invokes help from God"), the son of Moqtafi, enlarged the 
dominion of the Caliphate by making an end to the state of the 
Mazyadites in Hillah. His allies were the Arabic tribe of the 
Montafiq, who thenceforth were powerful in southern Irak. The 
greatest event towards the end of his Caliphate was the conquest 
of Egypt by the army of Nureddln, the overthrow of the Fatimite 
dynasty, and the rise of Saladin. He was killed by his major- 
domo in Rabia II. 566 (December n 70). 

33. Reign of Mostadi. — His son and successor al-Mostadi' bi- 
amri'lldh (" he who seeks enlightenment by the orders of God ")', 
though in Egypt his name was now substituted in public prayers 
for that of the Fatimite caliph, was unable to obtain any real 
authority. By the death of Nureddln in 569 (a.d. i i 74) Saladin's 
power became firmly rooted. The dynasty founded by him is 
called that of the Ayyubites, after the name of his father Ayyub. 
Mostadi died in the month of Dhu'l-qa'da 575 (March 1180). 

S^.Reignof Nasir. — Quite a different man from his father was his 
successor al-Ndsir li-dini'lldh ("he who helps the religion of God ") . 
During his reign Jerusalem was reconquered by Saladin, 27 Rajab 
583 (October 2nd, n 87). Not long before that event the well- 
known Spanish traveller Ibn Jubair visited the empire of Saladin, 
and came to Bagdad in 580, where he saw the caliph himself. 
Nasir was very ambitious; he had added Khuzistan to bis 
. dominions, and desired to become also master of Media (Jabal, or 
Persian Irak, as it was called in the time of the Seljuks) . Here, 
however, he came into conflict with the then mighty prince of 
Khwarizm (Khiva), who, already exasperated because the 
caliph refused to grant him the honours he asked for, resolved 
to overthrow the Caliphate of the Abbasids, and to place a 
descendant of Ali on the throne of Bagdad. In his anxiety, 
Nasir took a step which brought the greatest misery upon 
western Asia, or at least accelerated its arrival. 

In the depths of Asia a great conglomeration of east Turkish 
tribes (Tatars or Mongols), formed by a terrible warrior, known 
under his honorific title Jenghiz Khan, had conquered the 
northern provinces of China, and extended its power to the 
frontiers of the Transoxianian regions. To this heathen chief the 
Imam of the Moslems sent a messenger, inducing him to attack 
the prince of Khwarizm, who already had provoked the Mon- 
golian by a disrespectful treatment of his envoys. Neither he nor 
the caliph had the slightest notion of the imminent danger they 
conjured up. When Nasir died, Ramadan 622 (October 1225), 
the eastern provinces of the empire had been trampled down by 
the wild hordes, the towns burned, and the inhabitants killed 
without mercy. 

35. Reign of Zdhir. — Al-Zdhir bi-amri'lldh (" the victorious 
through the orders of God ") died within a year after his father's 
death, in Rajab 623 (July 1226). He and his son and successor 
are praised as beneficent and just princes. 

36. Reign of Mostansir. — Al-Mostansir billdh (" he who asks 
help from God ") was caliph till his death in Jornada II. 640 
(December 1242). In the year 624 (1227) Jenghiz Khan died, 
but the Mongol invasion continued to advance with immense 
strides. The only man who dared, and sometimes with success, 
to combat them was Jelaleddin, the ex-king of Khwarizm, but 
after his death in 628 (a.d. 1231) all resistance was paralysed. 

37. Reign of Mostasim. — Al-Mosta'sim billdh ("he who clings 
to God for protection "), son of Mostansir, the last caliph of 
Bagdad, was a narrow-minded, irresolute man, guided moreover 



by bad counsellors. In the last month of the year 653 (January 
1256) Hulaku or Hulagu, the brother of the gteat khan of the 
Mongols, crossed the Oxus, and began by destroying all the 
strongholds of the Isma'ilis. Then the turn of Bagdad came. 
On the nth of Muharram 656 (January 1258) Hulaku arrived 
under the walls of the capital. In vain did Mostasim sue for 
peace. Totally devoid of dignity and heroism, he ended by 
surrendering and imploring mercy from the barbarian victor. 
On the 4th of Saphar (February 10th) he came with his retinue into 
the camp. The city was then given up to plunder and slaughter; 
many public buildings were burnt; the caliph, after having 
been compelled to bring forth all the hidden treasures of the 
family, was killed with two of his sons and many relations. 
With him expired the eastern Caliphate of the Abbasids, 
which had lasted 524 years, from the entry of Abu'l- Abbas into 

In vain, three years later, did Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad, a scion of 
the race of the Abbasids, who had taken refuge in Egypt with 
Bibars the Mameluke sultan, and who had been proclaimed 
caliph under the title al-Mostansir billdh (" he who seeks help 
from God "), make an effort to restore a dynasty which was now 
for ever extinct. At the head of an army he marched against 
Bagdad, but was defeated and killed before he reached that city. 
Then another descendant of the Abbasids, who also had found an 
asylum in Egypt, was proclaimed caliph at Cairo under the name 
of al-Hakim bi-amri'lldh (" he who decides according to the 
orders of God "). His sons inherited his title, but, like their 
father, remained in Egypt without power or influence (see Egypt : 
History, " Mahommedan period ")■ This shadow of sovereignty 
continued to exist till the conquest of Egypt by the Turkish 
sultan Selim I., who compelled the last of them, Motawakkil, to 
abdicate in his favour (see Turkey: History). He died at 
Cairo, a pensionary of the Ottoman government, in 1538. 

Another scion of the Abbasid family, Mahommed, a great- 
grandson of the caliph Mostansir, found at a later period a 
refuge in India, where the sultan of Delhi received him with 
the greatest respect, named him Makhdumzadeh, " the Master's 
son," and treated him as a prince. Ibn Battita saw him when 
he visited India, and says that he was very avaricious. On his 
return to Bagdad the traveller found there a young man, son of 
this prince, who gained a single dirhem daily for serving as imam 
in a mosque, and did not get the least relief from his rich father. 
It seems that this Mahommed, or his son, emigrated later to 
Sumatra, where in the old Samutra the graves of their descendants 
have been lately discovered. (M. J. de G.) 

CALIVER, a firearm used in the 16th century. The word is 
an English corruption of " calibre," and arises from the " arque- 
bus of calibre," that is, of standard bore, which replaced the 
older arquebus. " Caliver," therefore, is practically synonymous 
with " arquebus." The heavier musket, fired from a rest, re- 
placed the caliver or arquebus towards the close of the century. 

CALIXTUS, or Callistus, the name of three popes. 

Calixtus I., pope from 217 to 222, was little known before 
the discovery of the book of the Philosophumena. From this 
work, which is in part a pamphlet directed against him, we 
learn that Calixtus was originally a slave and engaged in banking. 
Falling on evil times, he was brought into collision with the 
Jews, who denounced him as a Christian and procured his exile 
to Sardinia. On his return from exile he was pensioned by Pope 
Victor, and, later, was associated by Pope Zephyrinus in the 
government of the Roman church. On the death of Zephyrinus 
(217) he was elected in his place and occupied the papal chair 
for five years. His theological adversary Hippolytus, the author 
of the Philosophumena, accused him of having favoured the 
modalist or Patripassian doctrines both before and after his 
election. Calixtus, however, condemned Sabellius, the most 
prominent champion of that system. Hippolytus accused him 
also of certain relaxations of discipline. It appears that Calixtus 
reduced the penitential severities applied until his time to 
those guilty of adultery and other analogous sins. Under 
Calixtus and his two immediate successors, Hippolytus was 
the leader of a schismatic group, organized by way of protest 

against the election of Calixtus. Calixtus died in 222, in cir- 
cumstances obscured by legends. In the time of Constantine 
the Roman church reckoned him officially among the martyr 
popes. (L. D.*) 

Calixtus II. (d. 1124), pope from 1110 to 1124, was Guido, 
a member of a noble Burgundian family, who became archbishop 
of Vienne about 1088, and belonged to the party which favoured 
reform in the Church. In September 1 1 1 2, after Pope Paschal II. 
had made a surrender to the emperor Henry V., Guido called a 
council at Vienne, which declared against lay investiture, and 
excommunicated Henry. In February 11 19 he was chosen pope 
at Cluny in succession to Gelasius II., and in opposition to the 
an ti -pope Gregory VIII. , who was in Rome. Soon after his 
consecration he opened negotiations with the emperor with a 
view to settling the dispute over investiture. Terms of peace 
were arranged, but at the last moment difficulties arose and the 
treaty was abandoned; and in October 11 19 both emperor and 
anti-pope were excommunicated at a synod held at Reims. 
The journey of Calixtus to Rome early in n 20 was a triumphal 
march. He was received with great enthusiasm in the city, 
while Gregory, having fled to Sutri, was delivered into his hands 
and treated with great ignominy. Through the efforts of some 
German princes negotiations between pope and emperor were 
renewed, and the important Concordat of Worms made in 
September n 22 was the result. This treaty, made possible by 
concessions on either side, settled the investiture controversy, 
and was confirmed by the Lateran council of March n 23. 
During his short reign Calixtus strengthened the authority of 
the papacy in southern Italy by military expeditions, and restored 
several buildings within the city of Rome. During preparations 
for a crusade he died in Rome on the 13th or 14th of December 
1 1 24. 

See M. Maurer, Pabst Calixt II. (Munich, 1889); U. Robert, 
Histoire du pape Calixte II. (Paris, 1891) ; and A. Hauck's Real- 
encyklopadie, Band iii. (Leipzig, 1897). 

Calixtus III. (c. 1378-1458), pope from 1455 to 1458, was a 
Spaniard named Alphonso de Borgia, or Borja. A native of 
Xativa, he gained a great reputation as a jurist, becoming pro- 
fessor at Lerida; in 1429 he was made bishop of Valencia, and 
in 1444 a cardinal, owing his promotion mainly to his close 
friendship with Alphonso V., king of Aragon and Sicily. Chosen 
pope in April 1455, ne was ver y anxious to organize a crusade 
against the Turks, and having sold many of his possessions, 
succeeded in equipping a fleet. Neither the princes nor the 
people of Europe, however, were enthusiastic in this cause, 
and very little result came from the pope's exertions. During 
his papacy Calixtus became involved in a quarrel with his former 
friend, Alphonso of Aragon, now also king of Naples, and after 
the king's death in June 1438 he refused to recognize his ille- 
gitimate son, Ferdinand, as king of Naples, asserting that this 
kingdom was a fief of the Holy See. This pope was notorious for 
nepotism, and was responsible for introducing his nephew, 
Rodrigo Borgia, afterwards Pope Alexander VI., to Rome. He 
died on the 6th of August 1458. 

See A. Hauck's Realencyklopadie, Band iii. (Leipzig, 1897). 

CALIXTUS, GEORG (1586-1656), Lutheran divine, was born 
at Medelby, a village of Schleswig, in 1586. After studying 
philology, philosophy and theology at Helmstadt, Jena, Giessen, 
Tubingen and Heidelberg, he travelled through Holland, France 
and England, where he became acquainted with the leading 
Reformers. On his return in 1614 he was appointed professor 
of theology at Helmstadt by the duke of Brunswick, who had 
admired the ability he displayed when a young man in a dispute 
with the Jesuit Augustine Turrianus. In 1613 he published a 
book, Disputationes de Praecipuis Religionis Christianae Capitibus, 
which provoked the hostile criticism of orthodox scholars; in 
1619 he published his Epitome theologiae, and some years later 
his Theologia Moralis (1634) and De Arte Nova Nihusii. Roman 
Catholics felt them to be aimed at their own system, but they 
gave so great offence to Lutherans as to induce Statius Buscher 
to charge the author with a secret leaning to Romanism. Scarcely 
had he refuted the accusation of Buscher, when, on account of 



his intimacy with the Reformed divines at the conference of 
Thorn (1645), and his desire to effect a reconciliation between 
them and the Lutherans, a new charge was preferred against him, 
principally at the instance of Abraham Calovius (1612-1686), of 
a secret attachment to Calvinism. In fact, the great aim of his 
life was to reconcile Christendom by removing all unimportant 
differences. The disputes to which this attitude gave rise, 
known in the Church as the Syncretistic controversy, lasted 
during the whole lifetime of Calixtus, and distracted the Lutheran 
church, till a new controversy arose with P. J. Spener and the 
Pietists of Halle. Calixtus died in 1656. 

There is a monograph on Calixtus by E. L. T. Henke (2 vols., 
1853-1856); see also Isaak Dorner, Gesch. d. protest. Theol. pp. 606- 
624; and especially Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie. 

CALL (from Anglo-Saxon ceallian, a common Teutonic word, 
cf. Dutch kallen, to talk or chatter), to speak in a loud voice, and 
particularly to attract some one's attention by a loud utterance. 
Hence its use for a visit at a house, where the name of the 
occupier, to whom the visit was made, was called aloud, in early 
times, to indicate the presence of the visitor. It is thus trans- 
ferred to a short stay at a place, but usually with the idea of a 
specific purpose, as in " port of call," where ships stop in passing. 
Connected with the idea of summoning by name are such uses as 
" roll-call " or " call-over," where names are called over and 
answered by those present; similar uses are the " call to the 
bar," the summoning at an Inn of Court of those students 
qualified to practise as barristers, and the " call within the bar " 
to the appointment of king's counsel. In the first case the " bar " 
is that which separates the benchers from the rest of the body 
of members of the Inn, in the other the place in a court of law 
within which only king's counsel, and formerly serjeants-at-law, 
are allowed to plead. " Call " is also used with a particular 
reference to a divine summons, as of the calling of the apostles. 
It is thus used in nonconformist churches of the invitation to 
serve as minister a particular congregation or chapel. It is from 
this sense of a vocatio or summons that the word " calling " is 
used, not only of the divine vocation, but of a man's ordinary 
profession, occupation or business. In card games " call " is 
used, in poker, of the demand that the hand of the highest 
bettor be exposed or seen, exercised by that player who equals 
his bet; in whist or bridge, of a certain method of play, the 
" call " for a suit or for trumps on the part of one partner, to 
which the other is expected to respond; and in many card 
games for the naming of a card, irregularly exposed, which is 
laid face up on the table, and may be thus " called " for, at 
any point the opponent may choose. 

" Call " is also a term on the English and American stock 
exchanges for a contract by which, in consideration of a certain 
sum, an" option " is given by the person making or signing the 
agreement to another named therein or his order or to bearer, 
to " call " for a specified amount of stock at a certain day for a 
certain price. A " put," which is the reverse of a " call," is the 
option of selling (putting) stock at a certain day for a certain 
price. A combined option of either calling or putting is termed 
a " straddle," and sometimes on the American stock exchange a 
"spread-eagle." (See further Stock Exchange.) The word is also 
used, in connexion with joint-stock companies, to signify a demand 
for instalments due on shares, when the capital of the company 
has not been demanded or "called "up at once. (See Company.) 

CALLANDER, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, 16 m. 
north-west of Stirling by the Caledonian railway. Pop. (1001) 
1458. Situated oh the north bank of the Teith, here crossed by a 
three-arched bridge, and sheltered by a ridge of wooded hills, it is 
in growing repute as a health resort. A mile and a half north- 
east are the Falls of Bracklinn (Gaelic, "white-foaming pool"), 
formed by the Keltie, which takes a leap of 50 ft. down the red 
sandstone gorge on its way to the Teith. Two miles north-west 
of Callander is the Pass of Leny, " the gate of the Highlands," 
and farther in the same direction is Loch Lubnaig, on the shores 
of which stand the ruins of St Bride's chapel. Callander owes 
much of its prosperity to the fact that it is the centre from 
which the Trossachs is usually visited, the route being that 

described in Scott's Lady of the Lake. The ascent of Ben Ledi is 
commonly made from the town. 

CALLAO, a city, port and coast department of Peru, 85 m. 
west of Lima, in 12 04' S., 77° 13' W. Pop. (1905) 31,128, of 
whom 3349 were foreigners. The department includes the city 
and its environs, Bella vista and La Punta, and the neighbouring 
islands, San Lorenzo, Fronton, the Palominos, &c, and covers 
an area of 14-J sq. m. Callao is the principal port of the republic, 
its harbour being a large bay sheltered by a tongue of land on the 
south called La Punta, and by the islands of San Lorenzo and 
Fronton. The anchorage is good and safe, and the harbour is 
one of the best on the Pacific coast of South America. The city 
stands on the south side of the bay, and is built on a flat point of 
land only 8 ft. above sea-level. The houses are for the most 
part low and cheaply built, and the streets are narrow, badly 
paved, irregular and dirty. The climate is good and the coast 
is swept by cool ocean breezes, the average temperatures 
ranging from 65 to 77 F., but notwithstanding this, Callao 
has a bad reputation for fevers and contagious diseases, chiefly 
because of its insanitary condition. Its noteworthy public 
buildings are the custom-house and its storehouses which occupy 
the old quadrangular fortress built by the Spanish government 
between 1770 and 177s, and cover 15 acres, the prefecture, the 
military and naval offices and barracks, the post-office, three 
Catholic churches, a hospital, market, three clubs and some 
modern commercial houses. The present city is half a mile north 
of the site of the old town, which was destroyed by an earthquake 
and tidal wave in 1746. For a short time the commercial 
interests of the stricken city centred at Bellavista, ij m. east, 
where wheat granaries were built and still remain, but later the 
greater convenience of a waterside site drew the merchants and 
population back to the vicinity of the submerged town. The 
importance of Callao in colonial times, when it was the only open 
port south of Panama, did not continue under the new political 
order, because of the unsettled state of public affairs and the loss 
of its monopoly. This decline in its prosperity was checked, 
and the modern development of the port began, when a railway 
was built from Callao into the heart of the Andes, and Callao is 
now an important factor in the development of copper-mining. 
The port is connected with Lima by two railways and an electric 
tramway, with Oroya by railway 138 m. long, and with Cerro 
de Pasco by railway 221m. A short railway also runs from the 
port to the Bellavista storehouses. The port is provided with 
modern harbour improvements, consisting of sea-walls of concrete 
blocks, two fine docks with berthing spaces for 30 large vessels, 
and a large floating-dock (300 ft. long on the blocks and capable 
of receiving vessels up to 21 ft. draught and 5000 tons weight), 
which was built in Glasgow and was sent out to Callao in 1863. 
The docks are provided with gas and electric lights, 18 steam 
cranes for loading and discharging vessels, a triple line of railway 
and a supply of fresh water. Callao was formerly the head- 
quarters in South America of the Pacific Steam Navigation 
Co., Ltd. (incorporated 1840), but Valparaiso now occupies 
that position. There are, owing perhaps to the proximity of 
Lima, few industrial establishments in the city; among them are 
a large sugar refinery, some flour-mills, a brewery, a factory 
for making effervescent drinks, and a number of foundries and 
repair shops. Being a port of the first class, Callao is an im- 
portant distributing centre for the coasting trade, in which a 
large number of small vessels are engaged. The foreign steam- 
ship companies making it a regular port of call are the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Co. (British), the Compafiia Sud- America 
( Chilean) , the Kosmos and Roland lines ( German) , the Merchants 
line (New York), and a Japanese line from the ports of Japan 
and China. A subsidized Peruvian line is also contemplated to 
ply between the Pacific ports of South America with an eventual 
extension of the service to Europe. The arrivals from and 
clearances for foreign ports in 1907 were as follows: — 


Steamers. .Sailing Vessels. 

No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. 

5i8 937,302 924 174.165 

517 937,7o6 _ 931 163,365 


The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton; wool, hides, 
silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include 
timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, 
general merchandise for personal, household and industrial 
uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other 
food stuffs. The maintenance of peace and order, and the mining 
development of the interior, have added to the trade and pros- 
perity of the port. 

The history of Callao has been exceptionally eventful. It was 
founded in 1537, two years after Pizarro had founded Lima. 
As the port of that capital and the only open port below Panama 
it grew rapidly in importance and wealth. It was raised to the 
dignity of a city in 1671. The appearance of Sir Francis Drake 
in the bay in 1578 led to the fortification of the port, which 
proved strong enough to repel an attack by the Dutch in 1624. 
The city was completely destroyed and partly submerged by the 
great earthquake of the 28th of October 1746, in which about 
6000 persons perished. The new city was strongly fortified and 
figured prominently in the struggle for independence, and also 
in the various revolutions which have convulsed the republic. 
Its political autonomy dates from 1836, when it was made a 
coast department. The Callao fortifications were bombarded by 
a Spanish fleet under Admiral Mendez Nunez on the 2nd of May 
1866, when there were heavy losses both in lives and material. 
Again, in 1880, the city was bombarded by the Chileans, though 
it was almost defenceless, and fell into the possession of the 
invaders after the capture of Lima in the following year. Before 
the surrender all the Peruvian naval vessels in the harbour were 
sunk, to prevent their falling into the possession of the enemy. 
CALLCOTT, SIR AUGUSTUS WALL (1770-1844), English 
landscape painter, was born at Kensington in 1779 and died 
there in 1844. His first study was music; and he sang for 
several years in the choir of Westminster Abbey. But at the age 
of twenty he had determined to give up music, and had exhibited 
his first painting at the Royal Academy. He gradually rose to 
distinction, and was elected an associate in 1807 and an aca- 
demician in 1810. In 1827 he received the honour of knighthood; 
and, seven years later, was appointed surveyor of the royal 
pictures. His two principal subject pictures — " Raphael and 
the Fornarina," and " Milton dictating to his Daughters," are 
much inferior to his landscapes, which are placed in the highest 
class by their refined taste and quiet beauty. 

His wife, MARiA,Lady Callcott (1786-1844), whom he married 
in 1827, was a daughter of Admiral Dundas and widow of 
Captain Thomas Graham, R.N. (d. 182 2) . With her first husband 
she travelled in India, South Africa and South America, where 
she acted for some time as teacher of Donna Maria, who became 
queen of Portugal in 1826; and in the company of her second 
husband she spent much time in the south of Europe. She 
published accounts of her visits to India (1812), and to the 
environs of Rome (1820); Memoirs of Poussin (1820); a 
History of France; a History of Spain (1828); Essays toward a 
History of Painting (1836); Little Arthur's History of England 
(1836) ; and the Scripture Herbal (1842). 

CALLCOTT, JOHN WALL (1766-1821), English musician, 
brother of Sir Augustus Callcott, was born at Kensington on the 
20th of November 1766. At the age of seven he was sent to a 
neighbouring day-school, where he continued for five years, 
studying chiefly Latin and Greek. During this time he frequently 
went to Kensington church, in the repairs of which his father was 
employed, and the impression he received on hearing the organ 
of that church seems to have roused his love for music. The 
organist at that time was Henry Whitney, from whom Callcott 
received his first musical instruction. He did not, however, 
choose music as a profession, as he wished to become a surgeon. 
But on witnessing a surgical operation he found his nervous 
system so seriously affected by the sight, that he determined to 
devote himself to music. His intimacy with Dr Arnold and 
other leading musicians of the day procured him access to artistic 
circles; he was deputy organist at St George the Martyr, Queen 
Square, Bloomsbury, from 1783 to 1785, in which year his success- 
ful competition for three out of the four prize medals offered by 

the " Catch Club " soon spread his reputation as composer of 
glees, catches, canons and other pieces of concerted vocal music. 
The compositions with which he won these medals were — the 
catch " O beauteous fair," the canon " Blessed is he," and the 
glee " Dull repining sons of care." In these and other similar 
compositions he displays considerable skill and talent, and some 
of his glees retain their popularity at the present day. In 1787 
Callcott helped Dr Arnold and others to form the " Glee Club." 
In 1789 he became one of the two organists at St Paul's, Covent 
Garden, and from 1793 to 1802 he was organist to the Asylum for 
Female Orphans. As an instrumental composer Callcott never 
succeeded, not even after he had taken lessons from Haydn. But 
of far greater importance than his compositions are his theoretical 
writings. His Musical Grammar, published in 1806 (3rd ed., 
1817), was long considered the standard English work of musical 
instruction, and in spite of its being antiquated when compared 
with modern standards, it remains a scholarly and lucid treatment 
of the rudiments of the art. Callcott was a much-esteemed 
teacher of music for many years. In 1800 he took his degree of 
Mus.D. at Oxford, where fifteen years earlier he had received his 
degree of bachelor of music, and in 1805 he succeeded Dr Crotch 
as musical lecturer at the Royal Institution. Towards the end of 
his life his artistic career was twice interrupted by the failure of 
his mental powers. He died at Bristol after much suffering on 
the 15th of May 1821. A posthumous collection of his most 
favourite vocal pieces was published in 1824 with a memoir of 
his life by his son-in-law, William Horsley, himself a composer 
of note. 

Callcott's son, William Hutchins Callcott (1807-1882), in- 
herited to a large extent the musical gifts of his father. His song, 
" The last man," and his anthem, " Give peace in our time, O 
Lord," were his best-known compositions. 

CALLIAS, tyrant of Chalcis in Euboea. With the assistance 
of Philip II. of Macedon, which he hoped to obtain, he contem- 
plated the subjugation of the whole island. But finding that 
Philip was unwilling to help him, Callias had recourse to the 
Athenians, although he had previously (350 B.C.) been engaged 
in hostilities with them. With the support of Demosthenes, he 
was enabled to conclude an alliance with Athens, and the tribute 
formerly paid by Eretria and Oreus to Athens was handed over 
to him. But his plan of uniting the whole of Euboea under his 
rule, with Chalcis as capital, was frustrated by Philip, who set up 
tyrants chosen by himself at Eretria and Oreus. Subsequently, 
when Philip's attention was engaged upon Thrace, the Athenians 
in conjunction with Callias drove out these tyrants, and Callias 
thus became master of the island (Demosthenes, De Pace, p. 58; 
Epistola Philippi, p. 159; Diod. Sic. xvi. 74). At the end of his 
life he appears to have lived at Athens, and Demosthenes pro- 
posed to confer the citizenship upon him (Aeschines, Contra 
Ctesiphontem, 85, 87). 

CALLIAS and HIPPONICUS, two names borne alternately by 
the heads of a wealthy and distinguished Athenian family. 
During the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. the office of daduchus or 
torch-bearer at the Eleusinian mysteries was the hereditary 
privilege of the family till its extinction. The following members 
deserve mention. 

1. Callias, the second of the name, fought at the battle of 
Marathon (490) in priestly attire. Some time after the death of 
Cimon, probably about 445 B.C., he was sent to Susa to conclude 
with Artaxerxes, king of Persia, a treaty of peace afterwards 
misnamed the " peace of Cimon." Cimon had nothing to do 
with it, and he was totally opposed to the idea of peace with 
Persia (see Cimon). At all events Callias's mission does not 
seem to have been successful ; he was indicted for high treason 
on his return to Athens and sentenced to a fine of fifty talents. 

See Herodotus vii. 151; Diod. Sic. xii. 4; Demosthenes, De 
Falsa Legatione, p. 428 ; Grote recognizes the treaty as a historical 
fact, History of Greece, ch. xlv., while Curtius, bk. iii. ch. ii., denies the 
conclusion of any formal treaty; see also Ed. Meyer, Forschungeru, 
ii. ; J. B. Bury in Hermathena, xxiv. (1898). 

2. Hipponicus, son of the above. Together with Eurymedon 
he commanded the Athenian forces in the incursion into Boeotian 
territory (426 B.C.) and was slain at the battle of Delium (424). 



His wife, whom he divorced, subsequently became the wife of 
Pericles; one of his daughters, Hipparete, married Alcibiades; 
another, the wife of Theodorus, was the mother of the orator 

See Thucydides iii. 91; Diod. Sic. xii. 65; Andocides, Contra 
Alcibiadem, 13. 

3. Callias, son of the above, the black sheep of the family, was 
notorious for his profligacy and extravagance, and was ridiculed 
by the comic poets as an example of a degenerate Athenian 
(Aristophanes, Frogs, 429, Birds, 283, and schol. Andocides, De 
Mysteriis, 1 10-13 1). The scene of Xenophon's Symposium and 
Plato's Protagoras was laid at his house. He was reduced to a 
state of absolute poverty and, according to Aelian ( Var. Hist. iv. 
23), committed suicide, but there is no confirmation of this. In 
spite of his dissipated life he played a certain part in public 
affairs. In 392 he was in command of the Athenian hoplites at 
Corinth, when the Spartans were defeated by Iphicrates. In 371 
he was at the head of the embassy sent to make terms with Sparta. 
Tfie peace which was the result was called after him the " peace 
of Callias." 

See Xenophon, Hellenica, iv. 5, vi. 3 ; and Dklian League. 

CALLIMACHUS, an Athenian sculptor of the second half of the 
5th century B.C. Ancient critics associate him with Calamis, 
whose relative he may have been. He is given credit for two 
inventions, the Corinthian column and the running borer for 
drilling marble. The most certain facts in regard to him are that 
he sculptured some dancing Laconian maidens, and made a 
golden lamp for the Erechtheum (about 408 B.C.) ; and that he 
used to spoil his works by over-refinement and excessive labour. 

CALLIMACHUS, Greek poet and grammarian, a native of 
Cyrene and a descendant of the illustrious house of the Battiadae, 
flourished about 250 B.C. He opened a school in the suburbs of 
Alexandria, and some of the most distinguished grammarians 
and poets were his pupils. He was subsequently appointed 
by Ptolemy Philadelphus chief librarian of the Alexandrian 
library, which office he held till his death (about 240). His 
Pinakes (tablets), in 120 books, a critical and chronologically 
arranged catalogue of the library, laid the foundation of a history 
of Greek literature. According to Suidas, he wrote about 800 
works, in verse and prose; of these only six hymns, sixty-four 
epigrams and some fragments are extant; a considerable 
fragment of the Hecale, an idyllic epic, has also been discovered 
in the Rainer papyri (see Kenyon in Classical Review, November 
1893). His Coma Berenices is only known from the celebrated 
imitation of Catullus. His Aitia (causes) was a collection of 
elegiac poems in four books, dealing with the foundation of 
cities, religious ceremonies and other customs. According to 
Quintilian (Instit. x. 1. 58) he was the chief of the elegiac poets; 
his elegies were highly esteemed by the Romans, and imitated by 
Ovid, Catullus and especially Propertius. The extant hymns 
are extremely learned, and written in a laboured and artificial 
style. The epigrams, some of the best specimens of their kind, 
have been incorporated in the Greek Anthology. Art and learn- 
ing are his chief characteristics, unrelieved by any real poetic 
genius; in the words of Ovid {Amores, i. 15) — 

" Quamvis ingenio non valet, arte valet." 

Editions. — Hymns, epigrams and fragments (the last collected 
by Bentley) by J. A. Ernesti (1761), and O. Schneider (1870-1873) 
(with elaborate indices and excursuses) ; hymns and epigrams, by 
A. Meineke (1861), and U. Wilamowitz-Mollendorff (1897). See Neue 
Bruchstiicke aus der Hekale des Kallimachus, by T. Gomperz (1893) ; 
also G. Knaack, Callimachea (1896); A. Beltrami, GV Inni di Calli- 
macho e il Nomo di Terpandro (1896) ; K. Kuiper, Studia Callimachea 
(1896) ; A. Hamette, Les tipigrammes de Callimaque: etude critique 
el litteraire (Paris, 1907). There are English translations (verse) by 
W. Dodd (1755) and H. W. Tytler (1793) ; (prose) by J. Banks (1856). 
See also Sandys, Hist, of Class. Schol. i. (ed. 1906), p. 122. 

CALLINUS of Ephesus, the oldest of the Greek elegiac poets 
and the creator of the political and warlike elegy. He is supposed 
to have flourished between the invasion of Asia Minor by the 
Cimmerii and their expulsion by Alyattes (630-560 B.C.). During 
his lifetime his own countrymen were also engaged in a life-and- 
death struggle with the Magnesians. These two events give the 
key to his poetry, in which he endeavours to rouse the indolent 

Ionians to a sense of patriotism. Only scanty fragments of his 
poems remain; the longest of these (preserved in Stobaeus, 
Florilegium, li. 19) has even been ascribed to Tyrtaeus. 

Edition of the fragments by N. Bach (1831), and in Bergk, Poetae 
Lyrici Graeci (1882). On the date of Callinus, see the histories of 
Greek literature by Mure and Miiller; G. H. Bode, Geschichte 'der 
hellenischen Dichtkunst, ii. pt. i. (1838); and G. Geiger, De Callini 
Aetate (1877), who places him earlier, about 642. 

CALLIOPE, the muse of epic poetry, so named from the sweet- 
ness of her vioce (Gr. icaXXos, beauty; 6\//, voice). In Hesiod she 
was the last of the nine sisters, but yet enjoyed a supremacy over 
the others. (See also Muses, The.) 

CALLIRRHOE, in Greek legend, second daughter of the river- 
god Achelous and wife of Alcmaeon (q.v.). At her earnest 
request her husband induced Phegeus, king of Psophis in Arcadia, 
and the father of his first wife Arsinoe (or Alphesiboea), to hand 
over to him the necklace and peplus (robe) of Harmonia (q.v.), 
that he might dedicate them at Delphi to complete the cure of 
his madness. When Phegeus discovered that they were really 
meant for Callirrhoe, he gave orders for Alcmaeon to be waylaid 
and killed (Apollodorus iii. 7, 2. 5-7; Thucydides ii. 102). 
Callirrhoe now implored the gods that her two young sons might 
grow to manhood at once and avenge their father's dea|;h. 
This was granted, and her sons Amphoterus and Acarnan slew 
Phegeus with his two sons, and returning with the necklace and 
peplus dedicated them at Delphi (Ovid, Metam. ix. 413). 

CALLISTHENES (c. 360-328 B.C.) , of Olynthus, Greek historian, 
a relative and pupil of Aristotle, through whose recommendation 
he was appointed to attend Alexander the Great in his Asiatic 
expedition. He censured Alexander's adoption of oriental 
customs, inveighing especially against the servile ceremony of 
adoration. Having thereby greatly offended the king, he was 
accused of being privy to a treasonable conspiracy and thrown 
into prison, where he died from torture or disease. His melan- 
choly end was commemorated in a special treatise (KaXXtc&wrjs 
fj Tepl irevdovs) by his friend Theophrastus, whose acquaint- 
ance he made during a visit to Athens. Callisthenes wrote 
an account of Alexander's expedition, a history of Greece from 
the peace of Antalcidas (387) to the Phocian war (357), a 
history of the Phocian war and other works, all of which have 
perished. The romantic life of Alexander, the basis of all the 
Alexander legends of the middle ages, originated during the 
time of the Ptolemies, but in its present form belongs to the 
3rd century a.d. Its author is usually known as pseudo- Callis- 
thenes, although , in the Latin translation by Julius Valerius 
Alexander Polemius (beginning of the 4th century) it is ascribed 
to a certain Aesopus; Aristotle, Antisthenes, Onesicritus and 
Arrian have also been credited with the authorship. There are 
also Syrian, Armenian and Slavonic versions, in addition to 
four Greek versions (two in prose and two in verse) in the middle 
ages (see Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 
1897, p. 849). Valerius's translation was completely superseded 
by that of Leo, arch-priest of Naples in the 10th century, the so- 
called Historia de Preliis. 

See Scriptores rerum Alexandri Magni (by C. W. Miiller, in the 
Didot edition of Arrian, 1846), containing the genuine fragments 
and the text of the pseudo-Callisthenes, with notes and introduc- 
tion; A. Westermann, De Callisthene Olynihio et Pseudo-Callisthene 
Commentatio (1838-1842); J. Zacher, Pseudo-Callisthenes (1867); 
W. Christ, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur (1898), pp. 363, 819; 
article by Edward Meyer in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Ency- 
klopadie; A. Ausfeld, Zur Kritik des griechischen Alexanderromans 
(Bruchsal, 1894) ; Plutarch, Alexander, 52-55; Arrian, Anab. iv. 10- 
14; Diog. Laertius v. 1; Quintus Curtius viii. 5-8; Suidas s.v. 
See also Alexander the Great (ad fin.). For the Latin trans- 
lations see Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist, of Roman Literature (Eng. trans.), 
§ 399; and M. Schanz, Geschichte der romischen Litteratur, iv. i.,p.43. 

CALLISTO, in Greek mythology, an Arcadian nymph, daughter 
of Lycaon and companion of Artemis. She was transformed into 
a bear as a penalty for having borne to Zeus a son, Areas, the 
ancestor of the Arcadians. Hera, Zeus and Artemis are all 
mentioned as the authors of the transformation. Areas, when 
hunting, encountered the bear Callisto, and would have shot her, 
had not Zeus with swift wind carried up both to the skies, where 
he placed them as a constellation. In another version, sJie was 



slain by Artemis. Callisto was originally only an epithet of the 
Arcadian Artemis herself. 

See Apollodorus iii. 8; Ovid, Metam. ii. 381-530; R. Franz, De 
Callistus fabula (1890), which deals exhaustively with the various 
forms of the legend. 

CALLISTRATUS, Alexandrian grammarian, flourished at the 
beginning of the 2nd century B.C. He was one of the pupils of 
Aristophanes of Byzantium, who were distinctively called 
Aristophanei. Callistratus chiefly devoted himself to the 
elucidation of the Greek poets; a few fragments of his com- 
mentaries have been preserved in the various collections of 
scholia and in Athenaeus. He was also the author of a miscel- 
laneous work called Sd^/uiktA, used by the later lexicographers, 
and of a treatise on courtesans (Athenaeus iii. 125 B, xiii. 501 D). 
He is not to be confused with Callistratus, the pupil and successor 
of Isocrates and author of a history of Heraclea in Pontus. 

See R. Schmidt, De Callistrato Aristophaneo, appended to 
A. Nauck's Aristophanis Byzantii Fragmenta (1848); also C. W. 
Miiller, Fragmenta Hisloricorum Graecorum, iv. p. 353 note. 

CALLISTRATUS, an Athenian poet, only known as the author 
of a hymn in honour of Harmodius (q.v.) and Aristogeiton. This 
ode, which is to be found in Athenaeus (p. 695), has been beauti- 
fully translated by Thomas Moore. 

CALLISTRATUS, Greek sophist and rhetorician, probably 
flourished in the 3rd century. He wrote 'EK^pcuras, descriptions 
of fourteen works of art in stone or brass by distinguished 
artists. This little work, which is written in a dry and affected 
style, without any real artistic feeling, is usually edited with the 
Ei/com of Philostratus. 

Edition by Schenkl-Reisch (Teubner series, 1902) ; see also C. G. 
Heyne, Opuscula Academica, v. pp. 196-221, with commentary on the 
Descriptiones ; F. Jacobs, Ammadversiones criticae in Callistrati 
statuas (1797). 

CALLISTRATUS of Aphidnae, Athenian orator and general in 
the 4th century B.C. For many years, as prostates, he supported 
Spartan interests at Athens. On account of the refusal of the 
Thebans to surrender Oropus, which on his advice they had been 
allowed to occupy temporarily, Callistratus, despite his mag- 
nificent defence (which so impressed Demosthenes that he 
resolved to study oratory), was condemned to death, 361 B.C. 
He fled to Methone in Macedonia, and on his return to Athens 
in 355 he was executed. , 

See Xenophon, Hellenica, iii. 3, vi. 2 ; Lycurgus, In Leocr. 93. 

CALLOT, JACQUES (1592-1635), French engraver, was born 
at Nancy in Lorraine, where his father, Jean Callot, was a herald- 
at-arms. He early discovered a very strong predilection for art, 
and at the age of twelve quitted home without his father's 
consent, and set out for Rome where he intended to prosecute 
his studies. Being utterly destitute of funds he joined a troop of 
Bohemians, and arrived in their company at Florence. In this 
city he had the good fortune to attract the notice of a gentleman 
of the court, who supplied him with the means of study; but he 
removed in a short time to Rome, where, however, he was 
recognized by some relatives, who immediately compelled him 
to return home. Two years after this, and when only fourteen 
years old, he again left France contrary to the wishes of his 
friends, and reached Turin before he was overtaken by his elder 
brother, who had been despatched in quest of him. As his 
enthusiasm for art remained undiminished after these disappoint- 
ments, he was at last allowed to accompany the duke of Lorraine's 
envoy to the papal court. His first care was to study the art of 
design, of which in a short time he became a perfect master. 
Philip Thomasin instructed him in the use of the graver, which, 
however, he ultimately abandoned, substituting the point as 
better adapted for his purposes. From Rome he went to Florence, 
where he remained till the death of Cosimo II., the Maecenas of 
these times. On returning to his native country he was warmly 
received by the then duke of Lorraine, who admired and encour- 
aged him. As his fame was now spread abroad in various 
countries of Europe, many distinguished persons gave him 
commissions to execute. By the Infanta Isabella, sovereign of 
the Low Countries, he was commissioned to engrave a design of 
the siege of Breda; and at the request of Louis XIII. he designed 
the siege of Rochelle and the attack on the Isle of Re. When,. 

however, in 163 1 he was desired by that monarch to execute an 
engraving of the siege of Nancy, which he had just taken, Callot 
refused, saying, " I would rather cut off my thumb than do 
anything against the honour of my prince and of my country "; 
to which Louis replied that the duke of Lorraine was happy in 
possessing such subjects as Callot. Shortly after this he returned 
to his native place, from which the king failed to allure him with 
the offer of a handsome pension. He engraved in all about 1600 
pieces, the best of which are those executed in aquafortis. No 
one ever possessed in a higher degree the talent for grouping a 
large number of figures in a small space, and of representing with 
two or three bold strokes the expression, action and peculiar 
features of each individual. Freedom, variety and naivetS 
characterize all his pieces. His Fairs, his Miseries of War, his 
Sieges, his Temptation of St Anthony and his Conversion of St 
Paul are the best-known of his plates. 

See also Edouard Meaume, Recherches sur la vie de Jacques Callot 

CALLOVIAN (from Callovium, the Latinized form of Kellaways, 
a village not far from Chippenham in Wiltshire), in geology, the 
name introduced by d'Orbigny for the strata which constitute 
the base of the Oxfordian or lowermost stage of the Middle 
Oolites. The term used by d'Orbigny in 1844 was " Kellovien," 
subsequently altered to " Callovien " in 1849; William Smith 
wrote "Kellaways" or "Kelloways Stone" towards the close 
of the 18th century. In England it is now usual to speak of the 
Kellaways Beds; these comprise (1) the Kellaways Rock, 
alternating clays and sands with frequent but irregular con- 
cretionary calcareous sandstones, with abundant fossils; and 
(2) a lower division, the Kellaways Clay, which often contains 
much selenite but is poor in fossils. The lithological characters 
are impersistent, and the sandy phase encroaches sometimes 
more, sometimes less, upon the true Oxford Clay. The rocks 
may be traced from Wiltshire into Bedfordshire, Lincolnshire 
and Yorkshire, where they are well exposed in the cliffs at 
Scarborough and Gristhorpe, at Hackness (90 ft.), Newtondale 
(80 ft.), and Kepwick (100 ft.). In Yorkshire, however, the 
Callovian rocks lie upon a somewhat higher palaeontological 
horizon than in Wiltshire. In England, Kepplerites calloviensis 
is taken as the zone fossil; other common forms are Cosmoceras 
modiolare, C. gowerianum, Belemnites oweni, Ancyloceras callo- 
viense, Nautilus calloviensis, Avicula ovalis, Gryphaea bilobata, &c. 

On the European continent the " Callovien " stage is used in a 
sense that is not exactly synonymous with the English Callovian; 
it is employed to embrace beds that lie both higher and lower in 
the time-scale. Thus, the continental Callovien includes the 
following zones: — • 
Upper Callovien f Zone of Peltoceras athleta, Cosmoceras Duncani, 
(Divesien) \ Quenstedtoceras Lamberti and Q. mariae. 

{Zone of Reineckia anceps, Stephanoceras co*o- 
natum and Cosmoceras jason and a lower 
zone of C. gowerianum and Macrocephalites 

Rocks of Callovian age (according to the continental classifica- 
tion) are widely spread in Europe, which, with the exception of 
numerous insular masses, was covered by the Callovian Sea. The 
largest of these land areas lay over Scandinavia and Finland, 
and extended eastward as far as the 40th meridian. In arctic 
regions these rocks have been discovered in Spitzbergen, Franz 
Josef Land, the east coast of Greenland, and Siberia. They 
occur in the Hebrides and Skye and in England as indicated 
above. In France they are well exposed on the coast of Calvados 
between Trouville and Dives, where the marls and clays are 
200 ft. thick. In the Ardennes clays bearing pyrites and oolitic 
limonite are about 30 ft. thick. Around Poitiers the Callovian 
is 100 ft. thick, but the formation thins in the direction of the 

Clays and shales with ferruginous oolites represent the Callovian 
of Germany; while in Russia the deposits of this age are mainly 
argillaceous. In North America Callovian fossils are found in 
California; in South America in Bolivia. In Africa they have 
been found in Algeria and Morocco, in Somaliland and Zanzibar, 
and on the west coast of Madagascar. In India they are 



represented by the shales and limestones of the Chari series of 
Cutch. Callovian rocks are also recorded from New Guinea 
and the Moluccas. 

See Jurassic; also A. de Lapparent, Traite de geologie, vol. ii. 
(5th ed., 1906), and H. B. Woodward, " The Jurassic Rocks of 
Britain," Mem. Geol. Survey, vol. v. (J. A. H.) 

CALM, an adjective meaning peaceful, quiet; particularly 
used of the weather, free from wind or storm, or of the sea, 
opposed to rough. The word appears in French caime, through 
which it came into English, in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian 
calma. Most authorities follow Diez (Etym. Wbrterbuck der 
romanischen Sprachen) in tracing the origin to the Low Latin 
cauma, an adaptation of Greek Kavfia, burning heat, kclUw, to burn. 
The Portuguese calma has this meaning as well as that of quiet. 
The connexion would be heat of the day, rest during that period, 
so quiet, rest, peacefulness. The insertion of the /, which in 
English pronunciation disappears, is probably due to the Latin 
color, heat, with which the word was associated. 

CALMET, ANTOINE AUGUSTIN (1672-1757), French Bene- 
dictine, was born at Mesnil-la-Horgne on the 26th of February 
1672. At the age of seventeen he joined the Benedictine order, 
and in 1698 was appointed to teach theology and philosophy at 
the abbey of Moyen-Moutier. He was successively prior at Lay, 
abbot at Nancy and of Senones in Lorraine. He died in Paris 
on the 25th of October 1757. The erudition of Calmet's exegeti- 
cal writings won him a reputation that was not confined to the 
Roman Catholic Church, but they have failed to stand the test 
of modern scholarship. The most noteworthy are: — Commentaire 
de la Bible (Paris, 23 vols., 1707-17 16), and Dictionnaire historique, 
geographique, critique, chronologique et UttSral de la Bible (Paris, 
2 vols., 1720). These and numerous other works and editions of 
the Bible are known only to students, but as a pioneer in a branch 
of Biblical study which received a wide development in the 
19th century, Calmet is worthy of remembrance. As a histori- 
cal writer he is best known by his Histoire eccUsiastique et 
civile de la Lorraine (Nancy, 1728), founded on original research 
and various useful works on Lorraine, of which a full list is given 
In Vigouroux's Dictionnaire de la Bible. 

See A. Digot, Notice biographique et litteraire sur Dom Augustin 
Calmet (Nancy, i860). 

CALNE, a market town and municipal borough in the Chippen- 
ham parliamentary division of Wiltshire, England, 99 m. west 
of London by the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 3457. 
Area, 356 acres. It lies in the valley of the Calne, and is sur- 
rounded by the high table-land of Salisbury Plain and the 
Marlborough Downs. The church of St Mark has a nave with 
double aisles, and massive late Norman pillars and arches. The 
tower, which fell in 1628, was perhaps rebuilt by Inigo Jones. 
Other noteworthy buildings are a grammar school, founded by 
John Bentley in 1660, and the town-hall. Bacon-curing is the 
staple industry, and there are flour, flax and paper mills. The 
manufacture of broadcloth, once of great importance, is almost 
extinct. Calne is governed by a mayor, four aldermen and 
twelve councillors. 

In the 10th century Calne (Canna, Koine) was the site of a 
palace of the West-Saxon kings. Calne was the scene of the 
synod of 978 when, during the discussion of the question of 
celibacy, the floor suddenly gave way beneath the councillors, 
leaving Archbishop Dunstan alone standing upon a beam. 
Here also a witenagemot was summoned in 997. In the Domes- 
day Survey Calne appears as a royal borough; it comprised 
forty-seven burgesses and was not assessed in hides. In 1565 
the borough possessed a gild merchant, at the head of which 
were two gild stewards. Calne claimed to have received a charter 
from Stephen and a confirmation of the same from Henry III., 
but no record of these is extant, and the charter actually issued 
to the borough by James II. in 1687 apparently never came into 
force. The borough returned two members to parliament more 
or less irregularly from the first parliament of Edward I. until the 
Reform Bill of 1832. From this date the borough returned one 
member only until, by the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, the 
privilege was annulled. In 1303 Lodovicus de Bello Monte, 

prebendary of Salisbury, obtained a grant of a Saturday market 
at the manor of Calne, and a three days' fair at the feast of 
St Mary Magdalene; the latter was only abandoned in the 19th 
century. Calne was formerly one of the chief centres of cloth 
manufacture in the west of England, but the industry is extinct. 

CALOMEL, a drug consisting of mercurous chloride, mercury 
subchloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 , which occurs in nature as the mineral 
horn-quicksilver, found as translucent crystals belonging to the 
tetragonal system, with an adamantine lustre, and a dirty white 
grey or brownish colour. The chief localities are Idria, Ober- 
moschel, Horowitz in« Bavaria and Almaden in Spain. It was 
used in medicine as early as the 16th century under the names 
Draco mitigalus, Manna metallorum, Aquila alba, Mercurius dulcis ; 
later it became known as calomel, a name probably derived 
from the Greek ko.\6s, beautiful, and /xe\as, black, in allusion 
to its blackening by ammonia, or from ko\6s and jueXi, honey, 
from its sweet taste. It may be obtained by heating mercury in 
chlorine, or by reducing mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate) 
with mercury or sulphurous acid. It is manufactured by heating 
a mixture of mercurous sulphate and common salt in iron 
retorts, and condensing the sublimed calomel in brick chambers. 
In the wet way it is obtained by precipitating a mercurous salt 
with hydrochloric acid. Calomel is a white powder which 
sublimes at a low red heat; it is insoluble in water, alcohol and 
ether. Boiling with stannous chloride solution reduces it to 
the metal; digestion with potassium iodide gives mercurous 
iodide. Nitric acid oxidizes it to mercuric nitrate, while 
potash or soda decomposes it into mercury and oxygen. Long 
continued boiling with water gives mercury and mercuric 
chloride; dilute hydrochloric acid or solutions of alkaline 
chlorides convert it into mercuric chloride on long boiling. 

The molecular weight of mercurous chloride has given occasion 
for much discussion. E. Mitscherlich determined the vapour 
density to be 8 • 3 (air = 1 ) , corresponding to HgCl. The supporters 
of the formula Hg 2 Cl 2 pointed out that dissociation into mercury 
and mercuric chloride would give this value, since mercury is a 
monatomic element. After contradictory evidence as to whether 
dissociation did or did not occur, it was finally shown by Victor 
Meyer and W. Harris (1894) that a rod moistened with potash 
and inserted in the vapour was coloured yellow, and so con- 
clusively proved dissociation. A. Werner determined the mole- 
cular weights of mercurous, cuprous and silver bromides, iodides 
and chlorides in pyridine solution, and obtained results point- 
ing to the formula HgCl, etc. However, the double formula, 
Hg 2 Cl 2 , has been completely established by H. B. Baker (Journ. 
Chem. Soc, 1900, 77, p. 646) by vapour density determinations 
of the absolutely dry substance. 

Calomel possesses certain special properties and uses in 
medicine which are dealt with here as a supplement to the 
general discussion of the pharmacology and therapeutics of 
mercury (q.v.). Calomel exerts remote actions in the form of 
mercuric chloride. The specific value of mercurous chloride is 
that it exerts the valuable properties of mercuric chloride in the 
safest and least irritant manner, as the active salt is continuously 
and freshly generated in small quantities. Its pharmacopeial 
preparations are the " Black wash," in which calomel and lime 
react to form mercurous oxide, a pill still known as " Plummer's 
pill " and an ointment. Externally the salt has not any par- 
ticular advantage over other mercurial compounds, despite the 
existence of the official ointment. Internally the salt is given in 
doses — for an adult of from one-half to five grains. It is an 
admirable aperient, acting especially on the upper part of the 
intestinal canal, and causing a slight increase of intestinal 
secretion. The stimulant action occurring high up in the canal 
(duodenum and jejunum), it is well to follow a dose of calomel 
with a saline purgative a few hours afterwards. The special 
value of the drug as an aperient depends on its antiseptic power 
and its stimulation of the liver. The stools are dark green, 
containing calomel, mercuric sulphide and bile which, owing to 
the antiseptic action, has not been decomposed. The salt is often 
used in the treatment of syphilis, but is probably less useful than 
certain other mercurial compounds. It is also employed for 



fumigation;: the patient sits naked with a blanket over him, on a 
cane -bottomed chair, under which twenty grains of calomel are 
volatilized by a spirit-lamp; in about twenty minutes the 
calomel is effectually absorbed by the skin. • 

statesman, was born at Douai of a good family. He entered the 
profession of the law, and became in succession advocate to the 
general council of Artois, procureur to the parlement of Douai, 
master of requests, then intendant of Metz (1768) and of Lille 
(1774). He seems to have been a man of great business capacity, 
gay and careless in temperament, and thoroughly unscrupulous 
in political action. In the terrible crisis of affairs preceding the 
French Revolution, when minister after minister tried in vain 
to replenish the exhausted royal treasury and was dismissed for 
want of success, Calonne was summoned to take the general 
control of affairs. He assumed office on the 3rd of November 
1783. He owed the position to Vergennes, who for three years 
and a half continued to support him ; but the king was not well 
disposed towards him, and, according to the testimony of the 
Austrian ambassador, his reputation with the public was ex- 
tremely poor. In taking office he found " 600 millions to pay 
and neither money nor credit." At first he attempted to 
develop the latter, and to carry on the government by means of 
loans in such a way as to maintain public confidence in its 
solvency. In October 1785 he recoined the gold coinage, and he 
developed the caisse a" escompte. But these measures failing, he 
proposed to the king the suppression of internal customs, duties 
and the taxation of the property of nobles and clergy. Turgot 
and Necker had attempted these reforms, and Calonne attributed 
their failure to the malevolent criticism of the parlements. 
Therefore he had an assembly of " notables "called together in 
January 1787. Before it he exposed the deficit in the treasury, 
and proposed the establishment of a subvention territoriale, 
which should be levied on all property without distinction. This 
suppression of privileges was badly received by the privileged 
notables. Calonne, angered, printed his reports and so alienated 
the court. Louis XVI. dismissed him on the 8th of April 1787 
and exiled him to Lorraine. The joy was general in Paris, where 
Calonne, accused of wishing to augment the imposts, was known 
as " ■ Monsieur Deficit." In reality his audacious plan of reforms, 
which Necker took up later, might have saved the monarchy had 
it been firmly seconded by the king. Calonne soon afterwards 
passed over to England, and during his residence there kept Up a 
polemical correspondence with Necker on the finances. In 1789, 
when the states-general were about to assemble, he crossed over 
to Flanders in the hope of being allowed to offer himself for 
election, but he was sternly forbidden to enter France. In 
revenge he joined the tmigrt party at Coblenz, wrote in their 
favour, and expended nearly all the fortune brought him by his 
wif e , a wealthy widow. In 1 80 2 , having again taken up his abode 
in London, he received permission from Napoleon to return to 
France. He died on the 30th of October 1802, about a month 
after his arrival in his native country. 

See Ch. Gomel, Les Causes financiires de la Revolution (Paris, 1893) ; 
R. Stourm, Les Finances de Vancien regime et de la Revolution (2 vols., 
Paris, 1885); Susane, La Tactique financi&re de Calonne, with biblio- 
graphy (Paris, 1902). 

CALORESCENCE (from the Lat. color, heat), a term invented 
by John Tyndall to describe an opticalphenomenon, the essential 
feature of which is the conversion of rays belonging to the dark 
infra-red portion of the spectrum into the more refrangible visible 
rays, i.e. heat rays into rays of light. Such a transformation 
had not previously been observed, although the converse pheno- 
menon, i.e. the conversion of short waves of light into longer or 
less refrangible waves, had been shown by Sir G. G. Stokes to 
occur in fluorescent bodies. Tyndall's experiments, however, 
were carried out on quite different lines, and have nothing to do 
with fluorescence (q.v.). His method was to sift out the long 
dark waves which are associated with the short visible waves 
constituting the light of the sun or of the electric arc and to 
concentrate the former to a focus. If the eye was placed at the 
focus, no sensation of light was observed, although small pieces 

of charcoal or blackened platinum foil were immediately raised 
to incandescence, thus giving rise to visible rays. 

The experiment is more easily carried out with the electric 
light than with sunlight, as the former contains a smaller pro- 
portion of visible rays. According to Tyndall, 90% of the 
radiation from the electric arc is non-luminous. The arc being 
struck in the usual way between two carbons, a concave mirror, 
placed close behind it, caused a large part of the radiation to be 
directed through an aperture in the camera and concentrated to 
a focus outside. In front of the aperture were placed a plate of 
transparent rock-salt, and a flat cell of thin glass containing a 
solution of iodine in carbon bisulphide. Both rock-salt and 
carbon bisulphide are extremely transparent to the luminous 
and also to the infra-red rays The iodine in the solution, 
however, has the property of absorbing the luminous rays, while 
transmitting the infra-red rays copiously, so that in sufficient 
thicknesses the solution appears nearly black. Owing to the 
inflammable nature of carbon bisulphide, the plate of rock-salt 
was found to be hardly a sufficient protection, and Tyndall 
surrounded the iodine cell with an annular vessel through which 
cold water was made to flow. Any small body which was a goqd 
absorber of dark rays was rapidly heated to redness when placed 
at the focus. Platinized platinum (platinum foil upon which a 
thin film of platinum had been deposited electrolytically) and 
charcoal were rendered incandescent, black paper and matches 
immediately inflamed, ordinary brown paper pierced and 
burned, while thin white blotting-paper, owing to its transparency 
to the invisible rays, was scarcely tinged. A simpler arrange- 
ment, also employed by Tyndall, is to cause the rays to be re- 
flected outwards parallel to one another, and to concentrate them 
by means of a small flask, containing the iodine solution and used 
as a lens, placed some distance from the camera. The rock-salt 
and cold water circulation can then be dispensed with. 

Since the rays used by Tyndall in these experiments are similar 
to those emitted by a heated body which is not hot enough to be 
luminous, it might be thought that the radiation, say from a hot 
kettle, could be concentrated to a focus and employed to render 
a small body luminous. It would, however, be impossible by such 
means to raise the receiving body to a higher temperature than 
the source of radiation. For it is easy to see that if, by means of 
lenses of rock-salt or mirrors, we focused all or nearly all the rays 
from a small surface on to another surface of equal area, this 
would not raise the temperature of the second surface above that 
of the first; and we could not obtain a greater concentration of 
rays from a large heated surface, since we could not have all parts 
of the surface simultaneously in focus. The desired result could 
be obtained if it were possible, by reflection or otherwise, to cause 
two different rays to unite without loss and pursue a common 
path. Such a result must be regarded as impossible of attain- 
ment, as it would imply the possibility of heat passing from one 
body to another at a higher temperature, contrary to the second 
law of thermodynamics (q.v.). Tyndall used the dark rays from 
a luminous source, which are emitted in a highly concentrated 
form, so that it was possible to obtain a high temperature, which 
was, however, much lower than that of the source. 

A full account of Tyndall's experiments will be found in his Heat, 
a Mode of Motion. (J. R. C.) 

CALORIMETRY, the scientific name for the measurement of 
quantities of heat (Lat. color), to be distinguished from ther- 
mometry, which signifies the measurement of temperature. A 
calorimeter is any piece of apparatus in which heat is measured. 
This distinction of meaning is purely a matter of convention, but 
it is very rigidly observed. Quantities of heat may be measured 
indirectly in a variety of ways in terms of the different effects of 
heat on material substances. The most important of these 
effects are (a) rise of temperature, (b) change of state, (c) trans- 
formation of energy. 

§ 1. The rise of temperature of a body, when heat is imparted 
to it, is found to be in general nearly proportional to the quantity 
of heat added. The thermal capacity of a body is measured by 
the quantity of heat required to raise its temperature one degree, 
and is necessarily proportional to the mass of the body for bodies 



of the same substance under similar conditions. The specific 
heat of a substance is sometimes denned as the thermal capacity 
of unit mass, but more often as the ratio of the thermal capacity 
of unit mass of the substance to that of unit mass of water at 
some standard temperature. The two definitions are identical, 
provided that the thermal capacity of unit mass of water, at a 
standard temperature, is taken as the unit of heat. But the 
specific heat of water is often stated in terms of other units. In 
any case it is necessary to specify the temperature, and sometimes 
also the pressure, since the specific heat of a substance generally 
depends to some extent on the external conditions. The methods 
of measurement, founded on rise of temperature, may be classed 
as thermometric methods, since they depend on the observation of 
change of temperature with a thermometer. The most familiar 
of these are the method of mixture and the method of cooling. 

§ 2. The Method of Mixture consists in imparting the quantity 
of heat to be measured to a known mass of water, or some other 
standard substance, contained in a vessel or calorimeter of known 
thermal capacity, and in observing the rise of temperature pro- 
duced, from which data the quantity of heat may be found as 
explained in all elementary text-books. This method is the most 
generally convenient and most readily applicable of calorimetric 
methods, but it is not always the most accurate, for various reasons. 
Some heat is generally lost in transferring the heated body to the 
calorimeter; this loss may be minimized by performing the trans- 
ference rapidly, but it cannot be accurately calculated or eliminated. 
Some heat is lost when the calorimeter is raised above the tempera- 
ture of its enclosure, and before the final temperature is reached. 
This can be roughly estimated by observing the rate of change of 
temperature before and after the experiment, and assuming that the 
loss of heat is directly proportional to the duration of the experiment 
and to the average excess of temperature. It can be minimized by 
making the mixing as rapid as possible, and by using a large calori- 
meter, so that the excess of temperature is always small. The latter 
method was generally adopted by J. P. Joule, but the rise of tem- 
perature is then difficult to measure with accuracy, since it is neces- 
sarily reduced in nearly the same proportion as the correction. 
There is, however, the advantage that the correction is rendered 
much less uncertain by this procedure, since the assumption that 
the loss of heat is proportional to the temperature-excess is only 
true for small differences of temperature. Rumford proposed to 
eliminate this correction by starting with the initial temperature 
of the calorimeter as much below that of its enclosure as the final 
temperature was expected to be above the same limit. This method 
has been very generally recommended, but it is really bad, because, 
although it diminishes the absolute magnitude of the correction* 
it greatly increases the uncertainty of it and therefore the probable 
error of the result. The coefficient of heating of a calorimeter when 
it is below the temperature of its surroundings is seldom, if ever, the 
same as the coefficient of cooling at the higher temperature, since 
the convection currents, which do most of the heating or cooling, are 
rarely symmetrical in the two cases, and moreover, the duration 
of the two stages is seldom the same. In any case, it is desirable to 
diminish the loss of heat as much as possible by polishing the exterior 
of the calorimeter to diminish radiation, and by suspending it by 
non-conducting supports, inside a polished case, to protect it from 
draughts. It is also very important to keep the surrounding condi- 
tions as constant as possible throughout the experiment. This may 
be secured by using a large water-bath to surround the apparatus, 
but in experiments of long duration it is necessary to use an accurate 
temperature regulator. The method of lagging the calorimeter with 
cotton-wool or other non-conductors, which is often recommended, 
diminishes the loss of heat considerably, but renders it very uncertain 
and variable, and should never be used in work of precision. The bad 
conductors take so long to reach a steady state that the rate of loss 
of heat at any moment depends on the past history more than on 
the temperature of the calorimeter at the moment. A more serious 
objection to the use of lagging of this kind is the danger of its absorb- 
ing moisture. The least trace of damp in the lagging, or of moisture 
condensed on the surface of the calorimeter, may produce serious 
loss of heat by evaporation. This is another objection to Rumford's 
method of cooling the calorimeter below the surrounding temperature 
before starting. Among minor difficulties of the method may be 
mentioned the uncertainty of the thermal capacity of the calorimeter 
and stirrer, and of the immersed portion of the thermometer. This 
is generally calculated by assuming values for the specific heats of 
the materials obtained by experiment between loo" C. and 20° C. 
Since the specific heats of most metals increase rapidly with rise of 
temperature, the values so obtained are generally too high. It is 
best to make this correction as small as possible by using a large 
calorimeter, so that the mass of water is large in proportion to that 
of metal. Analogous difficulties arise in the application of other 
calorimetric methods. The accuracy of the work in each case 
depends principally on the skill and ingenuity of the experimentalist 
in devising methods of eliminating the various sources of error. 

The form of apparatus usually adopted for the method of mixtures 
is that of Regnault with slight modifications, and figures and des- 
criptions are given in all the text-books. Among special method, 
which have been subsequently developed there are two. which deserve 
mention as differing in principle from the common type. These 
are (i) the constant temperature method, (2) the continuous flow 

The constant temperature method of mixtures was proposed by 
N. Hesehus (Jour. Phys., 1888, vii. p. 489). Cold water at a known 

Fig. 1. 

temperature is added to the calorimeter, immediately after dropping 
in the heated substance, at such a rate as to keep the temperature 
of the calorimeter constant, thus eliminating the corrections for 
the water equivalent of the calorimeter and the external loss of heat. 
The calorimeter is surrounded by an air-jacket connected to a 
petroleum gauge which indicates any small change of temperature 
in the calorimeter, and enables the manipulator to adjust the supply 
of cold water to compensate it. The apparatus as arranged by 
F. A. Waterman is shown in fig. 1 (Physical Review, 1896, iv. p. 161). 
A is the calorimetric tube, 
B the air-jacket and L 
the gauge. H is an electric 
heater for raising the body 
to a suitable temperature, 
which can swing into place 
directly over the calori- 
meter. W is a conical can 
containing water cooled 
by ice I nearly to o°, which 
is swung over the calori- 
meter as soon as the hot 
body has been introduced 
and the heater removed. 
The cold water flow is 
regulated by a tap S with 
a long handle O, and its 
temperature is taken by a 
delicate thermometer with 
its bulb at G. The method 
is interesting, but the 
manipulations and obser- 
vations involved are more 
troublesome than with the 
ordinary type of calori- 
meter, and it may be 
doubted whether any ad- 
vantage is gained in 

The continuous flow 
method is specially applic- 
able to the important case 
of calorific value of gaseous 
fuel, where a large quan- 
tity of heat is continu- 
ously generated at a 
nearly uniform rate by combustion. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 2 illustrates a recent 
type of gas calorimeter devised by C. V. Boys (Proc. R.S-, J 906; 
A. 77, p. 122). The heated products of combustion from the burner 
B impinge on a metal box H, through which water is circulating, and 
then pass downwards and outvvards through a spiral cooler which re- 
duces them practically to the atmospheric temperature. A steady 
stream of water enters the apparatus by the inflow thermometer O, 



flows through the spiral coolers N and M, and finally through the box 
H, where it is well mixed before passing the outflow thermometer P. 
As soon as a steady state is reached, the difference of temperature 
between the outflow and inflow thermometers, multiplied by the 
current of water in grammes per minute gives the heat per minute 
supplied by combustion. The gas current is simultaneously ob- 
served by a suitable meter, which, with subsidiary corrections for 
pressure, temperature, &c, gives the necessary data for deducing 
calorific value. 

A continuous flow calorimeter has been used by the writer for 
measuring quantities of heat conveyed by conduction (see Con- 
duction of Heat), and also for determining the variation of the 
specific heat of water. In the latter case two steady currents of water 
at different temperatures, say o° and ioo° are passed through an 
equalizer, and the resulting temperature measured without mixing 
the currents, which are then separately determined by weighing. 
This is a very good method of comparing the mean specific heats 
over two ranges of temperature such as 0-50, and 50-100, or 0-20 
and 20-40, but it is not so suitable as the electric method^ described 
below for obtaining the actual specific heat at any point of the 

§ 3. Method of Cooling. — A common example of this method 
is the determination of the specific heat of a liquid by filling a 
small calorimeter with the liquid, raising it to a convenient 
temperature, and then setting it to cool in an enclosure at a 
steady temperature, and observing the time taken to fall through 
a given range when the conditions have become fairly steady. 
The same calorimeter is afterwards filled with a known liquid, 
such as water, and the time of cooling is observed through the 
same range of temperature, in the same enclosure, under the 
same conditions. The ratio of the times of cooling is equal to the 
ratio of the thermal capacities of the calorimeter and its contents 
in the two cases. The advantage of the method is that there is 
no transference or mixture; the defect is that the whole measure- 
ment depends on the assumption that the rate of loss of heat is 
the same in the two cases, and that any variation in the con- 
ditions, or uncertainty in the rate of loss, produces its full effect 
in the result, whereas in the previous case it would only affect a 
small correction. Other sources of uncertainty are, that the rate 
of loss of heat generally depends to some extent on the rate of 
fall of temperature, and that it is difficult to take accurate 
observations on a rapidly falling thermometer. As the method 
is usually practised, the calorimeter is made very small, and the 
surface is highly polished to diminish radiation. It is better to 
use a fairly large calorimeter to diminish the rate of cooling and 
the uncertainty of the correction for the water equivalent. The 
surface of the calorimeter and the enclosure should be perma- 
nently blackened so as to increase the loss of heat by radiation as 
much as possible, as compared with the losses by convection and 
conduction, which are less regular. For accurate work it is 
essential that the liquid in the calorimeter should be continuously 
stirred, and also in the enclosure, the lid of which must be water- 
jacketed, and kept at the same steady temperature as the sides. 
When all these precautions are taken, the method loses most of 
the simplicity which is its chief advantage. It cannot be satis- 
factorily applied to the case of solids or powders, and is much 
less generally useful than the method of mixture. 

§ 4. Method of Fusion. — The methods depending on change of 
state are theoretically the simplest, since they do not necessarily 
involve any reference to thermometry, and the corrections for 
external loss of heat and for the thermal capacity of the con- 
taining vessels can be completely eliminated. They nevertheless 
present peculiar difficulties and limitations, which render their 
practical application more troublesome and more uncertain than 
is usually supposed. They depend on the experimental fact that 
the quantity of heat required to produce a given change of state 
(e.g. to convert one gramme of ice at o° C. into water at o° C, or 
one gramme of water at ioo° C. into steam at 100° C.) is always 
the same, and that there need be no change of temperature during 
the process. The difficulties arise in connexion with the deter- 
mination of the quantities of ice melted or steam condensed, and 
in measuring the latent heat of fusion or vaporization in terms of 
other units for the comparison of observations. The earlier forms 
of ice-calorimeter, those of Black, and of Laplace and Lavoisier, 
were useless for work of precision, on account of the impossibility 
of accurately estimating the quantity of water left adhering to 

the ice in each case. This difficulty was overcome by the inven- 
tion of the Bunsen calorimeter, in which the quantity of ice 
melted is measured by observing the diminution of volume, but 
the successful employment of this instrument requires consider- 
able skill in manipulation. The sheath of ice surrounding the 
bulb must be sufficiently continuous to prevent escape of heat, 
but it must not be so solid as to produce risk of strain. The 
ideal condition is difficult to secure. In the practical use of the 
instrument it is not necessary to know both the latent heat of 
fusion of ice and the change of volume which occurs on melting; 
it is sufficient to determine the change of volume per calorie, or 
the quantity of mercury which is drawn into the bulb of the 
apparatus per unit of heat added. This can be determined by a 
direct calibration, by inserting a known quantity of water at a 
known temperature and observing the contraction, or weighing 
the mercury drawn into the apparatus. In order to be inde- 
pendent of the accuracy of the thermometer employed for 
observing the initial temperature of the water introduced, it 
has been usual to employ water at 100° C, adopting as unit of 
heat the " mean calorie," which is one-hundredth part of the heat 
given up by one gramme of water in cooling from ioo° to o c C. 
The weight of mercury corresponding to the mean calorie has 
been determined with considerable care by a number of observers 
well skilled in the use of the instrument. The following are some 
of their results: — Bunsen, 15-41 mgm.; Velten, 15-47 mgm.; 
Zakrevski, 15-57 mgm,; Staub, 15-26 mgm. The explanation of 
these discrepancies in the fundamental constant is not at all 
clear, but they may be taken as an illustration of the difficulties 
of manipulation attending the use of this instrument, to which 
reference has already been made. It is not possible to deduce a 
more satisfactory value from the latent heat and the change of 
density, because these constants are very difficult to determine. 
The following are some of the values deduced by well-known 
experimentalists for the latent heat of fusion: — Regnault, 79-06 
to 79-24 calories, corrected by Person to 79-43; Person, 79-99 
calories; Hess, 80-34 calories; Bunsen, 80-025 calories. Regnault, 
Person and Hess employed the method of mixture which is 
probably the most accurate for the purpose. Person and Hess 
avoided the error of water sticking to the ice by using dry ice at 
various temperatures below o° C, and determining the specific 
heat of ice as well as the latent heat of fusion. These discrep- 
ancies might, no doubt, be partly explained by differences in the 
units employed, which are somewhat uncertain, as the specific 
heat of water changes rapidly in the neighbourhood of 0° C; but 
making all due allowance for this, it remains evident that the 
method of ice-calorimetry, in spite of its theoretical simplicity, 
presents grave difficulties in its practical application. 

One of the chief difficulties in the practical use of the Bunsen 
calorimeter is the continued and often irregular movement of the 
mercury column due to slight differences of temperature, or pressure 
between the ice in the calorimeter and the ice 
bath in which it is immersed. C. V. Boys 
{Phil. Mag., 1887, vol. 24, p. 214) showed that 
these effects could be very greatly reduced by 
surrounding the calorimeter with an outer tube, 
so that the ice inside was separated from the 
ice outside by an air space which greatly 
reduces the free passage of heat. The present 
writer has found that very- good results may be 
obtained by enclosing the calorimeter in a 
vacuum jacket (as illustrated in fig. 3), which 
practically eliminates conduction and convec- 
tion. If the vacuum jacket is silvered inside, 
radiation also is reduced to such an extent 
that, if the vacuum is really good, the external 
ice bath may be dispensed with for the majority 
of purposes. If the inner bulb is filled with 
mercury instead of water and ice, the same 
arrangement answers admirably as a Favre 
and Silbermann calorimeter, for measuring 
small quantities of heat by the expansion of 
the mercury. 

The question has been raised by E. L. Nichols (Phys. Rev. vol. 8, 
January 1899) whether there may not be different modifications of 
ice with different densities, and different values of the latent heat 
of fusion. He found for natural pond-ice a density 0-9179 and for 
artificial ice 0-9161. J. Vincent (Phil. Trans. A. 198, p. 463) also 
found a density -9160 for artificial ice, which is probably very nearly 

Fig. 3. 



correct. If such variations of density exist, they may introduce 
some uncertainty in the absolute values of results obtained with the 
ice calorimeter, and may account for some of the discrepancies above 

§ 5. The Method of Condensation was first successfully applied 
by J. Joly in the construction of his steam calorimeter, a full 
description of which will be found in text-books. The body to be 
tested is placed in a special scale-pan, suspended by a fine wire 
from the arm of a balance inside an enclosure which can be filled 
with steam at atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the 
enclosure is carefully observed before admitting steam. The 
weight of steam condensed on the body gives a means of calculat- 
ing the quantity of heat required to raise it from the atmospheric 
temperature up to 100° C. in terms of the latent heat of vaporiza- 
tion of steam at ioo° C. There can be no appreciable gain or 
loss of heat by radiation, if the admission of the steam is 
sufficiently rapid, since the walls of the enclosure are maintained 
at ioo° C, very nearly. The thermal capacity of the scale-pan, 
&c, can be determined by a separate experiment, or, still better, 
eliminated by the differential method of counterpoising with an 
exactly similar arrangement on the other arm of the balance. 
The method requires very delicate weighing, as one calorie 
corresponds to less than two milligrammes of steam condensed; 
but the successful application of the method to the very difficult 
problem of measuring the specific heat of a gas at constant 
volume, shows that these and other difficulties have been very 
skilfully overcome. The application of the method appears to be 
practically limited to the measurements of specific heat between 
the atmospheric temperature and 100° C. The results depend on 
the value assumed for the latent heat of steam, which Joly takes 
as 536.7 calories, following Regnault. Joly has himself deter- 
mined the mean specific heat of water between 12 and ioo° C. 
by this method, in terms of the latent heat of steam as above 
given, and finds the result -9952. Assuming that the mean 
specific heat of water between 12 and ioo° is really i-ooii in 
terms of the calorie at 20 C. (see table, p. 66), the value of the 
latent heat of steam at 100° C, as determined by Joly, would be 
540-2 in terms of the same unit. The calorie employed by 
Regnault is to some extent uncertain, but the difference is hardly 
beyond the probable errors of experiment, since it appears from 
the results of recent experiments that Regnault made an error 
of the same order in his determination of the specific heat of 
water at ioo° C. 

§ 6. Energy MetJtods. — The third general method of calorimetry, 
that based on the transformation of some other kind of energy 
into the form of heat, rests on the general principle of the con- 
servation of energy, and on the experimental fact that all other 
forms of energy are readily and completely convertible into the 
form of heat. It is therefore often possible to measure quantities 
of heat indirectly, by measuring the energy in some other form 
and then converting it into heat. In addition to its great 
theoretical interest, this method possesses the advantage of 
being frequently the most accurate in practical application, since 
energy can be more accurately measured in other forms than in 
that of heat. The two most important varieties of the method are 
(a) mechanical, and (b) electrical. These methods have reached 
their highest development in connexion with the determination of 
the mechanical equivalent of heat, but they may be applied with 
great advantage in connexion with other problems, such as the 
measurement of the variation of specific heat, or of latent heats 
of fusion or vaporization. 

§ 7. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. — The phrase " mechanical 
equivalent of heat " is somewhat vague, but has been sanctioned 
by long usage. It is generally employed to denote the number 
of units of mechanical work or energy which, when completely 
converted into heat without loss, would be required to produce 
one heat unit. The numerical value of the mechanical equivalent 
necessarily depends on the particular units of heat and work 
employed in the comparison. The British engineer prefers to 
state results in terms of foot-pounds of work in any convenient 
latitude per pound-degree-Fahrenheit of heat. The continental 
engineer prefers kilogrammetres per kilogramme-degree-centi- 


grade. For scientific use the C.G.S. system of expression in ergs 
per gramme-degree-centigrade, or " calorie," is the most appro- 
priate, as being independent of ,the value of gravity. A more 
convenient unit of work or energy, in practice, on account of the 
smallness of the erg, is the joule, which is equal to io- 7 ergs, or one 
watt-second of electrical energy. On account of its practical 
convenience, and its close relation to the international electrical 
units, the joule has been recommended by the British Association 
for adoption as the absolute unit of heat. Other convenient 
practical units of the same kind would be the watt-hour, 3600 
joules, which is of the same order of magnitude as the kilo- 
calorie, and the kilowatt-hour, which is the ordinary commercial 
unit of electrical energy. 

§ 8. Joule. — The earlier work of Joule is now chiefly of historical 
interest, but his later measurements in 1878, which were undertaken 
on a larger scale, adopting G. 
A. Hirn's method of measuring 
the work expended in terms of 
the torque and the number of 
revolutions, still possess 
value as experimental evidence. 
In these experiments (see fig. 4) 
the paddles were revolved by 
hand at such a speed as to 
produce a constant torque on 
the calorimeter h, which was 
supported on a float to in a 
vessel of water v, but was kept 
at rest by the couple due to a 
pair of equal weights k sus- 
pended from fine strings pass- 
ing round the circumference of 
a horizontal wheel attached to 
the calorimeter. Each experi- 
ment lasted about forty 
minutes, and the rise of tem- 
perature produced was nearly 
3 C. The calorimeter con- 
tained about 5 kilogrammes 
of water, so that the rate 
of heat-supply was about 6 
calories per second. Joule's 


I 1 




1 , ^ 

l l 



V , 

Fig. 4. 

final result was 772-55 foot-pounds at Manchester per poun i-degree- 
Fahrenheit at a temperature of 62 F., but individual experiments 
differed by as much as 1 %. This result in C.G.S. measure is equi- 
valent to 4-177 joules per calorie at 16-5° C, on the scale of Joule's 
mercury thermometer. His thermometers were subsequently cor- 
rected to the Paris scale by A- Schuster in 1895, which had the effect 
of reducing the above figure to 4-173. 

§ 9. Rowland. — About the same time H. A. Rowland {Proc. Amer. 
Acad. xv. p. 75, 1880) repeated the experiment, employing the same 
method, but using a larger calorimeter (about 8400 grammes) and 
a petroleum motor, so as to obtain a greater rate of heating (about 
84 calories per second), and to reduce the importance of the un- 
certain correction for external loss of heat. Rowland's apparatus 
is shown in fig. 5. The calorimeter was suspended by a steel wire, 
the torsion of which made the equilibrium stable. The torque was 
measured by weights O and P suspended by silk ribbons passing 
over the pulleys n and round the disk kl. The power was transmitted 
to the paddles by bevel wheels/, g, rotating a spindle passing through 
a stuffing box in the bottom of the calorimeter. The number of 
revolutions and the rise of temperature were recorded on a chrono- 
graph drum. He paid greater attention to the important question 
of thermometry, and extended his researches over a much wider 
range of temperature, namely 5 ° to 35 ° C. His experiments revealed 
for the first time a diminution in the specific heat of water with rise 
of temperature between 0° and 30° C, amounting to four parts in 
io-ooo per l°C. His thermometers were compared with a mercury 
thermometer standardized in Paris, and with a platinum thermo- 
meter standardized by Griffiths. The result was to reduce the co- 
efficient of diminution of specific heat at 15° C. by nearly one half, 
but the absolute value at 20° C. is practically unchanged. Thus 
corrected his values are as follows :— 

Temperature . io° 15 20 25 30 35 

Joules per cal. . 4-197 4-188 4-181 4-176 4-175 4-177 
These are expressed in terms of the hydrogen scale, but the difference 
from the nitrogen scale is so small as to be within the limits of ex- 
perimental error in this particular case. Rowland himself considered 
his results to be probably correct to one part in 500, and supposed 
that the greatest uncertainty lay in the comparison of the scale of 
his mercury thermometer with the air thermometer. Thesubsequent 
correction, though not carried out strictly under the conditions of 
the experiment, showed that the order of accuracy of his work about 
the middle of the range from 15° to 25° was at least I in 1000, and 
probably 1 in 2000. At 30 he considered that, owing to the increas- 
ing magnitude and uncertainty of the radiation correction, there 

6 4 


" might be a small error in the direction of making the equivalent 
too great, and that the specific heat might go on decreasing; to even 
40 C." The results considered with reference to the variation of 


Fig. 5. 

the specific heat of water are shown in the curve marked Rowland 
in Fig. 6. 

§ 10. Osborne Reynolds and W.H.Moorby {Phil. Trans. ,1897, p. 381) 
determined the mechanical equivalent of the mean thermal unit 
between o° and 100 C.,ona very large scale, with a Froude- Reynolds 
hydraulic brake and a steam-engine of 100 h.p. This brake is practi- 
cally a Joule calorimeter, ingeniously designed to churn the water 
in such a manner as to develop the greatest possible resistance. 
The admission of water at o° C. to the brake was controlled by hand 
in such a manner as to keep the outflow nearly at the boiling-point, 
the quantity of water in the brake required to produce a constant 
torque being regulated automatically, as the speed varied, by a valve 
worked by the lifting of the weighted lever attached to the brake. 

Fig. 6. 

The accompanying illustration (fig. 7) shows the brake lagged with 
cotton-wool, and the 4-ft. lever to which the weights are suspended. 
The power of the brake may be estimated by comparison with the 
size of the rope pulley seen behind it on the same shaft. With 
300 pounds on a 4-ft. lever at 300 revolutions per minute, the rate of 
generation of heat was about 12 kilo-calories per second. In spite 
of the large range of temperature, the correction for external loss 
of heat amounted to only 5%, with the brake uncovered, and was 
reduced to less than 2 % by lagging. This is the special advantage 
of working on so large a scale with so rapid a generation of heat. 
But, for the same reason, the method necessarily presents peculiar 
difficulties, which were not overcome without great pains and in- 
genuity. The principal troubles arose from damp in the lagging 
which necessitated the rejection of several trials, and from dissolved 
air in the water, causing loss of heat by the formation of steam. 
Next to the radiation loss, the most uncertain correction was that 
for conduction of heat along the 4-in. shaft. These losses were as 
far as possible eliminated by combining the trials in pairs, with differ- 

ent loads on the brake, assuming that the heat-loss would be the same 
in the heavy and light trials, provided that the external temperature 
and the gradient in the shaft, as estimated from the temperature 
of the bearings, were the same. The values deduced in this manner 
for the equivalent agreed as closely as could be expected considering 
the impossibility of regulating the external condition of temperature 
and moisture with any certainty in an engine-room. The extreme 
variation of results in any one series was only from 776.63 to 779.46 
ft. -pounds, or less than 2%. This variation may have been due 
to the state of the lagging, which Moorby distrusted in spite of the 
great reduction of the heat-loss, or it may have been partly due to 
the difficulty of regulating the speed of the engine and the water- 
supply to the brake in such a manner as to maintain a constant 
temperature in the outflow, and avoid variations in the heat capacity 
of the brake. Since hand regulation is necessarily discontinuous, 
the speed and the temperature were constantly varying, so that it 
was useless to take readings nearer than the tenth of a degree. The 
largest variation recorded in the two trials of which full details are 
given, was 4-9 ° F. in two minutes in the outflow temperature, and 
four or five revolutions per minute on the speed. These variations, so 
far as they were of a purely accidental nature, would be approxi- 
mately eliminated on the mean of a large number of trials, so that 
the accuracy of the final result would be of a higher order than might 
be inferred from a comparison of separate pairs of trials. Great pains 

Fig. 7. 

were taken to discuss and eliminate all the sources of constant error 
which could be foreseen. The results of the light trials with 400 ft.- 
pounds on the brake differ slightly from those with 600 ft. -pounds. 
This might be merely accidental, or it might indicate some constant 
difference in the conditions requiring further investigation. It would 
have been desirable, if possible, to have tried the effect of a larger 
range of variation in the experimental conditions of load and speed, 
with a view to detect the existence of constant errors ; but owing to 
the limitations imposed by the use of a steam-engine, and the 
difficulty of securing steady conditions of running, this proved to be 
impossible. There can be no doubt, however, that the final result is 
the most accurate direct determination of the value of the mean 
calorie between o" and 100 C. in mechanical units. Expressed in 
joules per calorie the result is 4-1832, which agrees very closely with 
the value found by Rowland as the mean over the range 15 to 20° C. 
The value 4-183 is independently confirmed in a remarkable manner 
by the results of the electrical method described below, which give 
4-185 joules for the mean calorie, if Rowland's value is assumed as 
the starting-point, arid taken to be 4-180 joules at 20° C. 

§ 11. Electrical Methods. — The value of the international 
electrical units has by this time been so accurately determined in 
absolute measure that they afford a very good, though indirect, 
method of determining the mechanical equivalent of heat. But, 
quite apart from this, electrical methods possess the greatest 
value for calorimetry, on account of the facility and accuracy of 
regulating and measuring the quantity of heat supplied by an 
electric current. The frictional generation of heat in a metallic 
wire conveying a current can be measured in various ways, which 
correspond to slightly different methods. By Ohm's law, rod by 
the definition of difference of electric pressure or potential, we 
obtain the following alternative expressions for the quantity of 
heat H in joules generated in a time T seconds by a current of 
C amperes flowing in a wire of resistance R ohms, the difference 
of potential between the ends of the wire being E = CR volts:— 

H = ECT=ORT = &TIR . . . (1.) 
The method corresponding to the expression ORT was adopted 



t>y Joule and by most of the early experimentalists. The defects 
of the earlier work from an electrical point of view lay chiefly in 
the difficulty of measuring the current with sufficient accuracy 
owing to the imperfect development of the science of electrical 
measurement. These difficulties have been removed by the great 
advances since 1880, and in particular by the introduction of 
accurate standard cells for measurements of electrical pressure. 

§ 12. Griffiths.— The method adopted by E. H. Griffiths {Phil. 
Trans., 1893, p. 361), whose work threw a great deal of light on the 
failure of previous observers to secure consistent results, corre- 
sponded to the last expression E?T/R, and consisted in regulating 
the current by a special rheostat, so as to keep the potential difference 
E on the terminals of the resistance R balanced against a given 
number of standard Clark cells of the Board of Trade pattern. The 
resistance R could be deduced from a knowledge of the temperature 
of the calorimeter and the coefficient of the wire. But in order to 
obtain trustworthy results by this method he found it necessary 
to employ very rapid stirring (2000 revolutions per minute), and to 
insulate the wire very carefully from the liquid to prevent leakage 
of the current. He also made a special experiment to find how much 
the temperature of the wire exceeded that of the liquid under the 
conditions of the experiment. This correction had been neglected 
by previous observers employing similar methods. The resistance 
R was about 9 ohms, and the potential difference E was varied from 
three to six Clark cells, giving a rate of heat-supply about 2 to 6 
watts. The water equivalent of the calorimeter was about 85 
grammes, and was determined by varying the quantity of water from 
140 to 260 or 280 grammes, so that the final results depended on a 
difference in the weight of water of 120 to 140 grammes. The range 
of temperature in each experiment was 14 to 26 C. The rate of rise 
was observed with a mercury thermometer standardized by com- 
parison with a platinum thermometer under the conditions of the 
experiment. The time of passing each division was recorded on an 
electric chronograph. The duration of an experiment varied from 
about 30 to 70 minutes. Special observations were made to deter- 
mine the corrections for the heat supplied by stirring, and that lost 
by radiation, each of which amounted to about 10% of the heat- 
supply. The calorimeter C, fig. 8, was gilded, and completely 


Fig. 8. 

surrounded by a nickel-plated steel enclosure B, forming the bulb 
of a mercury thermo-regulator, immersed in a large water-bath 
maintained at a constant temperature. 'In spite of the large cor- 
rections the results were extremely consistent, and the value of the 
temperature-coefficient of the diminution of the specific heat of 
water, deduced from the observed variation in the rate of rise at 
different points of the range 15° to 25 , agreed with the value subse- 
quently deduced from Rowland's experiments over the same range, 
when his thermometers were reduced to the same scale. Griffiths' 
final result for the average value of the calorie over this range was 
4-192 joules, taking the E.M.F. of the Clark cell at 15° C. to be 
1^4342 volts. The difference from Rowland's value, 4-181, could 
be explained by supposing the E.M.F. of the Clark cells to have in 
reality been 1-4323 volts, or about 2 millivolts less than the value 
assumed. Griffiths subsequently applied the same method to the 
measurement of the specific heat of aniline, and the latent heat of 
vaporization of benzene and water. 

§ 13. Schuster and Gannon. — The method employed by A. Schuster 
and W. Gannon for the determination of the specific heat of water in 
terms of the international electric units (Phil. Trans. A, 1895, p. 415) 
corresponded to the expression ECT, and differed in many essential 
details from that of Griffiths. The current through a platinoid 
resistance of about 31 ohms in a calorimeter containing 1500 grammes 
of water was regulated so that the potential difference on its ter- 
minals was equal to that of twenty Board of Trade Clark cells in 
series. The duration of an experiment was about ten minutes, and 
the product of the mean current and the time, namely CT, was 
measured by the weight of silver deposited in a voltameter, which 


amounted to about 0-56 gramme. The uncertainty due to the cor- 
rection for the water equivalent was minimized by making it small 
(about 27 grammes) in comparison with the water weight. The 
correction for external loss was reduced by employing a small rise 
of temperature (only 2-22°), and making the rate of heat-supply 
relatively rapid, nearly 24 watts. The platinoid coil was insulated 
from the water by shellac varnish. The wire had a length of 760 cms., 
and the potential difference on its terminals was nearly 30 volts. The 
rate of stirring adopted was so slow that the heat generated by it 
could be neglected. The result found was 4-191 joules per calorie 
at 19 C. This agrees very well with Griffiths considering the 
difficulty of measuring so small a rise of temperature at 2° with a 
mercury thermometer. Admitting that the electro-chemical equiva- 
lent of silver increases with the age of the solution, a fact subse- 
quently discovered, and that the E.M.F. of the Clark cell is probably 
less than 1-4340 volts (the value assumed by Schuster and Gannon), 
there is no difficulty in reconciling the result with that of Rowland. 

§ 14. H. L. Callendar and H. T. Barnes (Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1897 
and 1899) adopted an entirely different method of calorimetry, as well 
as a different method of electrical measurement. A steady current 
of liquid, Q grammes per second, of specific heat, Js joules per degree, 
flowing through a fine tube, A B, fig. 9, is heated by a steady electric 
current during its passage through the tube, and the difference of 
temperature dd between the inflowing and the outflowing liquid is 
measured by a single reading with a delicate pair of differential 
platinum thermometers at A and B. The difference of potential 
E between the ends of the tube, and the electric current C through 
it, are measured on an accurately calibrated potentiometer, in terms 
of a Clark cell and a standard resistance. If hde is the radiation 
loss in watts we have the equation, 

EC = JsQde+.hde . . _. . (2). 
The advantage of this method is that all the conditions are steady, 
so that the observations can be pushed to the limit of accuracy and 

Fig. 9. 

sensitiveness of the apparatus. The water equivalent of the calori- 
meter is immaterial, since there -is no appreciable change of tem- 
perature. The heat-loss can be reduced to a minimum by enclosing 
the flow-tube in a hermetically sealed glass vacuum jacket. Stirring 
is effected by causing the water to circulate spirally round the bulbs 
of the thermometers and the heating conductor as indicated in the 
figure. The conditions can be very easily varied through a wide 
range. The heat-loss hde is determined and eliminated by varying 
the flow of liquid and the electric current simultaneously, in such 
a manner as to secure approximately the same rise of temperature 
for two or more widely different values of the flow of liquid. An 
example taken from the Electrician, September 1897, of one of the 
earliest experiments by this method on the specific heat of mercury 
will make the method clearer. The flow-tube was about r metre 
long and I millim. in diameter, coiled in a short spiral inside the 
vacuum jacket. The outside of the vacuum jacket was immersed 
in a water jacket at a steady temperature equal to that of the in- 
flowing mercury. 

Specific Heat of Mercury by continuous Electric Method 

Flow of Hg. 

Rise of Temp. 



Specific Heat. 









Per gm. deg. 
) -13780 joules 
) -03297 cals. 

It is assumed as a first approximation that the heat-loss is propor- 
tional to the rise of temperature de, provided that de is nearly the 
same in both cases, and that the distribution of temperature in the 
apparatus is the same for the same rise of temperature whatever the 
flow of liquid The result calculated on these assumptions is given 
in the last column in joules, and also in calories of 20 C. The heat- 
loss in this example is large, nearly 4-5 % of the total supply, owing 
to the small flow and the large rise of temperature, but this correction 
was greatly reduced in.subsequent observations on the specific heat 
of water by the same method. In the case of mercury the liquid 
itself can be utilized to conduct the electric current. In the case of 
water or other liquids it is necessary to employ a platinum wire 
stretched along the tabe as heating conductor. This introduces 
additional difficulties of construction, but does not otherwise affect 



the method. The absolute value of the specific heat deduced neces- 
sarily depends on the absolute values of the electrical standards 
employed in the investigation. But for the determination of relative 
values of specific heats in terms of a standard liquid, or of the varia- 
tions of specific heat of a liquid, the method depends only on the 
constancy of the standards, which can be readily and accurately 
tested. The absolute value of the E.M.F. of the Clark cells employed 
was determined with a special form of electrodynamometer 
(Callendar, Phil. Trans. A. 313, p. 81), and found to be 1-4334 volts, 
assuming the ohm to be correct. Assuming this value, the result 
found by this method for the specific heat of water at 20 C. agrees 
with that of Rowland within the probable limits of error. 

§ 15. Variation of Specific Heat of Water. — The question of the 
variation of the specific heat of water has a peculiar interest and 
importance in connexion with the choice of a thermal unit. Many 
of the uncertainties in the reduction of older experiments, such as 
those of Regnault, arise from uncertainty in regard to the unit in 
terms of which they are expressed, which again depends on the scale 
of the particular thermometer employed in the investigation. The 
first experiments of any value were those of Regnault in 1847 on the 
specific heat of water between no C. and 192° C. They were con- 
ducted on a very large scale by the method of mixture, but showed 
discrepancies of the order of 0-5 %, and the calculated results in many 
cases do not agree with the data. This may be due merely to de- 
ficient explanation of details of tabulation. We may probably take 
the tabulated values as showing correctly the rate of variation 
between 110 and 190 C, but the values in terms of any particular 
thermal unit must remain uncertain to at least 0-5% owing to the 
uncertainties of the thermometry. Regnault himself adopted the 

s = 1 +o- 00004^+0-0000009^ (Regnault), (3) 

for the specific heat 5 at any temperature / C. in terms of the specific 
heat at 0° C. taken as the standard. This formula has since been 
very generally applied over the whole range 0° to 200 C, but the 
experiments could not in reality give any information with regard 
to the specific heat at temperatures below 100° C. The linear formula 
proposed by J. Bosscha from an independent reduction of Regnault's 
experiments is probably within the limits of accuracy between 100 
and 200 C., so far as the mean rate of variation is concerned, but 
the absolute values require reduction. It may be written — 

s = Sm + -00023 (/ — 1 00) (Bosscha-Regnault) (4). 
The work of L. Pfaundler and H. Platter, of G. A. Hirn, of J. C. 
Jamin and Amaury, and of many other experimentalists who suc- 
ceeded Regnault, appeared to indicate much larger rates of increase 
than he had found, but there can be little doubt that the 
discrepancies of their results, which often exceeded 5%, were due 
to lack of appreciation of the difficulties of calorimetric measure- 
ments. The work of Rowland by the mechanical method was the 
first in which due attention was paid to the thermometry and to 
the reduction of the results to the absolute scale of temperature. 
The agreement of his corrected results with those of Griffiths by 
a very different method, left very little doubt with regard to the 
rate of diminution of the specific heat of water at 20° C. The work 
of A. Bartoli and E. Stracciati by the method of mixture between 
0° and 30 C, though their curve is otherwise similar to Rowland's, 
had appeared to indicate a minimum at 20° C, followed by a rapid 
rise. This lowering of the minimum was probably due to some 
constant errors inherent in their method of experiment. The more 
recent work of Liidin, 1895, under the direction of Prof. J. Pernet, 
extended from o° to ioo° C., and appears to have attained as high 
a degree of excellence as it is possible to reach by the employment of 
mercury thermometers in conjunction with the method of mixture. 
His results, exhibited in fig. 6, show a minimum at 25 " C, and a 
maximum at 87 C, the values being -9935 and 1-0075 respectively 
in terms of the mean specific heat between 0° and 100 C. He paid 
great attention to the thermometry, and the discrepancies of in- 
dividual measurements at any one point nowhere exceed 0-3 %, but 
he did not vary the conditions of the experiments materially, and it 
does not appear that the well-known constant errors of the method 
could have been completely eliminated by the devices which he 
adopted. The rapid rise from 25 to 75 may be due to radiation 
error from the hot water supply, and the subsequent fall of the 
curve to the inevitable loss of heat by evaporation of the boiling 
water on its way to the calorimeter. It must be observed, however, 
that there is another grave difficulty in the accurate determination 
of the specific heat of water near 100 C. by this method, namely, that 
the quantity actually observed is not the specific heat at the higher 
temperature /, but the mean specific heat over the range 18 to /. 
The specific heat itself can be deduced only by differentiating the 
curve of observation, which greatly increases the uncertainty. The 
peculiar advantage of the electric method of Callendar and Barnes, 
already referred to, is that the specific heat itself is determined over 
a range of 8° to io" at each point, by adding accurately measured 
quantities of heat to the water at the desired temperature in an 
isothermal enclosure, under perfectly steady conditions, without 
any possibility of evaporation or loss of heat in transference. These 
experiments, which have been extended by Barnes over the whole 
range o° to ioo°, agree very tvcll with Rowland and Griffiths in the 
rate of variation at 20° C, but show a rather flat minimum of specific 

heat in the neighbourhood of 38 to 40 6 C. At higher points the rate 
of variation is very similar to that of Regnault's curve, but taking the 
specific heat at 20 as the standard of reference, the actual values 
are nearly 0-56% less than Regnault's. It appears probable that 
his values for higher temperatures may be adopted- with this reduc- 
tion, which is further confirmed by the results of Reynolds and 
Moorby, and by those of Liidin. According to the electric method, 
the whole range of variation of the specific heat between io° and 
80° is only 0-5 %. Comparatively simple formulae, therefore, suffice 
for its expression to 1 in 10,000, which is beyond the limits of accuracy 
of the observations. It is more convenient in practice to use a few 
simple formulae, than to attempt to represent the whole range by a 
single complicated expression : — 

Below 20° C. s = 0-9982 +0-000,0045 (< — 40) 2 — 0-000,0005 if — 20) 3 . 
From 20 to 60 °, 5 = 0-9982+0-000,0045 (t— 40) 2 (5). 

( i = o-9944 + -ooo-04/+o-ooo,ooo9 t? (Regnault 
Above 6o° to 200° j corrd.) 

( 5 = 1-000+0-000,22 (t — 60), (Bosscha corrd.) 

The addition of the cubic term below 20° is intended to represent 
the somewhat more rapid change near the freezing-point. This 
effect is probably due, as suggested by Rowland, to the presence of 
a certain proportion of ice molecules in the liquid, which is also 
no doubt the cause of the anomalous expansion. Above 6o° C. 
Regnault's formula is adopted, the absolute values being simply 
diminished by a constant quantity 0-0056 to allow for the probable 
errors of his thermometry. Above 100 C, and for approximate 
work generally, the simpler formula of Bosscha, similarly corrected, 
is probably adequate. 

The following table of values, calculated from these formulae, 
is taken from the Brit. Assoc. Report, 1899, with a slight modification 

Specific Heat of Water in terms of Unit at 20 

C. 4- 1 80 Joules 








1 -0094 



1 -0054 










I -001 1 




4- 1 80 

I- 0000 













35 o 

4- T 73 






















1 -0033 




1 -0053 




































■ -,-». — 1..„— ■ 

to allow for the increase in the specific heat below 20 C. This was 
estimated in 1899 as being equivalent to the addition of the constant 
quantity 0-020 to the values of the total heat h of the liquid as 
reckoned by the parabolic formula (5). This quantity is now, as the 
result of further experiments, added to the values of h, and also re- 
presented in the formula for the specific heat itself by the cubic term. 

The unit of comparison in the following table is taken as the 
specific heat of water at 20 C. for the reasons given below. This 
unit is taken as being 4-180 joules per gramme-degree-centigrade 
on the scale of the platinum thermometer, corrected to the absolute 
scale as explained in the article Thermometry, which has been shown 
to be practically equivalent to the hydrogen scale. The value 4-180 
joules at 20 C. is the mean between Rowland's corrected result 
4-181 and the value 4- 1 79, deduced from the experiments of Reynolds 
and Moorby on the assumption that the ratio of the mean specific 
heat o° to ioo° to that at 20° is 1 -0016, as given by the formulae repre- 
senting the results of Callendar and Barnes. This would indicate 
that Rowland's corrected values should, if anything, be lowered. In 
any case the value of the mechanical equivalent is uncertain to at 
least 1 in 2000. 

The mean specific heat, over any range of temperature, may be 
obtained by integrating the formulae between the limits required, 
or by taking the difference of the corresponding values of the total 
heat' h, and dividing by the range of temperature. The quantity 
actually observed by Rowland was the total heat. It may be re- 
marked that starting from the same value at 5°, for the sake of 
comparison, Rowland's values of the total heat agree to I in 5000 
with those calculated from the formulae. The values of the total 
heat observed by Regnault, as reduced by Shaw, also show a very 
fair agreement, considering the uncertainty of the units. It must 
be admitted that it is desirable to redetermine the variation of the 
specific heat above ioo° C. This is very difficult on account of the 
steam-pressurt, and could not easily be accomplished by the electrical 



method. Callendar has, however, devised a continuous method of 
mixture, which appears to be peculiarly adapted to the purpose, 
and promises to give more certain results. In any case it may be 
remarked that formulae such as those of Jamin, Henrichsen, Baum- 
gartner, Winkelmann or Dieterici, which give far more rapid rates 
of increase than that of Regnault, cannot possibly be reconciled 
with his observations, or with those of Reynolds and Moorby, or 
Callendar and Barnes, and are certainly inapplicable above ioo° C. 

§ 16. On the Choice of the Thermal Unit. — So much uncertainty 
still prevails on this fundamental point that it cannot be passed 
over without reference. There are three possible kinds of unit, 
depending on the three fundamental methods already given: 
(1) the thermometric unit, or the thermal capacity of unit mass 
of a standard substance under given conditions of temperature 
and pressure on the scale of a standard thermometer. (2) The 
latent-heat unit, or the quantity of heat required to melt or 
vaporize unit mass of a standard substance under given conditions. 
This unit has the advantage of being independent of thermometry, 
but the applicability of these methods is limited to special cases, 
and the relation of the units to other units is difficult to determine. 
(3) The absolute or mechanical unit, the quantity of heat 
equivalent to a given quantity of mechanical or electrical energy. 
This can be very accurately realized, but is not so convenient as 
(1) for ordinary purposes. 

In any case it is necessary to define a thermometric unit of class 
(1). The standard substance must be a liquid. Water is always 
selected, although some less volatile liquid, such as aniline or mercury, 
would possess many advantages. With regard to the scale of tem- 
perature, there is very general agreement that the absolute scale 
as realized by the hydrogen or helium thermometer should be 
adopted as the ultimate standard of reference. But as the hydrogen 
thermometer is not directly available for the majority of experiments, 
it is necessary to use a secondary standard for the practical definition 
of the unit. The electrical resistance thermometer of platinum 
presents very great advantages for this purpose over the mercury 
thermometer in point of reproducibility, accuracy and adaptability 
to the practical conditions of experiment. The conditions of use 
of a mercury thermometer in a calorimetric experiment are neces- 
sarily different from those under which its corrections are determined, 
and this difference must inevitably give rise to constant errors in 
practical work. The primary consideration in the definition of a 
unit is to select that method which permits the highest order of 
accuracy in comparison and verification. For this reason the de- 
finition of the thermal unit will in the end probably be referred to 
a scale of temperature defined in terms of a standard platinum 

There is more diversity of opinion with regard to the question 
of the standard temperature. Many authors, adopting Regnault's 
formula, have selected 0° C. as the standard temperature, but this 
cannot be practically realized in the case of water, and his formula 
is certainly erroneous at low temperatures. A favourite tempera- 
ture to select is 4 C, the temperature of maximum density, since 
at this point the specific heat at constant volume is the same as that 
at constant pressure But this is really of no consequence, since 
the specific heat at constant volume cannot be practically realized. 
The specific heat at 4 could be accurately determined at the mean 
over the range 0° to 8° keeping the jacket at 0° C. _ But the change 
appears to be rather rapid near 0°, the temperature is inconveniently 
low for ordinary calorimetric work, and the unit at 4 would be so 
much larger than the specific heat at ordinary temperatures that 
nearly all experiments would require reduction. The natural point 
to select would be that of minimum specific heat, but if this occurs 
at 40 C. it would be inconveniently high for practical realization 
except by the continuous electrical method. It was proposed by a 
committee of the British Association to select the temperature at 
which the specific heat was 4-200 joules, leaving the exact tempera- 
ture to be subsequently determined. It was supposed at the time, 
from the original reduction of Rowland's experiments, that this 
would be nearly at io c C, but it now appears that it may be as low 
as 5 C, which would be inconvenient. This is really only an 
absolute unit in disguise, and evades the essential point., which is 
the selection of a standard temperature for the water thermometric 
unit. A similar objection applies to selecting the temperature at 
which the specific heat is equal to its mean value between o" and 
100°. The mean calorie cannot be accurately realized in practice 
in any simple manner, and is therefore unsuitable as a standard of 
comparison. Its relation to the calorie at any given temperature, 
such as 15 or 20°, cannot be determined with the same degree of 
accuracy as the ratio of the specific heat at 15 to that at 20 , if the 
scale of temperature is given. The most practical unit is the 
calorie at 15 or 20 or some temperature in the range of ordinary 
practice. The temperature most generally favoured is 15 , but 20° 
would be more suitable for accurate work. These units differ only 
by II parts in 10,000 according to Callendar and Barnes, or by 13 
in 10,000 according to Rowland and Griffiths, so that the difference 

between them is of no great importance for ordinary purposes. 
But for purposes of definition it would be necessary to take the 
mean value of the specific heat over a given range of temperature, 
preferably at least 10°, rather than the specific heat at a point which 
necessitates reference to some formula of reduction for the rate of 
variation. The specific heat at 15 would be determined with 
reference to the mean over the range 10° to 20 , and that at 20 
from the range 15° to 25°. There can be no doubt that the range 
10° to 20° is too low for the accurate thermal regulation of the 
conditions of the experiment. The range 15 to 25° would be much 
more convenient from this point of view, and a mean temperature 
of 2o c is probably nearest the average of accurate calorimetric work. 
For instance 20° is the mean of the range of the experiments of 
Griffiths and of Rowland, and is close to that of Schuster and 
Gannon. It is readily attainable at any time in a modern laboratory 
with adequate heating arrangements, and is probably on the whole 
the most suitable temperature to select. 

§ 17. Specific Heat of Gases. — In the case of solids and liquids 
under ordinary conditions of pressure, the external work of 
expansion is so small that it may generally be neglected; but 
with gases or vapours, or with liquids near the critical point, the 
external work becomes so large that it is essential to specify the 
conditions under which the specific heat is measured. The most 
important cases are, the specific heats (1) at constant volume; 
(2) at constant pressure; (3) at saturation pressure in the*case of 
a liquid or vapour. In consequence of the small thermal capacity 
of gases and vapours per unit volume at ordinary pressures, the 
difficulties of direct measurement are almost insuperable except 
in case (2). Thus the direct experimental evidence is somewhat 
meagre and conflicting, but the question of the relation of the 
specific heats of gases is one of great interest in connexion with 
the kinetic theory and the constitution of the molecule. The 
well-known experiments of Regnault and Wiedemann on the 
specific heat of gases at constant pressure agree in showing that 
the molecular specific heat, or the thermal capacity of the mole- 
cular weight in grammes, is approximately independent of the 
temperature and pressure in case of the more stable diatomic 
gases, such as H 2 ,0 2 , N 2 , CO, &c, and has nearly the same value 
for each gas. They also indicate that it is much larger, and 
increases considerably with rise of temperature, in the case of 
more condensible vapours, such as Cl 2 , Br 2 , or more complicated 
molecules, such as C0 2 ,N 2 0, NH 3 , C2H4. The direct determina- 
tion of the specific heat at constant volume is extremely difficult, 
but has been successfully attempted by Joly with his steam 
calorimeter, in the case of air and C0 2 . Employing pressures 
between 7 and 27 atmospheres, he found that the specific heat of 
air between io° and 100° C. increased very slightly with increase 
of density, but that of C0 2 increased nearly 3 % between 7 and 2 1 
atmospheres. The following formulae represent his results' for 
the specific heat $ at constant volume in terms of the density d in 
gms. per c. c. : — 

Air, i = o-i7i5+o-028(f, 

C0 2 , s = o-i65+o-2i3d+o-34d 2 . 

§ 18. Ratio of Specific Heats. — According to the elementary kinetic 
theory of an ideal gas, the molecules of which are so small and so 
far apart that their mutual actions may be neglected, the kinetic 
energy of translation of the molecules is proportional to the absolute 
temperature, and is equal to 3/2 of pv, the product of the pressure 
and the volume, per unit mass. The expansion per degree at 
constant pressure is v/8 = R/p. The external work of expansion 
per degree is equal to R, being the product of the pressure and the 
expansion, and represents the difference of the specific heats S — s, 
at constant pressure and volume, assuming as above that the in- 
ternal work of expansion is negligible. If the molecules are supposed 
to be like smooth, hard, elastic spheres, incapable of receiving any 
other kind of energy except that of translation, the specific heat at 
constant volume would be the increase per degree of the kinetic 
energy namely 3pv/2d = 3 R/2 , that at constant pressure would be 
5.R/2, and the ratio of the specific heats would be 5/3 or 1 -666. This 
appears to be actually the case for monatomic gases such as mercury 
vapour (Kundt and Warburg, 1876), argon and helium (Ramsay, 
1896). For diatomic or compound gases Clerk Maxwell supposed 
that the molecule would also possess energy of rotation, and en- 
deavoured to prove that in this case the energy would be equally 
divided between the six degrees of freedom, three of translation 
and three of rotation, if the molecule were regarded as a rigid body 
incapable of vibration-energy. In this case we should have s = $R, 
S = 4-R, 5/5 = 4/3 = 1-333. In 1879 Maxwell considered itoneof the 
greatest difficulties which the kinetic theory had yet encountered, 
that in spite of the many' other degrees of freedom of vibration 
revealed by the spectroscope, the experimental value of the ratio 



S/s was 1-40 for so many gases, instead of being less than 4/3. Some- 
what later L. Boltzmann suggested that a diatomic molecule regarded 
as a rigid dumb-bell or figure of rotation, might have only five 
effective degrees of freedom, since the energy of rotation about the 
axis of symmetry could not be altered by collisions between the 
molecules. The theoretical value of the ratio S/s in this case would 
be the required 7/5. For a rigid molecule on this theory the smallest 
value possible would be 4/3. Since much smaller values are found 
for more complex molecules, we may suppose that, in these cases, 
the energy of rotation of a polyatomic molecule may be greater 
than its energy of translation, or else that heat is expended in 
splitting up molecular aggregates, and increasing energy of vibration. 
A hypothesis doubtfully attributed to Maxwell is that each addi- 
tional atom in the molecule is equivalent to two extra degrees of 
freedom. From an m-atomic molecule we should then have 
S/s~l+al(2tn + i). This givesaseries of ratios 5/3, 7/5, 9/7, 11/9, 
&c, for I, 2, 3, 4, &c, atoms in the molecule, values which fall 
within the limits of experimental error in many cases. It is not at 
all clear, however, that energy of vibration should bear a constant 
ratio to that of translation, although this would probably be the 
case for rotation. For the simpler gases, which are highly dia- 
thermanous and radiate badly even at high temperature, the energy 
of vibration is probably very small, except under the special con- 
ditions which produce luminosity in flames and electric discharges. 
For such gases, assuming a constant ratio of rotation to translation, 
the specific heat at low pressures would be very nearly constant. 
For more complex molecules the radiative and absorptive powers 
are known to be much greater. The energy of vibration may be 
appreciable at ordinary temperatures, and would probably increase 
more rapidly than that of translation with rise of temperature, 
especially near a point of dissociation. This would account for 
an increase of S, and a diminution of the ratio S/s, with rise of 
temperature which apparently occurs in many vapours. The ex- 
perimental evidence, however, is somewhat conflicting, and further 
investigations are very desirable on the variation of specific heat 
with temperature. Given the specific heat as a function of the 
temperature, its variation with pressure may be determined from 
the characteristic equation of the gas. The direct methods of 
measuring the ratio S/s, by the velocity of sound and by adiabatic 
expansion, are sufficiently described in many text-books. 

I 19. Atomic and Molecular Heats.-— The ideal atomic heat is the 
thermal capacity of a gramme-atom in the ideal state of monatomic 
gas at constant volume. . This would be nearly three calories. For 
a diatomic gas, the molecular heat would be nearly five calories, 
or the atomic heat of a gas in the diatomic state would be 2-5. Esti- 
mated at constant pressure the atomic heat would be 3-5. Some 
authors adopt 2-5 and some 3-5 for the ideal atomic heat. The 
atomic heat of a metal in the solid state is in most cases larger than 
six calories at ordinary temperatures. Considering the wide varia- 
tions in the physical condition and melting points, the comparatively 
close agreement of the atomic heats of the metals at ordinary tem- 
peratures, known as Dulong and Petit's Law, is very remarkable. 
The specific heats as a rule increase with rise of temperature, in some 
cases, e.g. iron and nickel, very rapidly. According to W. A. Tilden 
{Phil. Trans., 1900), the atomic heats of pure nickel and cobalt, as 
determined from experiments at the boiling-points of O2, and CO2, 
diminish so rapidly at temperatures below 0° C. as to suggest that 
they would reach the value 2-42 at the absolute zero. This is the 
value of the minimum of atomic heat calculated by Perry from 
diatomic hydrogen, but the observations themselves might be 
equally well represented by taking the imaginary limit 3, since the 
quantity actually observed is the mean specific heat between 0° and 
— 182-5° C. Subsequent experiments on other metals at low tem- 
peratures did not indicate a similar diminution of specific heat, so 
that it may be doubted whether the atomic heats really approach 
the ideal value at the absolute zero. No doubt there must be 
approximate relations between the atomic and molecular heats of 
similar elements and compounds, but considering the great variations 
of specific heat with temperature and physical state, in alloys, 
mixtures or solutions, and in allotropic or other modifications, it 
would be idle to expect that the specific heat of a compound could 
be accurately deduced by any simple additive process from that of 
its constituents. 

Authorities. — Joule's Scientific Papers (London, 1890); Ames 
and Griffiths, Reports to the International Congress (Paris, 1900), 
" On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat," and " On the Specific 
Heat of Water ' ' ; Griffiths, Thermal Measurement of Energy (Cam- 
bridge, 1901); Callendar and Barnes, Phil. Trans. A, 1901, "On 
the Variation of the Specific Heat of Water"; for combustion 
methods, see article Thermochemistry, and treatises by Thomsen, 
Pattison-Muir and Berthelot; see also articles Thermodynamics 
and Vaporization. (H. L. C.) 

CALOVIUS, ABRAHAM (1612-1686), German Lutheran 
divine, was born at Mohrungen in east Prussia, on the 16th of 
April 1612. After studying at Konigsberg, in 1650 he was 
appointed professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he after- 
wards became general superintendent and primarius. He died 
on the 25th of February 1686. Calovius was the most noteworthy 

of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17 th century. 
He strongly opposed the Catholics, Calvinists and Socinians, 
attacked in particular the reconciliation policy or " syncretism " 
of Georg Calixtus (cf. the Consensus repetitus fidei vere lutheranae, 
1665), and as a writer of polemics he had few equals. His chief 
dogmatic work, Systema locorum theologicorum (12 vols. 1655- 
1677), represents the climax of Lutheran scholasticism. In his 
Biblia Illustrata (4 vols.), written from the point of view of a 
very strict belief in inspiration, his object is to refute the state- 
ments made by Hugo Grotius in his Commentaries. His Historia 
Syncretistica (1682) was suppressed. 

CALPURNIUS, TITUS, Roman bucolic poet, surnamed Siculus 
from his birthplace or from his imitation of . the style of the 
Sicilian Theocritus, most probably nourished during the reign of 
Nero. Eleven eclogues have been handed down to us under his 
name, of which the last four, from metrical considerations and 
express MS. testimony, are now generally attributed to Nemesi- 
anus (q.v.), who lived in the time of the emperor Carus and his 
sons (latter half of the 3rd century a.d.). Hardly anything is 
known of the life of Calpurnius; we gather from the poems 
themselves (in which he is obviously represented by "Cory don ") 
that he was in poor circumstances and was on the point of 
emigrating to Spain, when " Meliboeus " came to his aid. 
Through his influence Calpurnius apparently secured a post at 
Rome. The time at which Calpurnius lived has been much 
discussed, but all the indications seem to point to the time of Nero. 
The emperor is described as a handsome youth, like Mars and 
Apollo, whose accession marks the beginning of a new golden age, 
prognosticated by the appearance of a comet, doubtless the same 
that appeared some time before the death of Claudius; he 
exhibits splendid games in the amphitheatre (probably the 
wooden amphitheatre erected by Nero in 57); and in the words 

maternis causam qui vicit Iulis 1 (i. 45), 
there is a reference to the speech delivered in Greek by Nero on 
behalf of the Ilienses (Suetonius, Nero, 7; Tacitus, Annals, xii. 
58), from whom the Julii derived their family. 2 Meliboeus, the 
poet's patron, has been variously identified with Columella, 
Seneca the philosopher, and C. Calpurnius Piso. Although the 
sphere of Meliboeus's literary activity (as indicated in iv. 53) 
suits none of these, what is known of Calpurnius Piso fits in well 
with what is said of Meliboeus by the poet, who speaks of his 
generosity, his intimacy with the emperor, and his interest in 
tragic poetry. His claim is further supported by the poem De 
Laude Pisonis (ed. C. F. Weber, 1859) which has come down t© us 
without the name of the author, but which there is considerable 
reason for attributing to Calpurnius. 3 The poem exhibits a 
striking similarity with the eclogues in metre, language and 
subject-matter. The author of the Laus is young, of respectable 
family and desirous of gaining the favour of Piso as his Maecenas. 
Further, the similarity between the two names can hardly be 
accidental; it is suggested that the poet may have been adopted 
by the courtier, or that he was the son of a freedman of Piso. 
The attitude of the author of the Laus towards the subject of the 
panegyric seems to show less intimacy than the relations between 
Corydon and Meliboeus in the eclogues, and there is internal 
evidence that the Laus was written during the reign of Claudius 
(Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist, of Rom. Lit. § 306,6). 

Mention may here be made of the fragments of two short 
hexameter poems in an Einsiedeln MS., obviously belonging to 
the time of Nero, which if not written by Calpurnius, were 
imitated from him. 

1 Iulis for in ulnis according to the best MS. tradition. 

2 According to Dr R. Garnett (and Mr Greswell, as stated in 
Conington's Virgil, i. p. 123, note) the emperor referred to is the 
younger Gordian (a.d. 238). His arguments in favour of this will 
be found in the article on Calpurnius by him in the 9th edition of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica and in the Journal of Philology, xvi., 
1888; see in answer J. P. Postgate, "The Comet of Calpurnius 
Siculus " in Classical Review, June I902. Dean Merivale {Hist, of the 
Romans under the Empire, ch. 60) and Pompei, " Intorno al Tempo 
del Poeta Calpurnio " in Atti del Istituto Veneto, v. 6 (1880), identify 
the amphitheatre with the Colosseum (Flavian amphitheatre) and 
assign Calpurnius to the reign of Domitian. 

3 It has been variously ascribed to Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, Statius 
and Saleius Bassus. 



Although there is nothing original in Calpurnius, he is " a 
skilful literary craftsman." Of his models the chief is Virgil, of 
whom (under the name of Tityrus) he speaks with great en- 
thusiasm; he is also indebted to Ovid and Theocritus. Cal- 
purnius is " a fair scholar, and an apt courtier, and not devoid of 
real poetical feeling. The bastard style of pastoral cultivated by 
him, in which the description of nature is made the writer's 
pretext, while ingenious flattery is his real purpose, nevertheless 
excludes genuine pleasure, and consequently genuine poetical 
achievement. He may be fairly compared to the minor poets of 
the reign of Anne " (Garnett). 

Calpurnius was first printed in 1471, together with Silius Italicus 
and has been frequently republished, generally with Gratius 
Faliscus and Nemesianus. The separate authorship of the eclogues 
of Calpurnius and Nemesianus was established by M. Haupt's De 
Carminibus bucolicis Calpurnii et Nemesiani (1854). Editions by 
H. Schenkl (1885), with full introduction and index verborum, and by 
C. H. Keene (1887), with introduction, commentary and appendix. 
English verse translation by E. J. L. Scott (1891) ; see H. E. Butler, 
Post-Augustan Poetry (Oxford, 1909), pp. 150 foil., and F. Skutsch 
in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencydopddie, iii. 1 (1897). (J. H. F.) 

CALTAGIRONE, a city and episcopal see of the province of 
Catania, Sicily, situated 1999 ft. above sea-level, 36 m. S.W. 
of Catania direct (55 m. by rail). Pop. (1881) 25,978; (1901) 
town 35,116; commune 45,956. It is well built, and is said to be 
the most civilized provincial town in Sicily. Extensive Sicel 
cemeteries have been explored to the north of the town (Not. 
Scavi, 1904, 65), and a Greek necropolis of the 6th and 5th 
centuries B.C. has been found to the south-east (ibid. 132). 
Remains of buildings of Roman date have also been discovered ; 
but the name of the ancient city which stood here is unknown. 
The present name is a corruption of the Saracen Kalat-al-Girche 
(the castle of Girche, the chieftain who fortified it). 

CALTANISETTA, a town and episcopal see of Sicily, the 
capital of a province of the same name, 60 m. S.E. of Palermo 
direct and 83 m. by rail, situated 1930 ft. above sea-level. 
Pop. (1901) 43,303. The town is of Saracenic origin, as its name 
Kalat-al-Nisa, the "Ladies' Castle," indicates, and some ruins 
of the old castle (called Pietrarossa) still exist. Otherwise the 
town contains no buildings of artistic or historical interest, but it 
commands striking views. It is the centre of the Sicilian sulphur 
industry and the seat of a royal school of mines. Two miles east 
is the interesting Norman abbey of S. Spirito. 

CALTROP (from the Mid. Eng. calketrappe, probably derived 
from the Lat. calx, a heel, and trappa, Late Lat. for a snare), an 
iron ball, used as an obstacle against cavalry, with four spikes so 
arranged, that however placed in or on the ground, one spike 
always points upwards. It is also the botanical name for several 
species of thistles. 

CALUIRE-ET-CUIRE, a town of eastern France, in the 
department of Rhone, 25 m. N. by E. of Lyons by rail. Pop. 
(1906) 9255. It has manufactures of coarse earthenware and 
hard-ware, copper and bronze foundries and nursery-gardens. 

CALUMET (Norm. Fr. form of chalumet, from Lat. calamus, a 
reed), the name given by the French in Canada to the " peace- 
pipe " of the American Indians. This pipe occupied among the 
tribes a position of peculiar symbolic significance, and was the 
object of profound veneration. It was smoked on all ceremonial 
occasions, even on declarations of war, but its special use was at 
the making of treaties of peace. It was usually about 2§ ft. long, 
and in the west the bowl was made of red pipes tone (catlinite), a 
fine-grained, easily-worked stone of a rich red colour found 
chiefly in the Coteau des Prairies west of Big Stone Lake, Dakota. 
The quarries were formerly neutral ground among the warring 
Indian tribes, many sacred traditions being associated with the 
locality and its product (Longfellow, Hiawatha, i.). The pipe 
stem was of reed decorated with eagles' quills or women's hair. 
Native tobacco mixed with willow-bark or sumac leaves was 
smoked. The pipe was offered as a supreme proof of hospitality 
to distinguished strangers, and its refusal was regarded as a 
grievous affront. In the east and south-east, the bowl was of 
white stone, sometimes pierced with several stem holes so that 
many persons might smoke at once. 

See Joseph D. Macguire (exhaustive report, 640 pages), " Pipes and 

Smoking Customs of the American Aborigines" in Smithsonian Repott 
(American Bureau of Ethnology) for 1897, vol. i. ; and authorities 
quoted in Handbook of American Indians (Washington,^l907). 

CALUMPIT, a town of the province of Bulacan, Luzon, 
Philippine Islands, at the junction of the Quingua river with the 
Rio Grande de la Pampanga, about 25 m. N.W. of Manila. 
Pop. (1963) 13,897. It is served by the Manila & Dagupan 
railway, and the bridge across the Rio Grande is one of the 
longest in the Philippines. The surrounding country is a fertile 
plain, producing large quantities of rice, as well as sugar, Indian 
corn and a variety of fruits. Calumpit has a large rice-mill 
and one of the largest markets in the Philippines. The bridge, 
convent and church of the town were fired and completely 
destroyed by insurgent troops in 1899. The language is Tagalog. 

CALVADOS, a department of north-western France, formed 
in 1790 out of Bessin, Cinglais, Hiemois, Bocage, the Campagne 
de Caen, Auge and the western part of Lieuvin. Pop. (1906) 
403,431. Area, 2197 sq. m. It received its name from a ledge 
of rocks, stretching along the coast for a distance of about 15 m. 
between the mouths of the rivers Orne and Vire. It is bounded N. 
by the English Channel, E. by the department of Eure, S. by that 
of Orne, W. by that of Manche. The Bocage, or south-western 
part of the department, is elevated, being crossed from south-east 
to north-west by the hills of Normandy, the highest of which is 
1 197 ft.; the rest of the surface is gently undulating, and consists 
of extensive valleys watered by numerous streams which fall into 
the English Channel. The coast, formed by cliffs, sandy beaches 
or reefs, is generally inaccessible, except at the mouths of the 
principal rivers, such as the Touques, the Dives, the Orne and 
the Vire, which are navigable at high tide for several miles inland. 
Trouville is the chief of the numerous coast resorts. The climate, 
though humid and variable, is healthy. The raising of cattle, 
sheep and horses is the mainstay of the agriculture of the de- 
partment. Pasture is good and abundant in the east and north- 
west, and there is a large export trade in the butter, eggs and 
cheese (Camembert, Livarot, Pont l'Evfique) of these districts, 
carried on by Honfleur, Isigny and other ports. The plain of; 
Caen is a great centre for horse breeding. Wheat, oats, barley, 
colza and potatoes are the chief crops. The orchards of Auge 
and Bessin produce a superior kind of cider, of which upwards of 
40,000,000 gallons are made in the department; a large quantity 
of cider brandy (eau-de-vie de Calvados) is distilled. Poultry 
to a considerable amount is sent to the Paris markets, and there 
is a large output of honey and wax. The spinning and weaving 
of wool and cotton are the chief industries. Besides these, 
paper-mills, oil-mills, tanneries, saw-mills, shipbuilding yards, 
rope-works, dye-works, distilleries and bleach-fields, scattered 
throughout the department, give employment to a number of 
hands. There are productive iron-mines and building-stone, 
slate and lime are plentiful. Fisheries, chiefly of lobster, oyster 
(Courseulles), herring and mackerel, are prosecuted. Coal, timber, 
grain, salt-fish and cement are among the imports; exports 
include iron, dairy products and sand. Caen and Honfleur are 
the most important commercial ports. There is a canal 9 m. in 
length from Caen to Ouistreham on the coast. The department 
is served by the Ouest-Etat railway. It is divided into the six 
arrondissements (38 cantons, 763 communes) of Caen, Falaise, 
Bayeux, Vire, Lisieux and Pont 1'Eveque. Caen, the capital, is the 
seat of a court of appeal and the centre of an acadimie (educa- 
tional division). The department forms the diocese of Bayeux, 
in the ecclesiastical province of Rouen, and belongs to the region 
of the III. army-corps. The other principal towns are Falaise, 
Lisieux, Conde-sur-Noireau, Vire, Honfleur and Trouville (q.v.) . 

Amongst the great number of medieval churches which 
the department possesses, the fine Gothic chprch of St. Pierre- 
sur-Dives is second in importance only to those of Lisieux and 
Bayeux; that of Norrey, a good example of the Norman- Gothic 
style, and that of Tour-en-Bessin, in which Romanesque and 
Gothic architecture are mingled, are of great interest. Fontaine- 
Henri has a fine chateau of the 15th and 16th centuries. 

CALVART, DENIS (1540-1619), Flemish painter, was born at 
Antwerp. After studying landscape-painting for some time in 



his native city he went to Bologna, where he perfected himself in 
the anatomy of the human form under Prospero Fontaha, and so 
completely lost the mannerism of Flemish art that his paintings 
appear to be the work of an Italian. From Bologna he went to 
Rome, where he assisted Lorenzo Sabbatini (1533-1577) in his 
works for the papal palace, and devoted much of his time to 
copying and studying the works of Raphael. He ultimately 
returned to Bologna and founded a school, of which the greatest 
ornaments are Guido and Domenichino. His works are especially 
admired for the power of grouping and colouring which they 

CALVARY, the conventional English rendering of the calvaria 
of the Vulgate, the Latin version of the Greek Kpaviov, both 
meaning " skull " and representing the Hebrew Golgotha, the 
name given to the scene of Christ's crucifixion. The term " a 
Calvary " is applied to a sculptured representation of the 
Crucifixion, either inside a church, or adjoining one in the open 
air. There are many examples of the latter in France, Italy 
and Spain. Among the most important are the Sacro Monte 
(i486) at Varallo in Piedmont, and those at Guimiliau (.1581), 
Plougastel (1602), St Thegonnec (1610), and Pleyben near 
Quimper (1670), in Brittany, all in good preservation., 

CALV& EMMA (1864- ), Spanish operatic soprano, was 
born at Madrid, and trained in Paris, making her first important 
appearance in opera at Brussels in 1882. She sang mainly in 
Paris for some years, but in 1892 was first engaged at Covent 
Garden, London, and at once became famous as the most vivid 
Carmen (in Bizet's opera) of the day. 

CALVERLEY, CHARLES STUART (1 831-1884), English poet 
and wit, and the literary father of what may be called the 
university school of humour, was born at Martley in Worcester- 
shire on the 2 2nd of December 1 83 1 . His father, the Rev. Henry 
Blayds, resumed in 1852 the old family name of Calverley, which 
his grandfather had exchanged for Blayds in 1807. It was as 
Charles Stuart Blayds that most of the son's university distinc- 
tions were attained. He went up to Balliol from Harrow in 1850, 
and was soon known in Oxford as the most daring and most 
high-spirited undergraduate of his time. He was a universal 
favourite, a delightful companion, a brilliant scholar and the 
playful enemy of all " dons." In 1851 he won the Chancellor's 
prize for Latin verse, and it is said that the entire exercise was 
written in an afternoon, when his friends had locked him into his 
rooms, declining to let him out till he had finished what they were 
confident would prove the prize poem. A year later he took his 
name off the books, to avoid the consequences of a college 
escapade, and migrated to Christ's College, Cambridge. Here he 
was again successful in Latin verse, and remains the unique 
example of an undergraduate who has won the Chancellor's prize 
at both universities. In 1856 he took second place in the first 
class in the Classical Tripos. He was elected fellow of Christ's 
(1858), published Verses and Translations in 1862, and was called 
to the bar in 1865. Owing to an accident while skating he was 
prevented from following up a professional career, and during 
the last years of his life he was an invalid. His Translations into 
English and Latin appeared in 1866; his Theocritus translated into 
English Verse in 1869; Fly Leaves in 1872; and Literary Remains 
in 1885. He died on the 17th of February 1884. Calverley was 
one of the most brilliant men of his day; and, had he enjoyed 
health, might have achieved distinction in any career he chose. 
Constitutionally indolent, he was endowed with singular gifts in 
every department of culture; he was a scholar, a musician, an 
athlete and a brilliant talker. What is left us marks only a small 
portion of his talent, but his sparkling, dancing verses, which have 
had many clever imitators, are still without a rival in their own 
line. His humour was illumined by good nature ; his satire was 
keen but kind; his laughter was of that human sort which is often 
on the verge of tears. Imbued with the classical spirit, he intro- 
duced into the making of light verse the polish and elegance of the 
great masters, and even in its most whimsical mood his verse is 
raised to the level of poetry by the saving excellence of style. 

His Complete Works,' with a biographical notice by Sir W. J. 
Sendall, appeared in 1901. (A, Wa.) 

CALVERT, the name of three English artists: Charles (1785- 
1852), a well-known landscape-painter; Edward (1803-1883), 
an important wood-engraver and follower of Blake; and 
Frederick, an excellent topographical draughtsman, whose 
work in water-colour is represented at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and who published a volume of Picturesque Views in 
Staffordshire and Shropshire (1830). 

CALVERT, FREDERICK CRACE (1819-1873), English chemist, 
was born in London on the 14th of November 1819. From about 
1836 till 1846 he lived in France, where, after a course of study at 
Paris, he became manager of some chemical works, later acting as 
assistant to M. E. Chevreul. On his return to England he settled 
in Manchester as a consulting chemist, and was appointed 
professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution in that city. 
Devoting himself almost entirely to industrial chemistry, he 
gave much attention to the manufacture of coal-tar products, 
and particularly carbolic acid, for the production of which he 
established large works in Manchester in 1865. Besides con- 
tributing extensively to the English and French scientific 
journals, he published a work on Dyeing and Calico-Priniing. 
He died in Manchester on the 24th of October 1873. 

CALVERT, SIR HARRY, Bart. (c. 1763-1826), British general,. 
was probably born early in 1763 at Hampton, near London. He 
was educated at Harrow, and at the age of fifteen entered the 
army. In: the following year he served with his regiment in 
America, being present at the siege of Charleston, and serving 
through the campaign of Lord Cornwallis which ended with the 
surrender of Yorktown. From 1781 to 1783 he was a prisoner of 
war. Returning to England in 1784, he next saw active service 
in 1 793-1 794 in the Low Countries, where he was aide-de-camp to 
the duke of York, and in 1795 was engaged on a confidential 
mission to Brunswick and Berlin. In 1 799, having already served 
as deputy adjutant general, he was made adjutant general, 
holding the post till 1818. In this capacity he effected many 
improvements in the organization and discipline of the service. 
He greatly improved the administration of the army medical and 
hospital department, introduced regimental schools, developed 
the two existing military colleges (since united at Sandhurst), and 
was largely responsible for the founding of the Duke of York's 
school, Chelsea. In recognition of his work as adjutant general 
he was made a G.C.B. (181 5), and, on retiring from office, received 
a baronetcy (1818). In 1820 he was made governor of Chelsea 
hospital. He died on the 3rd of September 1826, at Middle 
Claydon, Buckinghamshire. 

CALVES' HEAD CLUB, a club established shortly after his 
death in derision of the memory of Charles I. Its chief meeting 
was held on the 30th of each January, the anniversary of the 
king's execution, when the dishes served were a cod's head to 
represent the individual, Charles Stuart; a pike representing 
tyranny; a boar's head representing the king preying on his 
subjects; and calves' heads representing Charles as king and his 
adherents. On the table an axe held the place of honour. After 
the banquet a copy of the king's Ikon Basilike was burnt, and 
the toast was " To those worthy patriots who killed the tyrant." 
After the Restoration the club met secretly. The first mention 
of it is in a tract reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany entitled 
" The Secret History of the Calves' Head Club." The club 
survived till 1734, when the diners were mobbed owing to the 
popular ill-feeling which their outrages on good taste provoked, 
and the riot which ensued put a final stop to the meetings. 

CALVI, a sea-port in Corsica, capital of an arrondissement in 
the N.W. of the island, 112 m. N. of Ajaccio by road. Pop. 
(1906) 1967. It is situated on the Bay of Calvi, in a malarial 
region, and is the port in Corsica nearest to France, being 109 m. 
from Antibes; the harbour, however, is exposed to the east and 
north-east winds. The modern town lies at the foot of a rock, on 
which stands the old town with its steep rock-paved streets and 
fortified walls, commanded by the Fort Muzello. Fishing is 
carried on, and timber, oil, wine, lemons and other sub-tropical 
fruits are exported to some extent. The most important buildings 
are the old palace of the Genoese governor, used as barracks, and 
the church (16th century), with the monument of the. Baglioni 



family, which was intimately associated with the history of the 

Calvi was founded in the 13th century and in 1278 passed into 
the hands of the Genoese. From that date it was remarkable for 
its adherence to their side, especially in 1553 when it repulsed two 
attacks of the united forces of the French and Turks. In recogni- 
tion thereof the Genoese senate caused the words Civitas Calvi 
semper fidelis to be carved on the chief gate of the city, which still 
preserves the inscription. In 1794 Calvi was captured by the 
English, but it was retaken by the Corsicans in the following 

CALVIN, JOHN (1500-1564), Swiss divine and reformer, was 
born at Noyon, in Picardy, on the 10th of July 1 509. His father, 
Gerard Cauvin or Calvin, 1 was a notary-apostolic and procurator- 
fiscal for the lordship of Noyon, besides holding certain ecclesi- 
astical offices in connexion with that diocese. The name of his 
mother was Jeanne le Franc; she was the daughter of an inn- 
keeper at Cambrai, who afterwards came to reside at Noyon. 
Gerard Cauvin was esteemed as a man of considerable sagacity 
and prudence, and his wife was a godly and attractive lady. She 
bore him five sons, of whom John was the second. By a second 
wife there were two daughters. 

Of Calvin's early years only a few notices remain. His father 
destined him from the first for an ecclesiastical career, and paid 
for his education in the household of the noble family of Hangest 
de Montmor. In May 1521 he was appointed to a chaplaincy 
attached to the altar of La Gesine in the cathedral of Noyon, and 
received the tonsure. The actual duties of the office were in such 
cases carried out by ordained and older men for a fraction of the 
stipend. The plague having visited Noyon, the young Hangests 
were sent to Paris in August 1523, and Calvin accompanied them, 
being enabled to do so by the income received from his benefice. 
He lived with his uncle and attended as an out-student the 
College de la Marche, at that time under the regency of Mathurin 
Cordier, a man of character, learning and repute as a teacher, 
who in later days followed his pupil to Switzerland, taught at 
Neuchatel, and died in Geneva in 1 564. In dedicating to him his 
Commentary on the First Epistle to the Thessalonians, as " eximiae 
pietatis et doctrinae viro," he declares that so had he been aided 
by his instruction that whatever subsequent-progress he had made 
he only regarded as received from him, and " this," he adds, " I 
wish to testify to posterity that if any utility accrue to any from 
my writings they may acknowledge it as having in part flowed 
from thee." From the College de la Marche he removed to the 
College de Montaigu, 2 where the atmosphere was more ecclesi- 
astical and where he had for instructor a Spaniard who is 
described as a man of learning and to whom Calvin was indebted 
for some sound training in dialectics and the scholastic philosophy. 
He speedily outstripped all his competitors in grammatical 
studies, and by his skill and acumen as a student of philosophy, 
and in the college disputations gave fruitful promise of that 
consummate excellence as a reasoner in the department of 
speculative truth which he afterwards displayed. Among his 
friends were the Hangests (especially Claude), Nicolas and 
Michel Cop, sons of the king's Swiss physician, and his own 
kinsman Pierre Robert, better known as Olivetan. Such friend- 
ships testify both to the worth and the attractiveness of his 
character, and contradict the old legend that he was an unsociable 
misanthrope. Pleased with his success, the canons at Noyon 
gave him the curacy of St Martin de Marteville in September 
1527. After holding this preferment for nearly two years, he 
exchanged it in July 1529 for the cure of Pont L'fiveque, a village 

1 The family name of Calvin seems to have been written indiffer- 
ently Cauvin, Chauve, Chauvin, Calvus, Calvinus. In the con- 
temporary notices of Gerard and his family, in the capitular registers 
of the cathedral at Noyon, the name is always spelt Cauuin. The 
anagram of Calvin is Alcuin, and this in its Latinized fortn Alcuinus 
appears in two editions of his Institutio as that of the author (Audin, 
Vie de Calvin, i. 520). The syndics of Geneva address him in a letter 
written in 1540, and still preserved, as " Docteur Caulvin." In his 
letters written in French he usually signs himself " Jean Calvin." 
He affected the title of " Maitre," for what reason is not known. 

2 Pierre de Montaigu refoundcd this institution in 1388. Erasmus 
and Ignatius Loyola also studied here. 

near to Noyon, and the place to which his father originally 
belonged. He appears to have been not a little elated by his 
early promotion, and although not ordained, he preached several 
sermons to the people. But though the career of ecclesiastical 
preferment was thus early opened to him, Calvin was destined 
not to become a priest. A change came over the mind both of his 
father and himself respecting his future career. Gerard Cauvin 
began to suspect that he had not chosen the most lucrative 
profession for his son, and that the law offered to a youth of his 
talents and industry a more promising sphere. 3 He was also now 
out of favour with the cathedral chapter at Noyon. It is said also 
that John himself, on the advice of his relative, Pierre Robert 
Olivetan, the first translator of the Bible into French, had begun 
to study the Scriptures and to dissent from the Roman worship. 
At any rate he readily complied with his father's suggestion, and 
removed from Paris to Orleans (March 1528) in order to study 
law under Pierre Taisan de l'Etoile, the most distinguished 
jurisconsult of his day. The university atmosphere here was 
less ascetic than at Paris, but Calvin's ardour knew no slackening, 
and such was his progress in legal knowledge that he was fre- 
quently called upon to lecture, in the absence of one or other of 
the regular staff. Other studies, however, besides those of law 
occupied him while in this city, and moved by the humanistic 
spirit of the age he eagerly developed his classical knowledge. 
" By protracted vigils," says Beza, " he secured indeed a solid 
erudition and an excellent memory; but it is probable he at the 
same time sowed the seeds of that disease (dyspepsia) which 
occasioned him various illnesses in after life, and at last brought 
upon him premature death." 4 His friends here were Melchior 
Wolmar, a German schoolmaster and a man of exemplary 
scholarship and character, Francois Daniel, Francois de Connam 
and Nicolas Duchemin; to these his earliest letters were 

From Orleans Calvin went to Bourges in the autumn of 1529 
to continue his studies under the brilliant Italian, Andrea Alciati 
(1492-1550), whom Francis I. had invited into France and 
settled as a professor of law in that university. His friend 
Daniel went with him, and Wolmar followed a year later. By 
Wolmar Calvin was taught Greek, and introduced to the study of 
the New Testament in the original, a service which he gratefully 
acknowledges in one of his printed works. 5 The conversation of 
Wolmar may also have been of use to him in his consideration of 
the doctrines of the Reformation, which were now beginning to 
be widely diffused through France. Twelve years had elapsed 
since Luther had published his theses against indulgences — 
twelve years of intense excitement and anxious discussion, not 
in Germany only, but in almost all the adjacent countries. In 
France there had not been as yet any overt revolt against the 
Church of Rome, but multitudes were in sympathy with any 
attempt to improve the church by education, by purer morals, 
by better preaching and by a return to the primitive and un- 
corrupted faith. Though we cannot with Beza regard Calvin at 
this time as a centre of Protestant activity, he may well have 
preached at Lignieres as a reformatory Catholic of the school of 
Erasmus. Calvin's own record of his " conversion " is so scanty 
and devoid of chronological data that it is extremely difficult to 
trace his religious development with any certainty. But it seems 
probable that at least up to 1532 he was far more concerned 
about classical scholarship than about religion. 

His residence at Bourges was cut short by the death of his 
father in May 1531. Immediately after this event he went to 
Paris, where the " new learning " was now at length ousting the 
medieval scholasticism from the university. He lodged in the 
College Fortet, reading Greek with Pierre Danes and beginning 
Hebrew with Francois Vatable. It was at this time (April 1532) 
that Calvin issued his first publication, a commentary in Latin on 
Seneca's tract De dementia. This book he published at his own 
cost, and dedicated to Claude Hangest, abbot of St Eloi, a 
member of the de Montmor family, with whom Calvin had been 

3 Calv. Praef. ad Comment, in Psalmos. 

4 Jo. Calvini Vita, sub init. 

6 Epist. Dei., Comment in Ep. II. ad Corinthios praefix. 



brought up. It was formerly thought that Calvin published this 
work with a view to influence the king to put a stop to the attacks 
on the Protestants, but there is nothing in the treatise itself or in 
the commentary to favour this opinion. 

Soon after the publication of his first book Calvin returned 
to Orleans, where he stayed for a year, perhaps again reading 
law, and still undecided as to his life's work. He visited Noyon 
in August 1533, an d by October of the same year was settled 
again in Paris. Here and now his destiny became certain. The 
conservative theology was becoming discredited, and humanists 
like Jacques Lefevre of Etaples (Faber Stapulensis) and Gerard 
Roussel were favoured by the court under the influence of 
Margaret of Angouleme, queen of Navarre and sister of Francis I. 
Calvin's old friend, Nicolas Cop, had just been elected rector of 
the university and had to deliver an oration according to custom 
in the church of the Mathurins, on the feast of All Saints. The 
oration (certainly influenced but hardly composed by Calvin) 
was in effect a defence of the reformed opinions, especially of 
the doctrine of justification by faith alone. It is to the period 
between April 1532 and November 1533, and in particular to 
the time of his second sojourn at Orleans, that we may most 
fittingly assign the great change in Calvin which he describes 
(Praef. ad Psalmos; opera xxxi. 21-24) as his "sudden con- 
version " and attributes to direct divine agency. It must have 
been at least after his Commentary on Seneca's De Clementia 
that his heart was " so subdued and reduced to docility that in 
comparison with his zeal for true piety he regarded all other 
studies with indifference, though not entirely forsaking them. 
Though himself a beginner, many flocked to him to learn the 
pure doctrine, and he began to seek some hiding-place and means 
of withdrawal from people." This indeed was forced upon him, 
for Cop's address was more than the conservative party could 
bear, and Cop, being summoned to appear before the parlement 
of Paris, found it necessary, as he failed to secure the support 
either of the king, or of the university, to make his escape to 
Basel. An attempt was at the same time made to seize Calvin, 
but, being forewarned of the design by his friends, he also made 
his escape. His room in the College Fortet, however, was 
searched, and his books and papers seized, to the imminent 
peril of some of his friends, whose letters were found in his 
repositories. He went to Noyon, but, proceedings against him 
being dropped, soon returned to Paris. But desiring both 
security and solitude for study he left the city again about New 
Year of 1 534 and became the guest of Louis du Tillet, a canon of 
the cathedral, at Angouleme, where at the request of his host he 
prepared some short discourses, which were circulated in the 
surrounding parishes, and read in public to the people. Here, too 
in du Tillet's splendid library, he began the studies which resulted 
in his great work, the Institutes, and paid a visit to'Nerac, where 
the venerable Lefevre, whose revised translation of the Bible 
into French was published about this time, was spending his last 
years under the kindly care of Margaret of Navarre. 

Calvin was now nearly twenty-five years of age, and in the 
ordinary way would have been ordained to the priesthood. Up 
till this time his work for the evangelical cause was not so much 
that of the public preacher or reformer as that of the retiring 
but influential scholar and adviser. Now, however, he had to 
decide whether, like Roussel and other of his friends, he should 
strive to combine the new doctrines with a position in the old 
church, or whether he should definitely break away from Rome. 
His mind was made up, and on the 4th of May he resigned 
his chaplaincy at Noyon and his rectorship at Pont l'Eveque. 
Towards the end of the same month he was arrested and suffered 
two short terms of imprisonment, the charges against him 
being not strong enough to be pressed. He seems to have 
gone next to Paris, staying perhaps with fitienne de la 
Forge, a Protestant merchant who suffered for his faith in 
February 153 5. To this time belongs the story of the proposed 
meeting between Calvin and the Spanish reformer Servetus. 
Calvin's movements at this time are difficult to trace, but he 
visited both Orleans and Poitiers, and each visit marked a stage 
in his development. 

The Anabaptists of Germany had spread into France, and 
were disseminating many wild and fanatical opinions among 
those who had seceded from the Church of Rome. Among other 
notions which they had imbibed was that of a sleep of the soul 
after death. To Calvin this notion appeared so pernicious that 
he- composed a treatise in refutation of it, under the title of 
Psychopannychia. The preface to this treatise is dated Orleans 
1534, but it was not printed till 1542. In it he chiefly dwells 
upon the evidence from Scripture in favour of the belief that the 
soul retains its intelligent consciousness after its separation from 
the body — passing by questions of philosophical speculation, as 
tending on such a subject only to minister to an idle curiosity. 
At Poitiers Calvin gathered round him a company of cultured 
and gentle men whom in private intercourse he influenced 
considerably. Here too in a grotto near the town he for the first 
time celebrated the communion in the Evangelical Church of 
France, using a piece of the rock as a table. 

The year 1534 was thus decisive for Calvin. From this time 
forward his influence became supreme, and all who had accepted 
the reformed doctrines in France turned to him for counsel and 
instruction, attracted not only by his power as a teacher, but 
still more, perhaps because they saw in him so full a develop- 
ment of the Christian life according to the evangelical model. 
Renan, no prejudiced judge, pronounces him " the most Christian 
man of his time," and attributes to this his success as a reformer. 
Certain it is that already he had becorne conspicuous as a prophet 
of the new religion; his life was in danger, and he was obliged to 
seek safety in flight. In company with his friend Louis du 
Tillet, whom he had again gone to Angouleme to visit, he set out 
for Basel. On their way they were robbed by one of their servants, 
and it was only by borrowing ten crowns from their other 
servant that they were enabled to get to Strassburg, and thence 
to Basel. Here Calvin was welcomed by the band of scholars 
and theologians who had conspired to make that city the Athens 
of Switzerland, and especially by Oswald Myconius, the chief 
pastor, Pierre Viret and Heinrich Bullinger. Under the aupices 
and guidance of Sebastian Minister, Calvin now gave himself to 
the study of Hebrew. 

Francis I., desirous to continue the suppression of the Protest- 
ants but anxious, because of his strife with Charles V., not to 
break with the Protestant princes of Germany, instructed his 
ambassador to assure these princes that it was only against 
Anabaptists, and other parties who called in question all civil 
magistracy, that his severities were exercised. Calvin, indignant 
at the calumny which was thus cast upon the reformed party in 
France, hastily prepared for the press his Institutes of the Christian 
Religion, which he published " first that I might vindicate from 
unjust affront my brethren whose death was precious in the sight 
of the Lord, and, next, that some sorrow and anxiety should move 
foreign peoples, since the same sufferings threatened many." 
The work was dedicated to the king, and Calvin says he wrote it 
in Latin that it might find access to the learned in all lands. 1 
Soon after it appeared he set about translating it into French, as 
he himself attests in a letter dated October 1536. This sets at 
rest a question, at one time much agitated, whether the book 
appeared first in French or in Latin. The earliest French edition 
known is that of 1540, and this was after the work had been much 
enlarged, and several Latin editions had appeared. In its first 
form the work consisted of only six chapters, and was intended 
merely as a brief manual of Christian doctrine. The chapters 
follow a traditional scheme of religious teaching: (1) The Law, 
(as in the Ten Words), (2) Faith (as in the Apostles' Creed) 
(3) Prayer, (4) the Sacraments; to these were added (5) False 
Sacraments, (6) Christian liberty, ecclesiastical power and civil 
administration. The closing chapters of the work are more 
polemical than the earlier ones. His indebtedness to Luther is 
of course great, but his spiritual kinship with Martin Bucer of 

1 This edition forms a small 8vo of 514 pages, and 6 pages of index. 
It appeared at Basel from the press of Thomas Platter and Balthasar 
Lasius in March 1536, and was published by Johann Oporin. The 
dedicatory preface is dated 23rd August 1535. It is a masterpiece 
of apologetic literature. See W. Walker, John Calvin, 132 f., and 
for an outline of the contents of the treatise, ib. 137-149. 



Strassburg is even more marked. Something also he owed to 
Scotus and other medieval schoolmen. The book appeared 
anonymously, the author having, as he himself says, nothing in 
view beyond furnishing a statement of the faith of the persecuted 
Protestants, whom he saw cruelly cut to pieces by impious and 
perfidious court parasites. 1 In this work, though produced when 
the author was only twenty-six years of age, we find a complete 
outline of the Calvinist theological system. In none of the later 
editions, nor in any of his later works do we find reason to believe 
that he ever changed his views on any essential point from what 
they were at the period of its first publication. Such an instance 
of maturity of mind and of opinion at so early an age would be 
remarkable under any circumstances; but in Calvin's case it is 
rendered peculiarly so by the shortness of the time which had 
elapsed since he gave himself to theological studies. It may be 
doubted also if the history of literature presents us with another 
instance of a book written at so early an age, which has exercised 
such a prodigious influence upon the opinions and practices both 
of contemporaries and of posterity. 

After a short visit (April 1 536) to the court of Renee, duchess 
of Ferrara (cousin to Margaret of Navarre), which at that time 
afforded an asylum to several learned and pious fugitives from 
persecution, Calvin returned through Basel to France to arrange 
his affairs before finally taking farewell of his native country. 
His intention was to settle at Strassburg or Basel, and to devote 
himself to study. But being unable, in consequence of the war 
between Francis I. and Charles V., to reach Strassburg by the 
ordinary route, he with his younger brother Antoine and his 
half-sister Marie journeyed to Lyons and so to Geneva, making 
for Basel. In Geneva his progress was arrested, and his resolution 
to pursue the quiet path of studious research was dispelled by 
what he calls the " formidable obtestation " of Guillaume Farel. 2 
After many struggles and no small suffering, this energetic spirit 
had succeeded in planting the evangelical standard at Geneva; 
and anxious to secure the aid of such a man as Calvin, he entreated 
him on his arrival to relinquish his design of going farther, and to 
devote himself to the work in that city. Calvin at first declined, 
alleging as an excuse his need of securing more time for personal 
improvement, but ultimately, believing that he was divinely 
called to this task and that " God had stretched forth His hand 
upon me from on high to arrest me," he consented to remain at 
Geneva. He hurried to Basel, transacted some business, and 
returned to Geneva in August 1536. He at once began to ex- 
pound the epistles of St Paul in the church of St Pierre, and after 
about a year was also elected preacher by the magistrates with 
the consent of the people, an office which he would not accept 
until it had been repeatedly pressed upon him. His services 
seem to have been rendered for some time gratuitously, for in 
February 1537 there is an entry in the city registers to the effect 
that six crowns had been voted to him, " since he has as yet 
hardly received anything." 

Calvin was in his twenty-eighth year when he was thus 
constrained to settle at Geneva; and in this city the rest of his 
life, with the exception of a brief interval, was spent. The post 
to which he was thus called was not an easy one. Though the 
people of Geneva had cast off the obedience of Rome, it was 
largely a political revolt against the duke of Savoy, and they were 
still (says Beza) " but very imperfectly enlightened in divine 
knowledge; they had as yet hardly emerged from the filth of the 
papacy." 3 This laid them open to the incursions of those 
fanatical teachers, whom the excitement attendant upon the 
Reformation had called forth, and who hung mischievously upon 
the rear of the reforming body. To obviate the evils thence 
resulting, Calvin, in union with Farel, drew up a condensed 
statement of Christian doctrine consisting of twenty-one articles. 
This the citizens were summoned, in parties of ten each, to 
profess and swear to as the confession of their faith — a process 
which, though not in accordance with modern notions of the best 
way of establishing men in the faith, was gone through, Calvin 
tells us, " with much satisfaction." As the people took this oath 

1 Praef. ad Psalmos. 2 Ibid. 

3 Beza, Vit. Calv. an. 1536. 

in the capacity of citizens, we may see here the basis laid for that 
theocratic system which subsequently became peculiarly charac- 
teristic of the Genevan polity. Deeply convinced of the import- 
ance of education for the young, Calvin and his coadjutors were 
solicitous to establish schools throughout the city, and to enforce 
on parents the sending of their children to them; and as he had 
no faith in education apart from religious training, he drew up a 
catechism of Christian doctrine which the children had to learn 
whilst they were receiving secular instruction. Of the troubles 
which arose from fanatical teachers, the chief proceeded from 
the efforts of the Anabaptists; a public disputation was held on 
the 16th and 17th of March 1537, and so excited the populace 
that the Council of Two Hundred stopped it, declared the 
Anabaptists vanquished and drove them from the city. About 
the same time also, the peace of Calvin and his friends was much 
disturbed and their work interrupted by Pierre Caroli, another 
native of northern France, who, though a man of loose principle 
and belief, had been appointed chief pastor at Lausanne and was 
discrediting the good work done by Pierre Viret in that city. 
Calvin went to Viret's aid and brought Caroli before the com- 
missioners of Bern on a charge of advocating prayers for the dead 
as a means of their earlier resurrection. Caroli brought a 
counter-charge against the Geneva divines of Sabellianism and 
Arianism, because they would not enforce the Athanasian creed, 
and had not used the words " Trinity " and " Person " in the 
confession they had drawn up. It was a struggle between the 
thoroughgoing humanistic reformer who drew his creed solely 
from the " word of God " and the merely semi-Protestant 
reformer who looked on the old creed as a priceless heritage. In 
a synod held at Bern the matter was fully discussed, when a 
verdict was given in favour of the Geneva divines, and Caroli 
deposed from his office and banished. He returned to France, 
rejoined the Roman communion and spent the rest of his life in 
passing to and from the old faith and the new. Thus ended an 
affair which seems to have occasioned Calvin much more uneasi- 
ness than the character of his assailant, and the manifest false- 
hood of the charge brought against him, would seem to justify. 
Two brief anti-Romanist tracts, one entitled De fugiendis 
impiorum sacris, the other De sacerdotio papali abjiciendo, were 
also published early in this year. 

Hardly was the affair of Caroli settled, when new and severer 
trials came upon the Genevan Reformers. The austere sim- 
plicity of the ritual which Farel had introduced, and to which 
Calvin had conformed; the strictness with which the ministers 
sought to enforce not only the laws of morality, but certain 
sumptuary regulations respecting the dress and mode of living 
of the citizens; and their determination in spiritual matters 
and ecclesiastical ceremonies not to submit to the least dictation 
from the civil power, led to violent dissensions. Amidst much 
party strife Calvin perhaps showed more youthful impetuosity 
than experienced skill. He and his colleagues refused to ad- 
minister the sacrament in the Bernese form, i.e. with unleavened 
bread, and on Easter Sunday, 1538, declined to do so at all 
because of the popular tumult. For this they were banished 
from the city. They went first to Bern, and soon after to 
Zurich, where a synod of the Swiss pastors had been convened. 
Before this assembly they pleaded their cause, and stated what 
were the points on which they were prepared to insist as needful 
for the proper discipline of the church. They declared that they 
would yield in the matter of ceremonies so far as to employ un- 
leavened bread in the eucharist, to use fonts in baptism, and to 
allow festival days, provided the people might pursue their 
ordinary avocations after public service. These Calvin re- 
garded as matters of indifference, provided the magistrates did 
not make them of importance, by seeking to enforce them; and 
he was the more willing to concede them, because he hoped 
thereby to meet the wishes of the Bernese brethren whose 
ritual was less simple than that established by Farel at Geneva. 
But he and his colleagues insisted, on the other hand^that for the 
proper maintenance of discipline, there should be a division of 
parishes — that excommunications should be permitted, and 
should be under the power of elders chosen by the council, in 



conjunction with the clergy — that order should be observed in 
the admission of preachers — and that only the clergy should 
officiate in ordination by the laying on of hands. It was proposed 
also, as conducive to the welfare of the church, that the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper should be administered more frequently, at 
least once every month, and that congregational singing of 
psalms should be practised in the churches. On these terms the 
synod interceded with the Genevese to restore their pastors; 
but through the opposition of some of the Bernese (especially 
Peter Kuntz, the pastor of that city) this was frustrated, and a 
second edict of banishment was the only response. 

Calvin and Farel betook themselves, under these circumstances, 
to Basel, where they soon after separated, Farel to go to Neu- 
chatel and Calvin to Strassburg. At the latter place Calvin 
resided till the autumn of 1541, occupying himself partly in 
literary exertions, partly as a preacher and especially an organizer 
in the French church, and partly as a lecturer on theology. 
These years were not the least valuable in his experience. In 
1539 he attended Charles V.'s conference on Christian reunion at 
Frankfort as the companion of Bucer, and in the following year 
he appeared at Hagenau and Worms, as the delegate from the 
city of Strassburg. He was present also at the diet at Regens- 
burg, where he deepened his acquaintance with Melanchthon, 
and formed with him a friendship which lasted through life. He 
also did something to relieve the persecuted Protestants of 
France. It is to this period of his life that we owe a revised and 
enlarged form of his Institutes, his Commentary on the Epistle to 
the Romans, and his Tract on the Lord's Supper. Notwithstand- 
ing his manifold engagements, he found time to attend to the 
tenderer affections; for it was during his residence at Strass- 
burg that he married, in August 1540, Idelette de Bure, the 
widow of one Jean Stordeur of Liege, whom he had converted 
from Anabaptism. In her Calvin found, to use his own words, 
" the excellent companion of his life," a " precious help " to him 
amid his manifold labours and frequent infirmities. She died in 
1549, to the great grief of her husband, who never ceased to 
mourn her loss. Their only child Jacques, born on the 28th of 
July 1542, lived only a few days. 

During Calvin's absence disorder and irreligion had prevailed 
in Geneva. An attempt was made by Cardinal Jacopo Sadoleto 
(1477-1547), bishop of Carpentras, to take advantage of this so 
as to restore the papal supremacy in that district; but this 
design Calvin, at the request of the Bernese authorities, who had 
been consulted by those of Geneva, completely frustrated, by 
writing such a reply to the letter which the bishop had addressed 
to the Genevese, as constrained him to desist from all further 
efforts. The letter had more than a local or temporary reference. 
It was a popular yet thoroughgoing defence of the whole Protest- 
ant position, perhaps the best apologia for the Reformation that 
was ever written. He seems also to have kept up his connexion 
with Geneva by addressing letters of counsel and comfort to the 
faithful there who continued to regard him with affection. It 
was whilst he was still at Strassburg that there appeared at 
Geneva a translation of the Bible into French, bearing Calvin's 
name, but in reality only revised and corrected by him from the 
version of Olivetan. Meanwhile the way was opening for his 
return. Those who had driven him from the city gradually 
lost power and office. Farel worked unceasingly for his recall. 
After much hesitation, for Strassburg had strong claims, he 
yielded and returned to Geneva, where he was received with 
the utmost enthusiasm (September 13, 1541). He entered upon 
his work with a firm determination to carry out those reforms 
which he had originally purposed, and to set up in all its integrity 
that form of church polity which he had carefully matured 
during his residence at Strassburg. He now became the sole 
directive spirit in the church at Geneva. Farel was retained 
by the Neuchatelois, and Viret, soon after Calvin's return, re- 
moved to Lausanne. His duties were thus rendered exceedingly 
onerous, and his labour became excessive. Besides preaching 
every day in each alternate week, he taught theology three days 
in the week, attended weekly meetings of his consistory, read 
the Scriptures once a week in the congregation, carried on an 

extensive correspondence on a multiplicity of subjects, prepared 
commentaries on the books of Scripture, and was engaged 
repeatedly in controversy with the opponents of his opinions. 
" I have not time," he writes to a friend, " to look out of my 
house at the blessed sun, and if things continue thus I shall 
forget what sort of appearance it has. When I have settled my 
usual business. I have so many letters to write, so many questions 
to answer, that many a night is spent without any offering of 
sleep being brought to nature." 

It is only necessary here to sketch the leading events of 
Calvin's life after his return to Geneva. He recodified the 
Genevan laws and constitution, and was the leading spirit in the 
negotiations with Bern that issued in the treaty of February 
1544. Of the controversies in which he embarked, one of the 
most important was that in which he defended his doctrine 
concerning predestination and election. His first antagonist on 
this head was Albert Pighius, a Romanist, who, resuming the 
controversy between Erasmus and Luther on the freedom of the 
will, violently attacked Calvin for the views he had expressed 
on that subject. Calvin replied to him in a work published 
in 1543, in which he defends his own opinions at length, both 
by general reasonings and by an appeal to both Scripture 
and the Fathers, especially Augustine. So potent were his 
reasonings that Pighius, though owing nothing to the gentleness 
or courtesy of Calvin, was led to embrace his views. A still more 
vexatious and protracted controversy on the same subject arose 
in 1551. Jerome Hermes Bolsec, a Carmelite friar, having 
renounced Romanism, had fled from France to Veigy, a village 
near Geneva, where he practised as a physician. Being a zealous 
opponent of predestinarian views, he expressed his criticisms 
of Calvin's teaching on the subject in one of the public con- 
ferences held each Friday. Calvin replied with much vehemence, 
and brought the matter before the civil authorities. The council 
were at a loss which course to take ; not that they doubted which 
of the disputants was right, for they all held by the views 'of 
Calvin, but they were unable to determine to what extent and 
in which way Bolsec should be punished for his heresy. The 
question was submitted to the churches at Basel, Bern, Zurich 
and Neuchatel, but they also, to Calvin's disappointment, were 
divided in their judgment, some counselling severity, others 
gentle measures. In the end Bolsec was banished from Geneva ; 
he ultimately rejoined the Roman communion and in 1577 
avenged himself by a particularly slanderous biography of 
Calvin. Another painful controversy was that with Sebastien 
Castellio (1515-1363), a teacher in the Genevan school and a 
scholar of real distinction. He wished to enter the preaching 
ministry but was excluded by Calvin's influence because he had 
criticized the inspiration of the Song of Solomon and the Genevan 
interpretation of the clause " he descended into hell." The 
bitterness thus aroused developed into life-long enmity. During 
all this time also the less strict party in the city and in the 
council did not cease to harry the reformer. 

But the most memorable of all the controversies in which 
Calvin was engaged was that into which he was brought in 1553 
with Michael Servetus (q.v.). After many wanderings, and 
after having been condemned to death for heresy at Vienne, 
whence he was fortunate enough to make his escape, Servetus 
arrived in August 1 553 at Geneva on his way to Naples. He was 
recognized in church and soon after, at Calvin's instigation, 
arrested. The charge of blasphemy was founded on certain 
statements in a book published by him in 1553, entitled Christi- 
anismi Restitutio, in which he animadverted on the Catholic 
doctrine of the Trinity, and advanced sentiments strongly 
savouring of Pantheism. The story of his trial is told elsewhere 
(see art. Servetus), but it must be noted here that the struggle 
was something more than a doctrinal one. The cause of Servetus 
was taken up by Calvin's Genevan foes headed by Philibert 
Berthelier, and became a test of the relative strength of the lival 
forces and of the permanence of Calvin's control. That Calvin 
was actuated by personal spite and animosity against Servetus 
himself may be open to discussion; we have his own express 
declaration that, after Servetus was convicted, he used no 



urgency that he should be put to death, and at their last inter- 
view he told Servetus that he never had avenged private injuries, 
and assured him that if he would repent it would not be his fault 
if all the pious did not give him their hands. 1 There is the fact 
also that Calvin used his endeavour to have the sentence which 
had been pronounced against Servetus mitigated, death by 
burning being regarded by him as an " atrocity," for which he 
sought to substitute death by the sword. 2 It can be justly 
charged against Calvin in this matter that he took the initiative 
in bringing on the trial of Servetus, that as his accuser he pro- 
secuted the suit against him with undue severity, and that he 
approved the sentence which condemned Servetus to death. 
When, however, it is remembered that the unanimous decision of 
the Swiss churches and of the Swiss state governments was that 
Servetus deserved to die; that the general voice of Christendom 
was in favour of this; that even such a man as Melanchthon 
affirmed the justice of the sentence; 3 that an eminent English 
divine of the next age should declare the process against him 
" just and honourable," 4 and that only a few voices here and 
there were at the time raised against it, many will be ready to 
accept the judgment of Coleridge, that the death of Servetus was 
not " Calvin's guilt especially, but the common opprobrium of 
all European Christendom." 5 

Calvin was also involved in a protracted and somewhat vexing 
dispute with the Lutherans respecting the Lord's Supper, which 
ended in the separation of the evangelical party into the two great 
sections of Lutherans and Reformed, — the former holding that in 
the eucharist the body and blood of Christ are objectively and 
consubstantially present, and so are actually partaken of by the 
communicants, and the latter that there is only a virtual presence 
of the body and blood of Christ, and consequently only a spiritual 
participation thereof through faith. In addition to these 
controversies on points of faith, he was for many years greatly 
disquieted, and sometimes even endangered, by the opposition 
offered by the libertine party in Geneva to the ecclesiastical 
discipline which he had established there. His system of church 
polity was essentially theocratic ; it assumed that every member 
of the state was also under the discipline of the church; and he 
asserted that the right of exercising this discipline was vested 
exclusively in the consistory or body of preachers and elders. 
His attempts to carry out these views brought him into collision 
both with the authorities and with the populace, — the latter 
being not unnaturally restive under the restraints imposed upon 
their liberty by the vigorous system of church discipline, and the 
former being inclined to retain in their own hands a portion of 
that power in things spiritual which Calvin was bent on placing 
exclusively in the hands of the church rulers. His dauntless 
courage, his perseverance, and his earnestness at length prevailed, 
and he had the satisfaction, before he died, of seeing his favourite 
system of church polity firmly established, not only at Geneva, 
but in other parts of Switzerland, and of knowing that it had been 
adopted substantially by the Reformers in France and Scotland. 
The men whom he trained at Geneva carried his principles into 
almost every country in Europe, and in varying degree these 
principles did much for the cause of civil liberty. 6 Nor was it 
only in religious matters that Calvin busied himself; nothing 
was indifferent to him that concerned the welfare and good order 
of the state or the advantage of its citizens. His work embraced 
everything; he was consulted on every affair, great and small, 
that came before the council, — on questions of law, police, 
economy, trade, and manufactures, no less than on questions of 
doctrine and church polity. To him the city owed her trade in 
cloths and velvets, from which so much wealth accrued to her 

1 Fidelis Expositio Errorum Serveti, sub init. Calvini, Opp. t. ix. 

2 Calvin to Farel, 20th Aug. 1553. 

3 Tuo judicio prorsus assentior. Affirmo etiam vestros magi- 
stratus juste fecisse quod hominem blasphemum, re ordine judicata, 
interfecerunt. — Melanchthon to Calvin, 14th Oct. 1554. 

4 Field On the Church, bk. iii. c. 27, vol. i. p. 288 (ed. Cambridge, 

5 Notes on English Dromes, vol. i. p. 49. See also Table Talk, 
vol. ii. p. 282 (ed. 1835).' 

6 W. Walker, John Calvin, pp. 403-8. 

citizens; sanitary regulations were introduced by him which 
made Geneva the admiration of all visitors; and in him she 
reverences the founder of her university. This institution was in 
a sense Calvin's crowning work. It added religious education to 
the evangelical preaching and the thorough discipline already 
established, and so completed the reformer's ideal of a Christian 

Amidst these multitudinous cares and occupations, Calvin 
found time to write a number of works besides those provoked by 
the various controversies in which he was engaged. The most 
numerous of these were of an exegetical character. Including 
discourses taken down from his lips by faithful auditors, we have 
from him expository comments or homilies on nearly all the 
books of Scripture, written partly in Latin and partly in French. 
Though naturally knowing nothing of the modern idea of a 
progressive revelation, his judiciousness, penetration, and tact in 
eliciting his author's meaning, his precision, condensation, and 
concinnity as an expositor, the accuracy of his learning, the 
closeness of his reasoning, and the elegance of his style, all unite 
to confer a high value on his exegetical works. The series began 
with Romans in 1540 and ended with Joshua in 1564. In 1558- 
1559 also, though in very ill health, he finally perfected the 

The incessant and exhausting labours to which Calvin gave 
himself could not but tell on his fragile constitution. Amid 
many sufferings, however, and frequent attacks of sickness, he 
manfully pursued his course; nor was it till his frail body, torn 
by many and painful diseases — fever, asthma, stone, and gout, 
the fruits for the most part of his sedentary habits and unceasing 
activity — had, as it were, fallen to pieces around him, that his 
indomitable spirit relinquished the conflict. In the early part of 
the year 1 564 his sufferings became so severe that it was manifest 
his earthly career was rapidly drawing to a close. On the 6th of 
February of that year he preached his last sermon, having with 
great difficulty found breath enough to carry him through it. He 
was several times after this carried to church, but never again 
was able to take any part in the service. With his us.ual dis- 
interestedness he refused to receive his stipend, now that he was 
no longer able to discharge the duties of his office. In the midst 
of his sufferings, however, his zeal and energy kept him in 
continual occupation; when expostulated with for such un- 
seasonable toil, he replied^ " Would you that the Lord should 
find me idle when He comes?" After he had retired from 
public labours he lingered for some months, enduring the severest 
agony without a murmur, and cheerfully attending to all the 
duties of a private kind which his diseases left him strength to 
discharge. On the 25th of April he made his will, on the 27th he 
received the Little Council, and on the 28th the Genevan 
ministers, in his sick-room; on the 2nd of May he wrote his last 
letter — to his old comrade Farel, who hastened from Neuchatel 
to see him once again. He spent much time in prayer and died 
quietly, in the arms of his faithful friend Theodore Beza, on the 
evening of the 27th of May, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. The 
next day he was buried without pomp " in the common cemetery 
called Plain-palais " in a spot not now to be identified. 

Calvin was of middle stature; his complexion was somewhat 
pallid and dark; his eyes, to the latest clear and lustrous, 
bespoke the acumen of his genius. He was sparing in his food 
and simple in his dress; he took but little sleep, and was capable 
of extraordinary efforts of intellectual toil. He had a most 
retentive memory and a very keen power of observation. He 
spoke without rhetoric, simply, directly, but with great weight. 
He had many acquaintances but few close friends. His private 
character was in harmony with his public reputation and position. 
If somewhat severe and irritable, he was at the same time 
scrupulously just, truthful, and steadfast; he never deserted a 
friend or took an unfair advantage of an antagonist; and on 
befitting occasions he could be cheerful and even facetious 
among his intimates. " God gave him," said the Little Council 
after his death, " a character of great majesty." " I have been a 
witness of him for sixteen years," says Beza, " and I think I am 
fully entitled to say that in this man there was exhibited to all an 

7 6 


example of the life and death of the Christian, such as it will not 
be easy to depreciate, such as it will be difficult to emulate." 

Though Calvin built his theology on the foundations laid by 
earlier reformers, and especially by Luther and Bucer, his peculiar 
gifts of learning, of logic and of style made him pre-eminently the 
theologian of the new religion. The following may be regarded as 
his characteristic tenets, though not all are peculiar to him. 

The dominant thought is the infinite and transcendent sovereignty 
of God, to know whom is the supreme end of human endeavour. 
God is made known to man especially by the Scriptures, whose 
writers were " sure and authentic amanuenses of the Holy Spirit." 
To the Spirit speaking therein the Spirit-illumined soul of man 
makes response. While God is the source of all good, man as a 
sinner is guilty and corrupt. The first man was made in the image 
and likeness of God, which not only implies man's superiority to all 
other creatures, but indicates his original purity, integrity and 
sanctity. From this state Adam fell, and in his fall involved the 
whole human race descended from him. Hence depravity and 
corruption, diffused through all parts of the soul, attach to all men, 
and this first makes them obnoxious to the anger of God, and then 
comes forth in works which the Scripture calls works of the flesh 
(Gal. v. 19). Thus all are held vitiated and perverted in all parts 
of their nature, and on account of such corruption deservedly con- 
demned before God, by whom nothing is accepted save righteousness 
innocence, and purity. Nor is that a being bou'ndforanother's offence ; 
for when it is said that we through Adam's sin have become ob- 
noxious to the divine judgment, it is not to be taken as if we, being 
ourselves innocent and blameless, bear the fault of his offence, but 
that, we having been brought under a curse through his trans- 
gression, he is said to have bound us. From him, however, not only 
has punishment overtaken us, but a pestilence instilled from him 
resides in us, to which punishment is justly due. Thus even infants, 
whilst they bring their own condemnation with them from their 
mother's womb, are bound not by another's but by their own fault. 
For though they have not yet brought forth the fruits of their 
iniquity, they have the seed shut up in them ; nay, their whole nature 
is a sort of seed of sin, therefore it cannot but be hateful and abomin- 
able to God (Instit. bk. ii. ch. i. sect. 8). 

To redeem man from this state of guilt, and to recover him from 
corruption, the Son of God became incarnate, assuming man's nature 
into union with His own, so that in Him were two natures in one 
person. Thus incarnate He took on Him the offices of prophet, 
priest and king, and by His humiliation, obedience and suffering unto 
death, followed by His resurrection and ascension to heaven, He 
has perfected His work and fulfilled all that was required in a 
redeemer of men, so that it is truly affirmed that He has merited 
for man the grace of salvation (bk. ii. ch. 13-17). But until a man 
is in some way really united to Christ so as to partake of Him, the 
benefits of Christ's work cannot be attained by him. Now it is by 
the secret and special operation of the Holy Spirit that men are 
united to Christ and made members of His body. Through faith, 
which is a firm and certain cognition of the divine benevolence 
towards us founded on the truth of the gracious promise in Christ, 
men are by the operation of the Spirit united to Christ and are made 
partakers of His death and resurrection, so that the old man is 
crucified with Him and they are raised to a new life, a life of righteous- 
ness and holiness. Thus joined to Christ the believer has life in 
Him and knows that he is saved, having the witness of the Spirit 
that he is a child of God, and having the promises, the certitude of 
which the Spirit had before impressed on the mind, sealed by the 
same Spirit on the heart (bk. iii. ch. 33-36). From faith proceeds 
repentance, which is the turning of our life to God, proceeding from 
a sincere and earnest fear of God, and consisting in the mortification 
of the flesh and the old man within us and a vivification of the Spirit. 
Through faith also the believer receives justification, his sins are 
forgiven, he is accepted of God, and is held by Him as righteous, 
the righteousness of Christ being imputed to him, and faith being 
the instrument by which the man lays hold on Christ, so that with 
His righteousness the man appears in God's sight as righteous. 
This imputed righteousness, however, is not disjoined from real 
personal righteousness, for regeneration and sanctification come 
to the believer from Christ no less than justification; the two 
blessings are not to be confounded, but neither are they to be dis- 
joined. The assurance which the believer has of salvation he 
receives from the operation and witness of the Holy Spirit ; but 
this again rests on the divine choice of the man to salvation; and 
this falls back on God's eternal sovereign purpose, whereby He has 
predestined some to eternal life while the rest of mankind are 
predestined to condemnation and eternal death. Those whom 
God has chosen to life He effectually calls to salvation, and they 
are kept by Him in progressive faith and holiness unto the end 
(bk. iii. passim). The external means or aids by which God unites 
men into the fellowship of Christ, and sustains and advances those 
who believe, are the church and its ordinances, especially the sacra- 
ments. The church universal is the multitude gathered from diverse 
nations, which though divided by distance of time and place, agree 
in one common faith, and it is bound by the tie of the same religion ; 
and wherever the word of God is sincerely preached, and the sacra- 
ments are duly administered, according to Christ's institute, there 

beyond doubt is a church of the living God (bk. iv. ch. I, sect. 7-1 1). 
The permanent officers in the church are pastors and teachers, to the 
former of whom it belongs to preside over the discipline of the 
church, to administer the sacraments, and to admonish and exhort 
the members ; while the latter occupy themselves with the exposition 
of Scripture, so that pure and wholesome doctrine may be retained. 
With them are to be joined for the government of the church certain 
pious, grave and holy men as a senate in each church ; and to others, 
as deacons, is to be entrusted the care of the poor. The election of 
the officers in a church is to be with the people, and those duly 
chosen and called are to be ordained by the laying on of the hands 
of the pastors (ch. 3, sect. 4-16). The sacraments are two — Baptism 
and the Lord's Supper. Baptism is the sign of initiation whereby 
men are admitted into the society of the church and, being grafted 
into Christ, are reckoned among the sons of God; it serves both 
for the confirmation of faith and as a confession before men. The 
Lord's Supper is a spiritual feast where Christ attests that He is the 
life-giving bread, by which our souls are fed unto true and blessed 
immortality. That sacred communication of His flesh and blood 
whereby Christ transfuses into us His life, even as if it penetrated 
into our bones and marrow, He in the Supper attests and seals; 
and that not by a vain or empty sign set before us, but there He 
puts forth the efficacy of His Spirit whereby He fulfils what He 
promises. In the mystery of the Supper Christ is truly exhibited 
to us by the symbols of bread and wine ; and so His body and blood, 
in which He fulfilled all obedience for the obtaining of righteousness 
for us, are presented. There is no such presence of Christ in the 
Supper as that He is affixed to the bread or included in it or in any 
way circumscribed ; but whatever can express the true and sub- 
stantial communication of the body and blood of the Lord, which 
is exhibited to believers under the said symbols of the Supper, is to 
be received, and that not as perceived by the imagination only or 
mental intelligence, but as enjoyed for the aliment of the eternal life 
(bk. iv. ch. 15, 17). 

The course of time has substantially modified many of these 
positions. Even the churches which trace their descent from 
Calvin's work and faith no longer hold in their entirety his views 
on the magistrate as the preserver of church purity, the utter de- 
pravity of human nature, the non-human character of the Bible, 
the dealing of God with man. But his system had an immense 
value in the history of Christian thought. It appealed to and 
evoked a high order of intelligence, and its insistence on personal 
individual salvation has borne worthy fruit. So also its insistence 
on the chief end of man " to know and do the will of God " made 
for the strenuous morality that helped to build up the modern 
world. ' Its effects are most clearly seen in Scotland, in Puritan 
England and in the New England states, but its influence was and 
is felt among peoples that have little desire or claim to be called 

Bibliography. — The standard edition of Calvin's works is that 
undertaken by the Strassburg scholars, J. W. Baum, E. Cunitz, 
E. Reuss, P. Lobstein, A. Erichson (59 vols., 1863-1900). The last 
of these contains an elaborate bibliography which was also published 
separately at Berlin in 1900. The bulk of the writings was published 
in English by the Calvin Translation Society (48 vols., Edinburgh, 
1843-1855); the Institutes have often been translated. The early 
lives by Beza and Collodon are givan in the collected editions. 
Among modern biographies are those by P. Henry, Das Leben J. 
Calvins (3 vols., Hamburg, 1 835-1 844; Eng. trans, by H. Stebbing, 
London and New York, 1849); V. Audin, Histoire de la vie, des 
ouvrages, et des doctrines de Calvin (2 vols., Paris, 1841 ; Eng. trans, 
by J. McGill, London, 1843 and 1850) unfairly antagonistic; T. H. 
Dyer, Life of John Calvin (London, 1850); E. Stahelin, J oh. Calvin, 
Leben und ausgewahlte Schriften (2 vols., Elberfeld, 1863); F. W. 
Kampschulte, Joh. Calvin, seine Kirche und sein Staat in Genf 
(2 vols., 1869, 1899, unfinished); Abel Lefranc, La Jeunesse de 
Calvin (Paris, 1888); E. Choisy, La Theocratie a Geneve au temps 
de Calvin (Geneva, 1897) ; E. Doumergue, Jean Calvin; les homines 
et les choses de son temps (5 vols., 1899-1908). See also A. M. Fair- 
bairn, " Calvin and the Reformed Church " in the Cambridge Modern 
History, vol. ii. (1904); P. Schaff's, History of the Christian Church, 
vol. vii. (1892), and R. Stahelin's article in Hauck-Herzog's Real- 
encyk. fiir prot. Theologie und Kirche. Each of these contains a 
useful bibliography, as also does the excellent life by Professor 
Williston Walker, John Calvin, the Organizer of Reformed Protes- 
tantism, " Heroes of the Reformation " series (1906). See also C. S. 
Home in Mansfield Coll. Essays (1909). (W. L. A.; A. J. G.) 

CALVINISTIC METHODISTS, a body of Christians forming a 
church of the Presbyterian order and claiming to be the only 
denomination in Wales which is of purely Welsh origin. Its 
beginnings may be traced to the labours of the Rev. Griffith 
Jones (1684-1761), of Llanddowror, Carmarthenshire, whose 
sympathy for the poor led him to set on foot a system of circu- 
lating charity schools for the education of children. In striking 
contrast to the general apathy of the clergy of the period, 
Oriffrth Jones's 7xal appealed to the public imagination, and bis 
powerful preaching exercised a widespread influence, many 



travelling long distances in order to attend his ministry. There 
was thus a considerable number of earnest people dispersed 
throughout the country waiting for the rousing of the parish 
clergy. An impressive announcement of the Easter Communion 
Service, made by the Rev. Pryce Davies, vicar of Talgarth, 
on the 30th of March 1735, was the means of awakening 
Howell Harris (1714-1773) of Trevecca, and he immediately 
began to hold services in his own house. He was soon invited to 
do the same at the houses of others, and ended by becoming a 
fiery itinerant preacher, stirring to the depths every neighbour- 
hood he visited. Griffith Jones, preaching at Llanddewi Brefi, 
Cardiganshire — the place at which the Welsh Patron Saint, 
David, first became famous — found Daniel Rowland (17 13-1790), 
curate of Llangeitho, in his audience, and his patronizing attitude 
in listening drew from the preacher a personal supplication on his 
behalf, in the middle of the discourse. Rowland was deeply 
moved, and became an ardent apostle of the new movement. 
Naturally a fine orator, his new-born zeal gave an edge to his 
eloquence, and his fame spread abroad. Rowland and Harris 
had been at work fully eighteen months before they met, at a 
service in Devynock church, in the upper part of Breconshire. 
The acquaintance then formed lasted to the end of Harris's life — 
an interval of ten years excepted. Harris had been sent to 
Oxford in the autumn of 1735 to " cure him of his fanaticism," 
but he left in the following February. Rowland had never been 
to a university, but, like Harris, he had been well grounded in 
general knowledge. About 1739 another prominent figure 
appeared. This was Howell Davies of Pembrokeshire, whose 
ministry was modelled on that of his master, Griffith Jones, but 
with rather more clatter in his thunder. 

In 1736, on returning home, Harris opened a school, Griffith 
Jones supplying him with books from his charity. He also set up 
societies, in accordance with the recommendations in Josiah 
Wedgwood's little book on the subject; and these exercised a 
great influence on the religious life of the people. By far the 
most notable of Harris's converts was William Williams (17 17- 
1791), Panty Celyn, the great hymn- writer of Wales, who while 
listening to the revivalist preaching on a tombstone in the 
graveyard of Talgarth, heard the " voice of heaven," and was 
" apprehended as by a warrant from on high." He was ordained 
deacon in the Church of England, 1740, but Whitefield recom- 
mended him to leave his curacies and go into the highways and 
hedges. On Wednesday and Thursday, January 5th and 6th, 
1743, the friends of aggressive Christianity in Wales met at 
Wadford, near Caerphilly, Glam., in order to organize their 
societies. George Whitefield was in the chair. Rowland, Williams 
and John Powell — afterwards of Llanmartin — (clergymen), 
Harris, John Humphreys and John Cennick (laymen) were 
present. Seven lay exhorters were also at the meetings; they 
were questioned as to their spiritual experience and allotted 
their several spheres; other matters pertaining to the new 
conditions created by the revival were arranged. This is known 
as the first Methodist Association — held eighteen months before 
Johm Wesley's first conference (June 25th, 1744). Monthly 
meetings covering smaller districts, were organized to consider 
local matters, the transactions of which were to be reported to 
the Quarterly Association, to be confirmed, modified, or rejected. 
Exhorters were divided into two classes — public, who were 
allowed to itinerate as preachers and superintend a number of 
societies; private, who were confined to the charge of one or 
two societies. The societies were distinctly understood to be 
part of the established church, as Wedgwood's were, and every 
attempt at estranging them therefrom was sharply reproved; 
but persecution made their position anomalous. They did not 
accept the discipline of the Church of England, so the plea of 
Conformity was a feeble defence; nor had they taken out licenses, 
so as to claim the protection of the Toleration Act. Harris's 
ardent loyalty to the Church of England, after three refusals 
to ordain him, and his personal contempt for ill-treatment from 
persecutors, were the only things that prevented separation. 

A controversy on a doctrinal point — " Did God die on 
Calvary? " — raged for some time, the principal disputants 

being Rowland and Harris; and in 1751 it ended in an open 
rupture, which threw the Connexion first into confusion and then 
into a state of coma. The societies split up into Harrisites and 
Rowlandites, and it was only with the revival of 1762 that the 
breach was fairly repaired. This revival is a landmark in the 
history of the Connexion. Williams of Pant y Celyn had just 
published a little volume of hymns, the singing of which inflamed 
the people. This led the bishop of St David's to suspend 
Rowland's license, and Rowland had to confine himself to a 
meeting-house at Llangeitho. Having been turned out of other 
churches, he had leased a plot of land in 1759, anticipating the 
final withdrawal of his license, in 1763, and a spacious building 
was erected to which the people crowded from all parts on 
Sacrament Sunday. Llangeitho became the Jerusalem of Wales; 
and Rowland's popularity never waned until his physical powers 
gave way. A notable event in the history of Welsh Methodism 
was the publication in 1770, of a 4to annotated Welsh Bible by 
the Rev. Peter Williams, a forceful preacher, and an indefatigable 
worker, who had joined the Methodists in 1746, after being 
driven from several curacies. It gave birth to a new interest in 
the Scriptures, being the first definite commentary in the language. 
A powerful revival broke out at Llangeitho in the spring of 
1780, and spread to the south, but not to the north of Wales. 
The ignorance of the people of the north made it very difficult 
for Methodism to benefit from these manifestations, until the 
advent of the Rev. Thomas Charles (1755-1814), who, having 
spent five years in Somersetshire as curate of several parishes, 
returned to his native land to marry Sarah Jones of Bala. 
Failing to find employment in the established church, he joined 
the Methodists in 1784. His circulating charity schools and 
then his Sunday schools gradually made the North a new 
country. In 1791 a revival began at Bala; and this, strange to 
say, a few months after the Bala Association had been ruffled by 
the proceedings which led to the expulsion of Peter Williams 
from the Connexion, in order to prevent him from selling John 
Canne's Bible among the Methodists, because of some Sabellian 
marginal notes. 

In 1790, the Bala Association passed " Rules regarding the 
proper mode of conducting the Quarterly Association," drawn 
up by Charles; in 1801, Charles and Thomas Jones of Mold, 
published (for the association) the " Rules and Objects of the 
Private Societies among the People called Methodists." About 
1795, persecution led the Methodists to take the first step 
towards separation from the Church of England. Heavy fines 
made it impossible for preachers in poor circumstances to 
continue without claiming the protection of the Toleration Act, 
and the meeting-houses had to be registered as dissenting chapels. 
In a large number of cases this had only been delayed by so con- 
structing the houses that they were used both as dwellings and 
as chapels at one and the same time. Until 181 1 the Calvin* 
istic Methodists had no ministers ordained by themselves; their 
enormous growth in numbers and the scarcity of ministers to 
administer the Sacrament — only three in North Wales, two of 
whom had joined only at the dawn of the century — made the 
question of ordination a matter of urgency. The South Wales 
clergy who regularly itinerated were dying out; the majority of 
those remaining itinerated but irregularly, and were most of them 
against the change. The lay element, with the help of Charles and 
a few other stalwarts, carried the matter through — ordaining 
nine at Bala in June, and thirteen at Llandilo in August. In 
1823, the Confession of Faith was published; it is based on the 
Westminster Confession as " Calvinistically construed," and 
contains 44 articles. The Connexion's Constitutional Deed was 
formally completed in 1826. 

Thomas Charles had tried to arrange for taking oyer Trevecca 
College when the trustees of the Countess of Huntingdon's 
Connexion removed their seminary to Cheshunt in 1791 ; but the 
Bala revival broke out just at the time, and, when things grew 
quieter, other matters pressed for attention. A college had been 
mooted in 1816, but the intended tutor died suddenly, and the 
matter was for the tim« dropped. Candidates for the Connex- 
ional ministry were compelled to shift for themselves until 1837, 



when Lewis Edwards (1809-1887) and David Charles (1812- 
1878) opened a school for young men at Bala. North and South 
alike adopted it as their college, the associations contributing a 
hundred guineas each towards the education of their students. 
In 1842, the South Wales Association opened a college at 
Trevecca, leaving Bala to the North; the Rev. David Charles 
became principal of the former, and the Rev. Lewis Edwards of 
the latter. After the death cf Dr Lewis Edwards, Dr. T. C. 
Edwards resigned the principalship of the University College at 
Aberystwyth to become head of Bala (1801), now a purely 
theological college, the students of which were sent to the 
university colleges for their classical training. In 1905 Mr David 
Da vies of Llandinam — one of the leading laymen in the Connexion 
— offered a large building at Aberystwyth as a gift to the 
denomination for the purpose of uniting North and South in one 
theological college; but in the event of either association 
declining the proposal, the other was permitted to take possession, 
giving the association that should decline the option of joining at 
a later time. The Association of the South accepted, and that of 
the North declined, the offer; Trevecca College was turned into 
a preparatory school on the lines of a similar institution set up at 
Bala in 1891. 

The missionary collections of the denomination were given 
to the London Missionary Society from 1798 to 1840, when a 
Connexional Society was formed; and no better instances of 
missionary enterprise are known than those of the Khasia and 
Jaintia Hills, and the Plains of Sylhet in N. India. There 
has also been a mission in Brittany since 1842. 

The constitution of the denomination (called in Welsh, " Hen 
Gorph," i.e. the Old Body) is a mixture of Presbyterianism and 
Congregationalism; each church manages its own affairs and 
reports (1) to the district meeting, (2) to the monthly meeting, 
the nature of each report determining its destination. The 
monthly meetings are made up of all the officers of the churches 
comprised in each, and are split up into districts for the purpose 
of a more local co-operation of the churches. The monthly 
meetings appoint delegates to the quarterly Associations, of 
which all officers are members. The Associations of North and 
South are distinct institutions, deliberating and determining 
matters pertaining to them in their separate quarterly gatherings. 
For the purpose of a fuller co-operation in matters common to 
both, a general assembly (meeting once a year) was established 
in 1864. This is a purely deliberative conclave, worked by 
committees, and all its legislation has to be confirmed by the two 
Associations before it can have any force or be legal. The 
annual conference of the English churches of the denomination 
has no legislative standing, and is meant for social and spiritual 
intercourse and discussions. 

In doctrine the church is Calvinistic, but its preachers are far 
from being rigid in this particular, being warmly evangelical, 
and, in general, distinctly cultured. The London degree largely 
figures on the Connexional Diary; and now the Welsh degrees, 
in arts and divinity, are being increasingly achieved. It is a 
remarkable fact that every Welsh revival, since 1735, has broken 
out among the Calvinistic Methodists. Those of 1735, 1762, 
1780 and 1791 have been mentioned; those of 1817, 1832, 1859 
and 1904-1905 were no less powerful, and their history is inter- 
woven with Calvinistic Methodism, the system of which is so 
admirably adapted for the passing on of the torch. The minis- 
terial system is quite anomalous. It started in pure itineracy; 
the pastorate came in very gradually, and is not yet in universal 
acceptance. The authority of the pulpit of any individual church 
is in the hands of the deacons; they ask the pastor to supply so 
many Sundays a year — from twelve to forty, as the case may 
be — and they then fill the remainder with any preacher they 
choose. The pastor is" paid for his pastoral work, and receives 
his Sunday fee just as a stranger does; his Sundays from home 
he fills up at the request of deacons of other churches, and it is a 
breach of connexional etiquette for aminister to apply for engage- 
ments, no matter how many unfilled Sundays he may have. 
Deacons and preachers make engagements seven or eight years 
in advance. The Connexion provides for English residents 

wherever required, and the English ministers are oftener in 
their own pulpits than their Welsh brethren. 

The Calvinistic Methodists form in some respects the strongest 
church in Wales, and its forward movement, headed by Dr. John 
Pugh of Cardiff, has brought thousands into its fold since its 
establishment in 1891. Its Connexional Book Room, opened in 
1891, yields an annual profit of from £1600 to £2000, the profits 
being devoted to help the colleges and to establish Sunday 
school libraries, etc. Its chapels in 1907 numbered 1641 (with 
accommodation for 488,080), manses 229; its churches 1 num- 
bered 1428, ministers 921, unordained preachers 318, deacons 
6179; its Sunday Schools 1731, teachers 27,895, scholars 193,460, 
communicants 189,164, total collections for religious purposes 
£300,912. The statistics of the Indian Mission are equally 
good: communicants 8027, adherents 26,787, missionaries 23, 
native ministers (ordained) 15, preachers (not ordained) 60. 

The Calvinistic Methodists are intensely national in sentiment 
and aspirations, beyond all suspicion loyalists. They take a 
great interest in social, political and educational matters, and are 
prominent on public bodies. They support the Eisteddfod as the 
promoter and inspirer of arts, letters and music, and are con- 
spicuous among the annual prize winners. They thus form a 
living, democratic body, flexible and progressive in its movements, 
yet with a sufficient proportion of conservatism both in religion 
and theology to keep it sane and safe. (D. E. J.) 

CALVISIUS, SETHUS (1556-1615), German chronologer, was 
born of a peasant family at Gorschleben in Thuringia on the 
21st of February 1556. By the exercise of his musical talents 
he earned money enough for the start, at Helmstadt, of an 
university career, which the aid of a wealthy patron enabled him 
to continue at Leipzig. He became director of the music-school 
at Pforten in 1572, was transferred to Leipzig in the same 
capacity in 1594, and retained this post until his death on the 
24th of November 1615, despite the offers successively made to 
him of mathematical professorships at Frankfort and Wittenberg . 
In his Opus Chronologicum (Leipzig, 1605, 7th ed. 1685) he 
expounded a system based on the records of nearly 300 eclipses. 
An ingenious, though ineffective, proposal for the reform of the 
calendar was put forward in his Elenchus Calendarii Gregoriani 
(Frankfort, 161 2); and he published a book on music, Melodiae 
condendae ratio (Erfurt, 1592), still worth reading. 

For details see V. Schmuck's Leichenrede (1615); J. Bertuch's 
Chronicon Portense (1739); F. W. E. Rost's Oratio ad renovendam 
S. Calvisii memoriam (1805); J. G. Stallbaum's Nachrichten iiber 
die Cantoren an der Thomasschule (1842); Allgemeine Deutsche 
Biographie; Poggendorff's Biog.-Litterarisches Handworterbuch. 

CALVO, CARLOS (1 824-1 906), Argentine publicist and 
historian, was born at Buenos Aires on the 26th of February 
1824, and devoted himself to the study of the law. In i860 he 
was sent by the Paraguayan government on a special mission to 
London and Paris. Remaining in France, he published in 1 863 
his Der echo international teorico y practico de Europa y America, in 
two volumes, and at the same time brought out a French version. 
The book immediately took rank as one of the highest modern 
authorities on the subject, and by 1887 the first French edition 
had become enlarged to six volumes. Sefior Calvo's next 
publications were of a semi-historical character. Between 1862 
and 1869 he published in Spanish and French his great collection 
in fifteen volumes of the treaties and other diplomatic acts of the 
South American republics, and between 1864 and 1875 his 
Annates historiques de la revolution de V Amirique latine, in five 
volumes. In 1884 he was one of the founders at the Ghent 
congress of the Institut de Droit International. In the following 
year he was Argentine minister at Berlin, and published his 
Dictionnaire du droit international public et prive in that city, 
Calvo died in May 1906 at Paris. 

CALW or Kalw, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of 
Wurttemberg, on the Nagold, 34 m. S.W. of Stuttgart by rail. 
Pop. (1905), 4943. It contains a Protestant and a Roman 
Catholic Church, two schools, missionary institution, and a fine 

1 Adherents and members in scattered hamlets and attending 
different meeting-houses or chapels, often combine to form one 
society or church. 



public library. The industries include spinning and weaving 
operations in wool and cotton. Carpets, cigars and leather are 
also manufactured. The timber trade, chiefly with the Nether- 
lands, is important. The place is in favour as a health resort. 

The name of Calw appears first in 1037. In the middle ages 
the town was under the dominion of a powerful family of counts, 
whose possessions finally passed to Wiirttemberg in 1345. In 
1634 the town was taken by the Bavarians, and in 1692 by 
the French. 

CALYDON (Ka\vScov), an ancient town of Aetolia, according to 
Pliny, 75 Roman m. from the sea, on the river Euenus. It was 
said to have been founded by Calydon, son of Aetolus; to have 
been the scene of the hunting, by Meleager and other heroes, of 
the famous Calydonian boar, sent by Artemis to lay waste the 
fields; and to have taken part in the Trojan war. In historical 
times it is first mentioned (391 B.C.) as in the possession of the 
Achaeans, who retained it for twenty years, by the assistance of 
the Lacedaemonian king, Agesilaus, notwithstanding the attacks 
of the Arcarnanians. After the battle of Leuctra (371 B.C.) it was 
restored by Epaminondas to the Aetolians. In the time of 
Pompey it was a town of importance; but Augustus removed 
its inhabitants to Nicopolis, which he founded to commemorate 
his victory at Actium (31 B.C.). The wallsof Calydon are almost 
certainly to be recognized in the Kastro of Kurtaga. These 
comprise a circuit of over 2 m., with one large gate and five 
smaller ones, and are situated on a hill on the right or west bank 
of the Euenus. Remains of large terrace walls outside the town 
probably indicate the position of the temple of Artemis Laphria, 
whose gold and ivory statue was transferred to Patras, together 
probably with her ritual. This included a sacrifice in which all 
kinds of beasts, wild and tame, were driven into a wooden pyre 
and consumed. 

See W. M. Leake, Travels in N. Greece, i. p. 109, iii. pp. 533 sqq. ; 
W. J. Woodhouse, Aetolia, pp. 95 sqq. (E. Gr.) 

CALYPSO, in Greek mythology, daughter of Atlas (or Oceanus, 
or Nereus), queen of the mythical island of Ogygia. When 
Odysseus was shipwrecked on her shores, Calypso entertained 
the hero with great hospitality, and prevailed on him to remain 
with her seven years. Odysseus was then seized with a longing 
to return to his wife and home; Calypso's promise of eternal 
youth failed to induce him to stay, and Hermes was sent by 
Zeus to bid her release him. When he set sail, Calypso died of 
grief. (Homer, Odyssey, i. 50, v. 28, vii. 254; Apollodorus i. 2, 7.) 

CAM (CAO), DIOGO (fl. 1480-1486), Portuguese discoverer, 
the first European known to sight and enter the Congo, and to 
explore the West African coast between Cape St Catherine (2°S.) 
and Cape Cross (21 50' S.) almost from the equator to Walfish 
Bay. When King John II. of Portugal revived the work of 
Henry the Navigator, he sent out Cam (about midsummer (?) 
1482) to open up the African coast still further beyond the 
equator. The mouth of the Congo was now discovered (perhaps 
in August 1482), and marked by a stone pillar (still existing, but 
only in fragments) erected on Shark Point; the great river was 
also ascended for a short distance, and intercourse was opened 
with the natives. Cam then coasted down along the present 
Angola (Portuguese West Africa), and erected a second pillar, 
probably marking the termination of this voyage, at Cape Santa 
Maria (the Monte Negro of these first visitors) in 13 26' S. He 
certainly returned to Lisbon by the beginning of April 1484, 
when John II. ennobled him, made him a cavalleiro of his house- 
hold (he was already an escudeiro or esquire in the same), and 
granted him an annuity and a coat of arms (8th and 14th of 
April 1484). That Cam, on his second voyage of 1483-1486, was 
accompanied by Martin Behaim (as alleged on the latter's 
Nuremberg globe of 1492) is very doubtful; but we know that 
the explorer revisited the Congo and erected two more pillars 
beyond the furthest of his previous voyage, the first at another 
" Monte Negro " in 15° 41' S., the second at Cape Cross in 
2i c 50', this last probably marking the end of his progress 
southward. According to one authority (a legend on the 1489 
map of Henricus Martellus Germanus), Cam died off Cape Cross; 
but Joao de Barros and others make him return to the Congo, 

and take thence a native envoy to Portugal. The four pillars 
set up by Cam on his two voyages have all been discovered 
in situ, and the inscriptions on two of them from Cape Santa 
Maria and Cape Cross, dated 1482 and 1485 respectively, are 
still to be read and have been printed; the Cape Cross padrao is 
now at Kiel (replaced on the spot by a granite facsimile) ; those 
from the Congo estuary and the more southerly Monte Negro are 
in the Museum of the Lisbon Geographical Society. 

See Barros, Decadas da Asia, Decade i. bk. iii., esp. ch. 3; Ruy 
de Pina, Chronica d' el Ret D. Joao II. ; Garcia de Resende, Chronica ; 
Luciano Cordeiro, " Diogo Cao " in Eoletim of the Lisbon Geog. Soc, 
1892; E; G. Ravenstein, "Voyages of Diogo Cao," &c, in Geog. 
Jnl. vol. xvi. (1900) ; also Geog. Jnl. xxxi. (1908). (C. R. B.) 

CAMACHO, JUAN FRANCISCO (1824-1896), Spanish states- 
man and financier, Was born in Cadiz in 1824. The first part of 
his life was devoted to mercantile and financial pursuits at 
Cadiz and then in Madrid, where he managed the affairs of and 
liquidated a mercantile and industrial society to the satisfaction 
and profit of the shareholders. In 1837 he became a captain in 
the national militia, in 1852 Conservative deputy in the Cortes 
for Alcoy, in 1853 secretary of congress, and was afterwards 
elected ten times deputy, twice senator and life senator in 
1877. Camacho took a prominent part in all financial debates 
and committees, was offered a seat in the Mon cabinet of 1864, 
and was appointed under-secretary of state finances in 1866 
under Canovas and O'Donnell. After the revolution of 1868 he 
declined the post of minister of finance offered by Marshal 
Serrano, but served in that capacity in 1872 and 1874 in Sagasta's 
cabinets. When the restoration took place, Camacho sat in the 
Cortes among the dynastic Liberals with Sagasta as leader, and 
became finance minister in 1881 at a critical moment when 
Spain had to convert, reduce, and consolidate her treasury 
and other debts with a view to resuming payment of coupons. 
Camacho drew up an excellent budget and collected taxation 
with a decidedly unpopular vigour. A few years later Sagasta 
again made him finance minister under the regency of Queen 
Christina, but had to sacrifice him when public opinion very 
clearly pronounced against his too radical financial reforms and 
his severity in collection of taxes. He was for the same reasons 
unsuccessful as a governor of the Tobacco Monopoly Company. 
He then seceded from the Liberals, and during the last years of 
his life he affected to vote with the Conservatives, who made him 
governor of the Bank of Spain. He died in Madrid on the 23rd of 
January 1896. (A. E. H.) 

CAMALDULIANS, or Camaldolese, a religious order founded 
by St Romuald. Born of a noble family at Ravenna c. 950, he- 
retired at the age of twenty to the Benedictine monastery of 
S. Apollinare in Classe; but being strongly drawn to the ere- 
mitical life, he went to live with a hermit in the neighbourhood of 
Venice and then again near Ravenna. Here a colony of hermits 
grew up around him and he became the superior. As soon as 
they were established in their manner of life, Romuald moved to 
another district and there formed a second settlement of hermits, 
only to proceed in the same way to the establishment of other 
colonies of hermits or " deserts " as they were called. In this 
way during the course of his life Romuald formed a great number 
of " deserts " throughout central Italy. His chief foundation 
was at Camaldoli on the heights of the Tuscan Apennines not far 
from Arezzo, in a vale snow-covered during half the year. 
Romuald's idea was to reintroduce into the West the primitive 
eremitical form of monachism, as practised by the first Egyptian 
and Syrian monks. His monks dwelt in separate huts around the 
oratory, and came together only for divine service and on certain 
days for meals. The life was one of extreme rigour in regard to 
food, clothing, silence and general observance. Besides the 
hermits there were lay brothers to help in carrying out the field 
work and rougher occupations. St Romuald and the early 
Camaldolese exercised considerable influence on the religious 
movements of their. time; the emperors Otto III. and Henry II. 
esteemed him highly and sought his advice on religious questions. 
Disciples of St Romuald went on missions to the still heathen 
parts of Russia, Poland and Prussia, where some of them suffered 
martyrdom. In his extreme old age St Romuald with twenty-five 



of his monks started on a missionary expedition to Hungary, 
but he was unable to accomplish the journey. He died in 1027. 
After his death mitigations were gradually introduced into the 
rule and manner of life; and in the monastery of St Michael in 
Murano, Venice, the life became cenobitical. From that time to 
the present day there have always been both eremitical and 
cenobitical Camaldolese, the latter approximating to ordinary 
Benedictine life. The Camaldolese spread all over Italy, and into 
Germany, Poland and France. Camaldoli itself exists as a 
" desert," the primitive observance of the institute being strictly 
maintained. There are a few other " deserts," all in Italy, 
except one in Poland; and there are about 90 hermits. The chief 
monastery of the cenobitical Camaldolese is S. Gregorio on the 
Caelian Hill in Rome; they number less than forty. Since the 
nth-century there have been Camaldolese nuns; at present there 
are five nunneries with 150 nuns, all belonging to the cenobitical 
branch of the order. The habit of the Camaldulians is white. 

See Helyot, Hist, des ordres religieux (1792) v. cc. 21-25; Max 
Heimbucher, Orden und Kongregationen (1896) i. § 29; and the art. 
" Camaldulenser " in Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon (2nd ed.), 
and Herzog, Realencyklopddie (3rd ed.). (E. C. B.) 

French dancer, of Spanish descent, was born in Brussels on the 
15th of April 1710. Her father, Ferdinand Joseph de Cupis, 
earned a scanty living as violinist and dancing-master, and from 
childhood she was trained for the stage. At ten years of age she 
was given lessons by Mile Francoise Prevost (1680-1741), then 
the first dancer at the Paris Opera, and at once obtained an 
engagement as premiere danseuse, first at Brussels and then at 
Rouen. Under her grandmother's family name of Camargo she 
made her Paris dibut in 1726, and at once became the rage. 
Every new fashion bore her name; her manner of doing her hair 
was copied by all at court; her shoemaker — she had a tiny foot — 
made his fortune. She had many titled adorers whom she nearly 
ruined by her extravagances, among others Louis de Bourbon, 
comte de Clermont. At his wish she retired from the stage from 
1736 to 1741. In her time she appeared in seventy-eight ballets 
or operas, always to the delight of the public. She was the first 
ballet-dancer to shorten the skirt to what afterwards became the 
regulation length. There is a charming portrait of her by 
Nicolas Lancret in the Wallace collection, London. 

CAMARGUE {Insula Camaria), a thinly-populated region of 
southern France contained wholly in the department of Bouches- 
du-Rhone, and comprising the delta of the Rhone. The 
Camargue is a marshy plain of alluvial formation enclosed 
between the two branches of the river, the Grand Rhone to the 
east and the Petit Rhone to the west. Its average elevation is 
from 6| to 8 ft. The Camargue has a coast-line some 30 m. in 
length and an area of 290 sq. m., of which about a quarter consists 
of cultivated and fertile land. This is in the north and on the 
banks of the rivers. The rest consists of rough pasture grazed by 
the black bulls and white horses of the region and by large flocks 
of sheep, or of marsh, stagnant water and waste land impregnated 
with salt. The region is inhabited by flocks of flamingoes, 
bustards, partridge, and by sea-birds of various kinds. The 
Etang de Vaccares, the largest of the numerous lagoons and 
pools, covers about 23 sq. m. ; it receives three main canals con- 
structed to drain off the minor lagoons. The Camargue is 
protected by dikes from the inundations both of the sea and of 
the rivers. Inlets in the sea-dike let in water for the purposes of 
the lagoon fisheries and the salt-pans; and the river- water is 
used for irrigation and for the submersion of vines. The 
climate is characterized by hard winters and scorching summers. 
Rain falls in torrents, but at considerable intervals. The mistral, 
blowing from the north and north-west, is the prevailing wind. 
The south-eastern portion of the Camargue is known as the He 
du Plan du Bourg. A secondary delta to the west of the Petit 
Rhone goes by the name of Petite Camargue. 

CAMARINA, an ancient city of Sicily, situated on the south 
coast, about 17 m. S.E. of Gela (Terranova). It was founded by 
Syracuse in 599 B.C., but destroyed by the mother city ih 552 for 
Attempting to assert its independence. Hippocrates of Gtela 

received its territory from Syracuse and restored the town in 492, 
but it was destroyed by Gelon in 484; the Geloans, however, 
founded it anew in 461. It seems to have been in general hostile 
to Syracuse, but, though an ally of Athens in 427, it gave some 
slight help to Syracuse in 415-413. It was destroyed by the 
Carthaginians in 405, restored by Timoleon in 339 after its 
abandonment by Dionysius's order, but in 258 fell into the 
hands of the Romans. Its complete destruction dates from 
a.d. 853. The site of the ancient city is among rapidly shifting 
sandhills, and the lack of stone in the neighbourhood has led to 
its buildings being used as a quarry even by the inhabitants of 
Terranova, so that nothing is now visible above ground but a 
small part of the wall of the temple of Athena and a few founda- 
tions of houses; portions of the city wall have been traced by 
excavation, and the necropolis has been carefully explored (see 
J. Schubring in Philologus, xxxii. 490; P. Orsi in Monumenti 
dei Lined, ix. 201, 1899; xiv. 756, 1904). To the north 
lay the lake to which the answer of the Delphic oracle referred, 
jui) Kivti Kanaptvav, when the citizens inquired as to the 
advisability of draining it. 

(1753-1824), French statesman, was born at Montpellier on the 
18th of October 1753. He was descended from a well-known 
family of the legal nobility (noblesse de la robe). He was designed 
for the magistracy of his province; and in 1771, when for a time 
the provincial parlement was suppressed, with the others, by the 
chancellor Maupeou, he refused to sit in the royal tribunal 
substituted for it. He continued, however, to study law with 
ardour, and in 1774 succeeded his father as councillor in the 
court of accounts and finances of his native town. Espousing 
the principles of the Revolution in 1789, he was commissioned 
by the noblesse of the province to draw up the cahier (statement of 
principles and grievances); and the senechausste of Montpellier 
elected him deputy to the states-general of Versailles; but the 
election was annulled on a technical point. Nevertheless in 
1792 the new department of Herault, in which Montpellier is 
situated, sent him as one of its deputies to the Convention 
which assembled and proclaimed the Republic in September 
1792. In the strife which soon broke out between the Girondins 
and the Jacobins he took no decided part, but occupied himself 
mainly with the legal and legislative work which went on almost 
without intermission even during the Terror. The action of 
Cambaceres at the time of the trial of Louis XVI. (December 
25, 1792-January 20, 1793) was characteristic of his habits of 
thought. At first he protested against the erection of the 
Convention into a tribunal in these words: " The people has 
chosen you to be legislators; it has not appointed you as judges." 
He also demanded that the king should have due facilities for his 
defence. Nevertheless, when the trial proceeded, he voted with 
the majority which declared Louis to be guilty, but recommended 
that the penalty should be postponed until the cessation of 
hostilities, and that the sentence should then be ratified by the 
Convention or by some other legislative body. It is therefore 
inexact to count him among the regicides, as was done by the 
royalists after 1815. Early in 1793 he became a member of the 
Committee of General Defence, but he did not take part in the 
work of its more famous successor, the Committee of Public 
Safety, until the close of the year 1794. In the meantime he had 
done much useful work, especially that of laying down, conjointly 
with Merlin of Douai, the principles on which the legislation of 
the revolutionary epoch should be codified. At the close of 1794 
he also used his tact and eloquence on behalf of the restoration of 
the surviving Girondins to the Convention, from which they had 
been driven by the coup d'Uat of the 31st of May 1793. In the 
course of the year 179s, as president of the Committee of Public 
Safety, and as responsible especially for foreign affairs, he was 
largely instrumental in bringing about peace with Spain. Never- 
theless, not being a regicide, he was not appointed to be one of 
the five Directors to whom the control of public • affairs was 
entrusted after the Coup d'ttat of Vendemiaire 1795; but, as 
before, his powers of judgment and of tactful debating soon 
carried him to the front in the council of Five Hundred. Th« 


8 1 

moderation of his views brought him into opposition to the 
Directors after the coup d'Uat of Fructidor (September 1797), 
and for a time he retired into private life. Owing, however, to 
the influence of Sieves, he became minister of justice in July 
1799. He gave a guarded support to Bonaparte and Sieves in 
their enterprise of overthrowing the Directory {coup d'Uat of 
Brumaire 1799). 

After a short interval Cambaceres was, by the constitution of 
December 1799, appointed second consul of France — a position 
which he owed largely to his vast legal knowledge and to the 
conviction which Sieyes entertained of his value as a mani- 
pulator of public assemblies. It is impossible here to describe in 
detail his relations to Napoleon, and the part which he played in 
the drawing up of the Civil Code, later on called the Code 
Napoleon. It must suffice to say that the skilful intervention of 
Cambaceres helped very materially to ensure to Napoleon the 
consulship for life (August 1, 1802); but the second consul is 
known to have disapproved of some of the events which followed, 
notably the execution of the due d'Enghien, the rupture with 
England, and the proclamation of the Empire (May 19, 1804). 
This last occurrence ended his title of second consul; it was 
replaced by that of arch-chancellor of the Empire. To him was 
decreed the presidence of the Senate in perpetuity. He also 
became a prince of the Empire and received in 1808 the title 
duke of Parma. Apart from the important part which he took in 
helping to co-ordinate and draft the Civil Code, Cambaceres did 
the state good service in many directions, notably by seeking to 
curb the impetuosity of the emperor, and to prevent enterprises 
so fatal as the intervention in Spanish affairs (1808) and the 
invasion of Russia (181 2) proved to be. At the close of the 
campaign of 1814 he shared with Joseph Bonaparte the responsi- 
bility for some of the actions which zealous Bonapartists have 
deemed injurious to the fortunes of the emperor. In 181 5, 
during the Hundred Days, he took up his duties reluctantly at 
the bidding of Napoleon; and after the second downfall of his 
master, he felt the brunt of royalist vengeance, being for a time 
exiled from France. A decree of 13th May 1818 restored him to 
his civil rights as a citizen of France; but the last six years of his 
life he spent in retirement. He was a member of the Academy 
till the 31st of March 1816, when a decree of exclusion was 
passed. In demeanour he was quiet, reserved and tactful, but 
when occasion called for it he proved himself a brilliant orator. 
He was a celebrated gourmet, and his dinners were utilized by 
Napoleon as a useful adjunct to the arts of statecraft. 

See A. Aubriet, Vie de Cambaceres (2nd ed., Paris, 1825). 

(J. Hl. R.) 

CAMBALUC, the name by which, under sundry modifications, 
the royal city of the great khan in China became known to Europe 
during the middle ages, that city being in fact the same that we 
now know as Peking. The word itself represents the Mongol 
Khan-Balik, " the city of the khan," or emperor, the title by 
which Peking continues, more or less, to be known to the Mongols 
and other northern Asiatics. 

A city occupying approximately the same site had been the 
capital of one of the principalities into which China was divided 
some centuries before the Christian era; and during the reigns 
of the two Tatar dynasties that immediately preceded the Mongols 
in northern China, viz. that of the Khitans, and of the Kin or 
" Golden " khans, it had been one of their royal residences. 
Under the names of Yenking, which it received from the Khitan, 
and of Chung-tu, which it had from the Kin, it holds a conspicuous 
place in the wars of Jenghiz Khan against the latter dynasty. 
He cap turedit in 1 21 s, but it was not till 1284 that it was adopted 
as the imperial residence in lieu of Karakorum in the Mongol 
steppes by his grandson Kublai. The latter selected a position 
a few hundred yards to the north-east of the old city of Chung-tu 
or Yenking, where he founded the new city of Ta-tu (" great 
capital "), called by the Mongols Taidu or Daitu, but also Khan- 
Balik; and from this time dates the use of the latter name as 
applied to this site. 

The new city formed a rectangle, enclosed by a colossal mud 
rampart, the longer sides of which ran north and south. These 

were each about 5^ English m.'in length, the shorter sides 3! m., 
so that the circuit was upwards of 18 m. The palace of the 
khan, with its gardens and lake, itself formed an inner enclosure 
fronting the south. There were eleven city gates, viz. three on 
the south side, always the formal front with the Tatars, and two 
on each of the other sides; and the streets ran wide and straight 
from gate to gate (except, of course, where interrupted by the 
palace walls), forming an oblong chess-board plan. 

Ta-tu continued to be the residence of the emperors till the 
fall of the Mongol power (1368). The native dynasty (Ming) 
which supplanted them established their residence at Nan-king 
(" South Court "), but this proved so inconvenient that Yunglo, 
the third sovereign of the dynasty, reoccupied Ta-tu, giving it 
then, for the first time, the name of Pe-king (" North Court "). 
This was the name in common use when the Jesuits entered 
China towards the end of the 16th century, and began to send 
home accurate information about China. But it is not so now; 
the names in ordinary use being King-cheng or King-tu, both 
signifying " capital." The restoration of Cambaluc was com- 
menced in 1409. The size of the city was diminished by the 
retrenchment of nearly one-third at the northern end, which 
brought the enceinte more nearly to a square form. And this 
constitutes the modern (so-called) " Tatar city " of Peking, the 
south front of which is identical with the south front of the city 
of Kublai. The walls were completed in 1437. Population 
gathered about the southern front, probably using the material of 
the old city of Yenking, and the excrescence so formed was, in 
1544, enclosed by a wall and called the " outer city." It is the 
same that is usually called by Europeans " the Chinese city." 
The ruins of the retrenched northern portion of Kublai's great 
rampart are still prominent along their whole extent, so that 
there is no room for question as to the position or true dimensions 
of the Cambaluc of the middle ages; and it is most probable, 
indeed it is almost a necessity, that the present palace stands on 
the lines of Kublai's palace. 

The city, under the name of Cambaluc, was constituted into an 
archiepiscopal see by Pope Clement V. in 1307, in favour of the 
missionary Franciscan John of Montecorvino (d. 1330); but 
though some successors were nominated it seems probable that 
no second metropolitan ever actually occupied the seat. 

Maps of the 16th and 17th centuries often show Cambaluc in 
an imaginary region to the north of China, a part of the miscon- 
ception that has prevailed regarding Cathay. The name is 
often in popular literature written Cambalu, and is by Longfellow 
accented in verse C&mb&lu. But this spelling originates in an 
accidental error in Ramusio's Italian version, which was the chief 
channel through which Marco Polo's book was popularly known. 
The original (French) MSS. all agree with the etymology in calling 
it Cambaluc, which should be accented C&mb&luc. 

CAMBAY, a native state of India, within the Gujarat division 
of Bombay. It has an area of 350 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 75,225, 
showing a decrease of 16% in the decade, due to the famine of 
1899-1900. The estimated gross revenue is £27,189; the tribute, 
£1460. In physical character Cambay is entirely an alluvial 
plain. As a separate state it dates only from about 1730, the 
time of the dismemberment of the Mogul empire. The present 
chiefs are descended from Momin Khan II., the last of the 
governors of Gujarat, who in 1742 murdered his brother-in-law, 
Nizam Khan, governor of Cambay, and established himself there. 

The town o"f Cambay had a population in 1901 of 31,780. It 
is supposed to be the Camanes of Ptolemy, and was formerly a 
very flourishing city, the seat of an extensive trade, and cele- 
brated for its manufactures of silk, chintz and gold stuffs; but 
owing principally to the gradually increasing difficulty of access 
by water, owing to the silting up of the gulf, its commerce has 
long since fallen away, and the town has become poor and 
dilapidated, The spring tides rise upwards of 30 ft., and in a 
channel usually so shallow form a serious danger to shipping. The 
trade is chiefly confined to the export of cotton. The town is 
celebrated for its manufacture of agate and carnelian ornaments, 
of reputation principally in China. The houses in many instances 
are built of stone (a circumstance which indicates the former 



wealth of the city, as the material had to be brought from a very 
considerable distance); and remains of a brick wall, 3 m. in 
circumference, which formerly surrounded the town, enclose four 
large reservoirs of good water and three bazaars. To the south- 
east there are very extensive ruins of subterranean temples and 
other buildings half-buried in the sand by which the ancient 
town was overwhelmed. These temples belong to the Jains, and 
contain two massive statues of their deities, the one black, the 
other white. The principal one, as the inscription intimates, 
is Pariswanath, or Parswanath, carved in the reign of the 
emperor Akbar; the black one has the date of 1651 inscribed. 
In 1780 Cambay was taken by the army of General Goddard, was 
restored to the Mahrattas in 1 783, and was afterwards ceded to the 
British by the peshwa under the treaty of 1803. It was provided 
with a railway in 1901 by the opening of the n m. required 
to connect with the gaekwar of Baroda's line through Petlad. 

CAMBAY, GULF OF, an inlet in the coast of India, in the 
Gujarat division of Bombay. It is about 80 m. in length, but 
is shallow and abounds in shoals and sandbanks. It is supposed 
that the depth of water in this gulf has been decreasing for more 
than two centuries past. The tides, which are very high, run 
into it with amazing velocity, but at low water the bottom is 
left nearly dry for some distance below the latitude of the town 
of Cambay. It is, however, an important inlet, being the channel 
by which the valuable produce of central Gujarat and the 
British districts of Ahmedabad and Broach is exported; but the 
railway from Bombay to Baroda and Ahmedabad, near Cambay, 
has for some time past been attracting the trade to itself. 

CAMBER (derived through the Fr. from Lat. camera, vault), 
in architecture, the upward curvature given to a beam and 
provided for the depression or sagging, which it is liable to, 
before it has settled down to its bearings. A " camber arch " is 
a slight rise given to the straight-arch to correct an apparent 
sinking in the centre (see Arch). 

CAMBERT, ROBERT (1628-1677), French operatic composer, 
was born in Paris in 1628. He was a pupil of Chambonnieres. 
In 1655, after he had obtained the post of organist at the church 
of St Honore, he married Marie du Moustier. He was musical 
superintendent to Queen Anne of Austria, mother of Louis XIV., 
and for a time held a post with the marquis de Sourdeac. His 
earlier works, the words of which were furnished by Pierre 
Perrin, continued to be performed before the court at Vincennes 
till the death of his patron Cardinal Mazarin. In 1669 Perrin 
received a patent for the founding of the Acadimie Nationale de 
musique, the germ of the Grand Opera, and Cambert had a share 
in the administration until both he and Perrin were discarded 
in the interests of Lulli. Displeased at his subsequent neglect, 
and jealous of the favour shown to Lulli, who was musical 
superintendent to the king, he went in 1673 to London, where 
soon after his arrival he was appointed master of the band to 
Charles II. One at least of his operas, Pomone, was performed in 
London under his direction, but it did not suit the popular taste, 
and he is supposed to have killed himself in London in 1677. 
His other principal operas were Ariadne ou les amours de Bacchus 
and Les Peines et les plaisirs de V amour. 

CAMBER WELL, a southern metropolitan borough of London, 
England, bounded N. by Southwark and Bermondsey, E. by 
Deptford and Lewisham, W. by Lambeth, and extending S. to 
the boundary of the county of London. Pop, (1901) 259,339. 
Area, 4480 acres. It appears in Domesday, but the derivation 
of the name is unknown. It includes the districts of Peckham 
and Nunhead, and Dulwich (q.v.) with its park, picture-gallery 
and schools. Camberwell is mainly residential, and there are 
many good houses, pleasantly situated in Dulwich and south- 
ward towards the high ground of Sydenham. Dulwich Park 
(72 acres) and Peckham Rye Common and Park (113 acres) are 
the largest of several public grounds, and Camberwell Green 
was once celebrated for its fairs. Immediately outside the 
southern boundary lies a well-known place of recreation, 
the Crystal Palace. Among institutions may be mentioned the 
Camberwell school of arts and crafts, Peckham Road. In 
Camberwell Road is Cambridge House, a university settlement. 

founded in 1897 and incorporating the earlier Trinity settlement. 
i The parliamentary borough of Camberwell has three divisions, 
North, Peckham and Dulwich, each returning one member; 
but is not wholly coincident with the municipal borough, the 
Dulwich division extending to include Penge, outside the 
county of London. The borough council consists of a mayor, 
ten aldermen, and sixty councillors. 

CAMBIASI, LUCA (1527-1585), Genoese painter, familiarly 
known as Lucchetto da Genova (his surname is written also 
Cambiaso or Cangiagio), was born at Moneglia in the Genoese 
state, the son of a painter named Giovanni Cambiasi. He took to 
drawing at a very early age, imitating his father, and developed 
great aptitude for foreshortening. At the age of fifteen he painted, 
along with his father, some subjects from Ovid's Metamorphoses 
on the front of a house in Genoa, and afterwards, in conjunction 
with Marcantonio Calvi, a ceiling showing great daring of 
execution in the Palazzo Doria. He also formed an early friend- 
ship with Giambattista Castello; both artists painted together, 
with so much similarity of style that their works could hardly 
be told apart; from this friend Cambiasi learned much in the 
way of perspective and architecture. Luchetto's best artistic 
period lasted for twelve years after his first successes; from that 
time he declined in power, though not at once in reputation, 
owing to the agitations and vexations brought upon him by a 
passion which he conceived for his sister-in-law. His wife having 
died, and the sister-in-law having taken charge of his house and 
children, he endeavoured to procure a papal dispensation for 
marrying her; but in this he was disappointed. In 1583 he 
accepted an invitation from Philip II. to continue in the Escorial 
a series of frescoes which had been begun by Castello, now 
deceased; and it is said that one principal reason for his closing 
with this offer was that he hoped to bring the royal influence to 
bear upon the pope, but in this again he failed. Worn out with 
his disquietudes, he died in the Escorial in the second year of his 
sojourn. Cambiasi had an ardent fancy, and was a bold designer 
in a Raphaelesque mode. His extreme facility astonished the 
Spanish painters; and it is said that Philip II., watching one day 
with pleasure the offhand zest with, which Luchetto was painting 
a head of a laughing child, was allowed the further surprise of 
seeing the laugh changed, by a touch or two upon the lips, into a 
weeping expression. The artist painted sometimes with a brush 
in each hand, and with a certainty equalling or transcending that 
even, of Tintoret. He made a vast number of drawings, and was 
also something of a sculptor, executing in this branch of art a 
figure of Faith. Altogether he ranks as one of the ablest artists 
of his day. Inpersonal character, notwithstanding his executive 
energy, he is reported to have been timid and diffident. His son 
Orazio became likewise a painter, studying under Luchetto. 

The best works of Cambiasi are to be seen in Genoa. In the 
church of S. Giorgio — the martyrdom of that saint; in the Palazzo 
Imperiali Terralba, a Genoese suburb — a fresco of the " Rape of the 
Sabines " ; in S. Maria da Carignano — a " Pieta," containing his own 
portrait and (according to tradition) that of his beloved sister-in- 
law. In the Escorial he executed several pictures; one is a Paradise 
on the vaulting of the church, with a multitude of figures. For this 
picture he received 12,000 ducats, probably the largest sum that had, 
up to that time, ever been given for a single work. 

CAMBODIA ' (called by the inhabitants Sroc Khmer and by the 
French Cambodge), a country of south-eastern Asia and a pro- 
tectorate of France, forming part of French Indo-China. 

Geography. — It is bounded N. by Siam and Laos, E. by 
Annam, S.E. andS. by Cochin-China, S.W. by the Gulf of Siam, 
and W. by Siam. Its area is estimated- at approximately 
65,000 sq. m.; its population at 1,500,000, of whom some 
three-quarters are Cambodians, the rest Chinese, Annamese, 
Chams, Malays, and aboriginal natives. The whole of Cambodia 
lies in the basin of the lower Mekong, which, entering this 
territory on the north, flows south for some distance, then inclines 
south-west as far as Pnom-penh, where it spreads into a delta and 
resumes a southerly course. The salient feature of Cambodian 
geography is the large lake Tonle-Sap, in a depression 68 m. long 
from south-east to north-west and 15m. wide. It is fed by several 
1 See also Indo-China, French. 



rivers and innumerable torrents, and at flood-time serves as a 
reservoir for the Mekong, with which it is connected by a channel 
some 70 m. long, known as the Bras du Lac and joining the river at 
Pnom-Penh. In June thewatersof theMekong,swollenby therains 
and the melting of the Tibetan snows, rise to a height of 40 to 45 
ft. and flow through the Bras du Lae towards the lake, which then 
covers an area of 770 sq. m., and like the river inundates the 
marshes and forests on its borders. During the dry season the 
current reverses and the depression empties so that the lake 
shrinks to an area of 100 sq. m., and its depth falls from 45-48 ft. 
to a maximum of 5 ft. Tonle-Sap probably represents the chief 
wealth of Cambodia. It supports a fishing population of over 
30,000, most of whom are Annamese; the fish, which are taken by 
means of large nets at the end of the inundation, are either dried 
or fermented for the production of the sauce known as nuoc-mam. 
The northern and western provinces of Cambodia which fall 
outside the densely populated zone of inundation are thinly 
peopled; they consist of plateaus, in many places thickly 
wooded and intersected by mountains, the highest of which does 
not exceed 5000 ft. The region to the east of the Mekong is 
traversed by spurs of the mountains of Annam and by affluents 
of the Mekong, the most important of these being the Se-khong 
and the Tonle-srepok, which unite to flow into the Mekong at 
Stung-treng. Small islands, inhabited by a fishing population, 
fringe the west coast. 

Climate, Fauna and Flora. — The climate of Cambodia, like 
that of Cochin China, which it closely resembles, varies with the 
monsoons. During the north-east monsoon, from the middle of 
October to the middle of April, dry weather prevails and the 
thermometer averages from 77 to 8o° F. During the south- 
west monsoon, from the middle of April to the middle of 
October, rain falls daily and the temperature varies between 
8 5 and 95 . The wild animals of Cambodia include the 
elephant, which is also domesticated, the rhinoceros, buffalo and 
some species of wild ox; also the tiger, panther, leopard and 
honey-bear. Wild boars, monkeys and rats abound and are the 
chief enemies of the cultivator. The crocodile is found in the 
Mekong, and there are many varieties of reptiles, some of them 
venomous. The horse of Cambodia is only from 1 1 to 1 2 hands in 
height, but is strong and capable of great endurance; the buffalo 
is the chief draught animal. Swine are reared in large numbers. 
Nux vomica, gamboge, caoutchouc, cardamoms, teak and other 
valuable woods and gums are among the natural products. 

People. — The Cambodians have a far more marked affinity 
with their Siamese than with their Annamese neighbours. The 
race is probably the result of a fusion of the Malay aborigines of 
Indo-China with the Aryan and Mongolian invaders of the 
country. The men are taller and more muscular than the 
Siamese and Annamese, while the women are small and inclined 
to stoutness. The face is flat and wide, the nose short, the mouth 
large and the eyes only slightly oblique. The skin is dark brown, 
the hair black and, while in childhood the head is shaved with 
the exception of a small tuft at the top, in later life it is dressed 
so as to resemble a brush. Both sexes wear the langouti or loin- 
cloth, which the men supplement with a short jacket, the women 
with a long scarf draped round the figure or with a long clinging 
robe. Morose, superstitious, and given to drinking and gambling, 
the Cambodians are at the same time clean, fairly intelligent, 
proud and courageous. The wife enjoys a respected position and 
divorce may be demanded by either party. Polygamy is almost 
confined to the richer classes. Though disinclined to work, the 
Cambodians make good hunters and woodsmen. Many of them 
live on the borders of the Mekong and the great lake, in huts 
built upon piles or floating rafts. The religion of Cambodia is 
Buddhism, and involves great respect towards the dead; the 
worship of spirits or local genii is also wide-spread, and Brahman- 
ism is still maintained at the court. Monks or bonzes are very 
numerous; they live by alms and in return they teach the 
young to read, and superintend coronations, marriages, funerals 
and the other ceremonials which play a large part in the lives of 
the Cambodians. As in the rest of Indo-China, there is no 
hereditary nobility, but there exist castes founded on blood- 

relationship — the members of the royal family within the fifth 
degree (the Brah-Vansa) those beyond the fifth degree (Brah- 
Van), and the Bakou, who, as descendants of the ancient Brah- 
mans, exercise certain official functions at the court. These 
castes, as well as the mandarins, who form a class by themselves, 
are exempt from tax or forced service. The mandarins are 
nominated by the king and their children have a position at court, 
and are generally chosen to fill the vacant posts in the admini- 
stration. Under the native regime the common people attached 
themselves to one or other of the mandarins, who in return 
granted them the protection of his influence. Under French rule, 
which has modified the old usages in many respects, local govern- 
ment of the Annamese type tends to supplant this feudal system. 
Slavery was abolished by a royal ordinance of 1897. 

Cambodian idiom bears a likeness to some of the aboriginal 
dialects of south Indo-China; it is agglutinate in character and 
rich in vowel-sounds. The king's language and the royal writing, 
and also religious words are, however, apparently of Aryan 
origin and akin to Pali. Cambodian writing is syllabic and com- 
plicated. The books (manuscripts) are generally formed of palm- 
leaves upon which the characters are traced by means of a style. 

Industry and Commerce. — Iron, worked by the tribe of the 
Kouis, is found in the mountainous region. The Cambodians 
show skill in working gold and silver; earthenware, bricks, mats, 
fans and silk and cotton fabrics, are also produced to some 
small extent, but fishing and the cultivation of rice and in a minor 
degree of tobacco, coffee, cotton, pepper, indigo, maize, tea and 
sugar are the only industries worthy of the name. Factories 
exist near Pnom-Penh for the shelling of cotton-seeds. The 
Cambodian is his own artificer and self-sufficing so far as his own 
needs are concerned. Rice, dried fish, beans, pepper and oxen 
are the chief elements in the export trade of the country, which 
is in the hands of Chinese. The native plays little or no part in 

Trade is carried on chiefly through Saigon in Cochin-China, 
Kampot, the only port of Cambodia, being accessible solely to 
coasting vessels. With the exception of the highway from 
Pnom-Penh (q.v.) the capital, to Kampot, the roads of Cambodia 
are not suited for vehicles. Pnom-Penh communicates regularly 
by the steamers of the " Messageries Fluviales " by way of the 
Mekong with Saigon. 

Administration. — At the head of the government is the king 
(raj). His successor is either nominated by himself, in which 
case he sometimes abdicates in his favour, or else elected by the 
five chief mandarins from among the Brah Vansa. The upayu- 
vraj (obbaioureach) or king who has abdicated, the heir-pre- 
sumptive (uparaj, obbareach) and the first princess of the blood 
are high dignitaries with their own retinues. The king is 
advised by a council of five ministers, the superior members of the 
class of mandarins; and the kingdom is divided into about 
fifty provinces administered by members of that body. France 
is represented by a resident superior, who presides over the 
ministerial council and is the real ruler of the country, and by 
residents exercising supervision in the districts into which the 
country is split up for the purposes of the French administration. 
In each residential district there is a council, composed of natives 
and presided over by the resident, which deliberates on questions 
affecting the district. The resident superior is assisted by the 
protectorate council, consisting of heads of French administrative 
departments (chief of the judicial service, of public works, &c ) 
and one native " notable," and the royal orders must receive its 
sanction before they can be executed. The control of foreign 
policy, public works, the customs and the exchequer are in 
French hands, while the management of police, the collection of 
the direct taxes and the administration of justice between 
natives remain with the native government. A French tribunal 
alone is competent to settle disputes where one of the parties is 
not a native. 

The following is a summary of the local budget of Cambodia 
for 1899 and 1904: — ■ Receipts. Expenditure. 

1899 • • £235,329 £188,654 

1904 . . 250,753 229,880 


CAMB0N, P. J. 

The chief sources of revenue are the direct taxes, including 
the poll-tax and the taxes on the products of the soil, which 
together amounted to £172,636 in 1904. The chief heads of 
expenditure are the civil list, comprising the personal allow- 
ance to the king and the royal family (£46,018 in 1904), 
public works (£39,593) and government house and residences 


History. — The Khmers, the ancient inhabitants of Cambodia, 
are conjectured to have been the offspring of a fusion between 
the autochthonous dwellers in the Indo-Chinese peninsula, now 
represented by the Kouis and other savage tribes, and an invading 
race from the plateaus of central Asia. As early as the 12th 
century B.C., Chinese chronicles, which are almost the only source 
for the history of Cambodia till the 5th century a.d., mention a 
region called Fou-nan, in later times appearing under the name of 
Tchin-la; embracing the basin of the Menam, it extended east- 
wards to the Mekong and may be considered approximately 
coextensive with the Khmer kingdom. Some centuries before 
the Christian era, immigrants from the east coast of India began to 
exert a powerful influence over Cambodia, into which they 
introduced Brahmanism and the Sanskrit language. This Hindu- 
izing process became more marked about the 5th century a.d., 
when, under S'rutavarman, the Khmers as a nation rose into 
prominence. The name Kambuja, whence the European form 
Cambodia, is derived from the Hindu Kambu, the name of the 
mythical founder of the Khmer race; it seems to have been 
officially adopted by the Khmers as the title of their country 
about this period. At the end of the 7th century the dynasty of 
S'rutavarman ceased to rule over the whole of Cambodia, which 
during the next century was divided into two portions ruled over 
by two sovereigns. Unity appears to have been re-established 
about the beginning of the 9th century, when with Jayavarman 
III. there begins a dynasty which embraces the zenith of Khmer 
greatness and the era during which the great Brahman monu- 
ments were built. The royal city of Angkor-Thorn (see Angkor) 
was completed under Yasovarman about a.d. 900. In the 
10th century Buddhism, which had existed for centuries in 
Cambodia, began to become powerful and to rival Brahmanism, 
the official religion. The construction of the temple of Angkor 
Vat dates probably from the first half of the 12th century, and 
appears to have been carried out under the direction of the 
Brahman Divakara, who enjoyed great influence under the 
monarchs of this period. The conquest of the rival kingdom of 
Champa, which embraced modern Cochin-China and southern 
Annam, and in the later 1 5th century was absorbed by Annam, 
may probably be placed at the end of the 12th century, in the 
reign of Jayavarman VIII., the last of the great kings. War was 
also carried on against the western neighbours of Cambodia, and 
the exhaustion consequent upon all these efforts seems to have 
been the immediate cause of the decadence which now set in. 
From the last decade of the 13th century there dates a valuable 
description of Tchin-la 1 written by a member of a Chinese 
embassy thereto. The same period probably also witnessed the 
liberation of the Thais or inhabitants of Siam from the yoke of 
the Khmers, to whom they had for long been subject, and the 
expulsion of the now declining race from the basin of the Menam. 
The royal chronicles of Cambodia, the historical veracity of 
which has often to be questioned, begin about the middle of the 
14th century, at which period the Thais assumed the offensive 
and were able repeatedly to capture and pillage Angkor-Thom. 
These aggressions were continued in the 15th century, in the 
course of which the capital was finally abandoned by the Khmer 
kings, the ruin of the country being hastened by internal revolts 
and by feuds between members of the royal family. At the end of 
the 1 6th century, Lovek, which had succeeded Angkor-Thom as 
capital, was itself abandoned to the conquerors. During that 
century, the Portuguese had established some influence in the 
country, whither they were followed by the Dutch, but after the 
middle of the 17th century, Europeans counted for little in 
Cambodia till the arrival of the French. At the beginning of the 

1 Translated by Abel Remusat, Nouveaux Melanges Asiatiques 

17 th century the Nguyen, rulers of southern Annam, began to 
encroach on the territory of Cochin-China, and in the course of 
that and the 18th century, Cambodia, governed by two kings 
supported respectively by Siam and Annam, became a field for 
the conflicts of its two powerful neighbours. At the end of the 
1 8th century the provinces of Battambang and Siem-reap were 
annexed by Siam. The rivalries of the two powers were con- 
cluded after a last and indecisive war by the treaty of 1 846, as a 
result of which Ang-Duong, the protege of Siam, was placed on 
the throne at the capital of Oudong, and the Annamese evacuated 
the country. In 1863, in order to counteract Siamese influence 
there, Doudart de Lagree was sent by Admiral la Grandiere to the 
court of King Norodom, the successor of Ang-Duong, and as a 
result of his efforts Cambodia placed itself under the protectorate 
of France. In 1866 Norodom transferred his capital to Pnom- 
penh. In 1867 a treaty between France and Siam was signed, 
whereby Siam renounced its right to tribute and recognized the 
French protectorate over Cambodia in return for the provinces of 
Battambang and Angkor, and the Laos territory as far as the 
Mekong. In 1884 another treaty was signed by the king, con- 
firming and extending French influence, and reducing the royal 
authority to a shadow, but in view of the discontent aroused by 
it, its provisions were not put in force till several years later. 
In 1904 the territory of Cambodia was increased by the addition 
to it of the Siamese provinces of Melupre and Bassac, and 
the maritime district of Krat, the latter of which, together 
with the province of Dansai, was in 1907 exchanged for the 
provinces of Battambang, Siem-reap and Sisophon. By the 
same treaty France renounced its sphere of influence on the 
right bank of the Mekong. In 1904 King Norodom was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Sisowath. 

See E. Aymonier, Le Cambodge (3 vols., Paris, 190O-1904); 
L. Moura, Le royaume de Cambodge (2 vols., Paris, 1883) ; A. Leclere, 
Les codes cambodgiens (2 vols., Paris, 1898), and other works on 
Cambodian law; Francis Gamier, Voyage a" exploration en Indo- 
Chine (Paris, 1873). 

CAMBON, PIERRE JOSEPH (1756-1820), French statesman, 
was the son of a wealthy cotton merchant at Montpellier. In 
1785 his father retired, leaving the direction of the business to 
Pierre and his two brothers, but in 1788 Pierre turned aside to 
politics, and was sent by his fellow-citizens as deputy suppliant 
to Versailles, where he was little more than a spectator. In 
January 1790 he returned to Montpellier, was elected a member 
of the municipality, was one of the founders of the Jacobin club 
in that city, and on the flight of Louis XVI. in 179 1, he drew up 
a petition to invite the Constituent Assembly to proclaim a 
republic, — the first in date of such petitions. Elected to the 
Legislative Assembly, Cambon became notedforhisindependence, 
his honesty and his ability in finance. He was the most active 
member of the committee of finance and was often charged to 
verify the state of the treasury. Nothing could be more false 
than the common opinion that as a financier his sole expedient 
was to multiply the emissions of assignats. His remarkable 
speech of the 24th of November 1791 is a convincing proof of his 
sagacity. In politics, while he held aloof from the clubs, and 
even from parties, he was an ardent defender of the new institu- 
tions. On the 9th of February 1792, he succeeded in having a 
law passed sequestrating the possessions of the emigres, and de- 
manded, though in vain, the deportation of refractory priests to 
French Guiana. He was the last president of the Legislative 
Assembly. Re-elected to the Convention, he opposed the pre- 
tensions of the Commune and the proposed grant of money to 
the municipality of Paris by the state. He denounced Marat's 
placards as inciting to murder, summoned Danton to give an 
account of his ministry, watched carefully over the furnishing 
of military supplies, and was a strong opponent of Dumouriez, 
in spite of the general's great. popularity. Cambon then incurred 
the hatred of Robespierre by proposing the suppression of the 
pay to the clergy, which would have meant the separation of 
church and state. His authority grew steadily. On the 15th of 
December 1792 he got the Convention to adopt a proclamation to 
all nations in favour of a universal republic. In the trial of 



Louis XVI. he voted for his death, without appeal or postpone- 
ment. He attempted to prevent the creation of the Revolutionary 
Tribunal, but when called to the first Committee of Public 
Safety he worked on it energetically to organize the armies. On 
the 3rd of February 1793 he had decreed the emission of 800 
millions of assignats, for the expenses of the war. His courageous 
intervention in favour of the Girondists on the 2nd of June 1793 
served Robespierre as a pretext to prevent his re-election to the 
Committee of Public Safety. But Cambon soon came to the 
conclusion that the security of France depended upon the triumph 
of the Mountain, and he did not hesitate to accord his active co- 
operation to the second committee. He took an active share 
in the various expedients of the government for stopping the 
depreciation of the assignats. He was responsible, especially, 
for the great operation known as the opening of the Grand Livre 
(August 24), which was designed to consolidate the public debt 
by cancelling the stock issued under various conditions prior to 
the Revolution, and issuing new stock of a uniform character, so 
that all fund-holders should hold stock of the revolutionary gov- 
ernment and thus be interested in its stability. Each fund-holder 
was to be entered in the Great Book, or register of the public 
debt, for the amount due to him every year. The result of this 
measure was a rise in the face value of the assignats from 27% 
to 48 % by the end of the year. In matters of finance Cambon 
was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictator- 
ship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary 
Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on 
the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being anti- 
revolutionary and an aristocrat. Cambon 's proud and vehement 
reply was the signal of the resistance to Robespierre's tyranny 
and the prelude to his fall. Cambon soon had reason to repent 
of that event, for he became one of those most violently attacked 
by the Thermidorian reaction. The royalist pamphlets and the 
journals of J. L. Tallien attacked him with fury as a former 
Montagnard. He was charged with being responsible for the dis- 
credit of the assignats, and even accused of malversations. On 
the 21st of February 1795 the project which he presented to with- 
draw four milliards of assignats from circulation, was rejected, 
and on the 3rd of April he was excluded from the committee of 
finance. On the 16th Germinal, Tallien procured a decree of ac- 
cusation against him, but he was already in safety, taking refuge 
probably at Lausanne. In any case he does not seem to have re- 
mained in Paris, although in the riot of the 1st Prairial some of the 
insurgents proclaimed him mayor. The amnesty of the 4th Bru- 
maire of the year IV. (the 5th of October 1795), permitted him to 
return to France, and he withdrew to his estate of Terral near 
Montpellier, where, during the White Terror, he had a narrow 
escape from an attempt upon his life. At first Cambon hoped to 
find in Bonaparte the saviour of the republic, but, deceived by 
the 1 8th Brumaire, he lived throughout the whole of the empire 
in peaceful seclusion. During the Hundred Days he was deputy 
for Herault in the chamber of representatives, and pronounced 
himself strongly against the return of the Bourbons, and for 
religious freedom. Under the Restoration the " amnesty " 
law of 1 816 condemned him as a regicide to exile, and he withdrew 
to Belgium, to St Jean-Ten-Noode, near Brussels, where he died 
ontheisthof February 1820. (R. A.*) 

See Bornarel, Cambon (Paris). 

CAMBON, PIERRE PAUL (1843- ), French diplomatist, 
was born on the 20th of January 1843. He was called to the 
Parisian bar, and became private secretary to Jules Ferry in the 
prefecture of the Seine. After ten years of administrative work 
in France as secretary of prefecture, and then as prefect succes- 
sively of the departments of Aube (1872), Doubs (1876), Nord 
(1877-1882), he exchanged into the diplomatic service, being 
nominated French minister plenipotentiary at Tunis. In 1886 
he became French ambassador to Madrid; was transferred to 
Constantinople in 1890, and in 1898 to London. He was decor- 
ated with the grand cross of the Legion of Honour, and became a 
member of the French Academy of Sciences. 

His brother, Jules Martin Cambon (1845- ), was called 
to the bar in 1866, served in the Franco-Prussian War and 

entered the civil service in 1871. He was prefect of the depart- 
ment of Nord (1882) and of the Rhone (1887-1891), and in 1891 
became governor-general of Algeria (see Guyot, L'muvre de 
M. Jules Cambon, Paris, 1897), where he had served in a minor 
position in 1874. He was nominated French ambassador at 
Washington in 1897, and in that capacity negotiated the pre- 
liminaries of peace on behalf of the Spanish government after the 
war with the United States. He was transferred in 1902 to 
Madrid, and in 1907 to Berlin. 

CAMBORNE, a market town in the Camborne parliamentary 
division of Cornwall, England, on the Great Western railway, 
13 m.E.N.E. of Penzance. Pop. of urban district (1901), 14,726. 
It lies on the northward slope of the central elevation of the 
county, and is in the neighbourhood of some of the most pro- 
ductive tin and copper mines. These and the manufacture of 
mining machinery employ most of the inhabitants. The parish 
church of St Martin contains several monuments and an ancient 
stone altar bearing a Latin inscription. There are science and art 
and mining schools, and practical mining is taught in South 
Condurrow mine, the school attracting a large number of students. 
It was developed from classes initiated in 1859 by the Miners' 
Association, and a three years' course of instruction is provided. 

Camborne (Cambron, Camron) formed a portion of the ex- 
tensive manor of Tehidy, which at the time of the Domesday 
Survey was held by the earl of Mortain and subsequently by the 
Dunstanville and Basset families. Its interests were economic- 
ally insignificant until the beginning of the 18th century when the 
rich deposits of copper and tin began to be vigorously worked at 
Dolcoath. It has been estimated that in 1788 this mine alone 
had produced ore worth £2,000,000 and in 1882 ore worth 
£5,500,000. As the result of the prosperity of this and other 
mines in the neighbourhood the population in i860 was double 
that of 1830, six times that of 1770 and fifteen times that of 
1660. Camborne was the scene of the scientific labours of 
Richard Trevithick (1771-1833), the engineer, born in the 
neighbouring parish of Illogan, and of William Bickford, the 
inventor of the safety-fuse, a native of Camborne. Three fairs on 
the feasts of St Martin and St Peter and on 2 5th of February were 
granted in 1708. The two former are still held, the last has been 
transferred to the 7th of March. A Tuesday market formed the 
subject of a judicial inquiry in 1768, but since the middle of the 
19th century it has been held on Saturdays. 

CAMBRAI, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of Nord, 37 m. S.S.E. of Lille on the 
main line of the Northern railway. Pop. (1906) 21,791. Cambrai 
is situated on the right and eastern bank of the Scheldt (arms of 
which traverse the west of the town) and at one extremity of the 
canal of St Quentin. The fortifications with which it was formerly 
surrounded have been for the most part demolished. The fosses 
have been filled up and the ramparts in part levelled to make 
way, as the suburbs extended, for avenues stretching out on all 
sides. The chief survivals from the demolition are the huge 
square citadel, which rises to the east of the town, the chateau de 
Selles, a good specimen of the military architecture of the 
13th century, and, among other gates, the Porte Notre-Dame, a 
stone and brick structure of the early 17th century. Handsome 
boulevards now skirt the town, the streets of which are clean and 
well-ordered, and a large public garden extends at the foot of the 
citadel, with a statue of Enguerrand de Monstrelet the chronicler. 
The former cathedral of Cambrai was destroyed after the Revolu- 
tion. The present cathedral of Notre-Dame is a church of the 
19th century built on the site of the old abbey church of St 
S6pulchre. Among other monuments it contains that of Fenelon, 
archbishop from 1695 to 171 5, by David d'Angers. The church of 
St Gery (18th century) contains, among other works of art, a 
marble rood-screen of Renaissance workmanship. The Place 
d'Armes, a large square in the centre of the town, is bordered on 
the north by a handsome h6tel de ville built in 1634 and rebuilt 
in the 19th century. The Tour St Martin is an old church-tower 
of the 15th and 1 8th centuries transformed into a belfry. The 
triple stone portal, which gave entrance to the former archi- 
episcopal palace, is a work of the Renaissance period. The 



present archbishop's palace, adjoining the cathedral, occupies 
the site of an old Benedictine convent. 

Cambrai is the seat of an archbishop and a sub-prefect, and has 
tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade- 
arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank 
of France. Its educational institutions include communal 
colleges, ecclesiastical seminaries, and schools of drawing and 
music. The library has over 40,000 volumes and there is a 
museum of antiquities and objects of art. The chief industry of 
Cambrai is the weaving of muslin {batiste) and other fine 
fabrics (see Cambric); wool-spinning and weaving, bleaching 
and dyeing, are carried on, as well as the manufacture of chicory, 
oil, soap, sausages and metal boxes. There are also large beet- 
sugar works and breweries and distilleries. Trade is in cattle, 
grain, coal, hops, seed, &c. 

Cambrai is the ancient Nervian town of Camaracum, which is 
mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary. In the 5th century it was 
the capital of the Frankish king Raguacharius. Fortified by 
Charlemagne, it was captured and pillaged by the Normans in> 
870, and unsuccessfully besieged by the Hungarians in 953. 
During the 10th, nth and 12th centuries it was the scene of 
frequent hostilities between the bishop and his supporters on the 
one hand and the citizens on the other; but the latter ultimately 
effected their independence. In 1478 Louis XL, who had 
obtained possession of the town on the death of Charles the Bold, 
duke of Burgundy, handed it over to the emperor, and in the 
16th century Charles V. caused it to be fortified with a strong 
citadel, for the erection of which the castles of Cavillers, Escau- 
doeuvres and many others were demolished. From that date to 
the peace of Nijmwegen, 1678, which assigned it to France, it 
frequently passed from hand to hand by capture or treaty. In 
1793 it was besieged in vain by the Austrians. The League of 
Cambrai is the name given to the alliance of Pope Julius II., 
Louis XII., Maximilian I., and Ferdinand the Catholic against 
the Venetians in 1508; and the peace of Cambrai, or as it is 
also called, the Ladies' Peace, was concluded in the town in 1529 
by Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis I., and Margaret of 
Austria, aunt of Charles V., in the name of these monarchs. The 
bishopric of Cambrai dates from the 5th century, and was raised 
in 1559 to the rank of an archbishopric, which continued till the 
Revolution, and has since been restored. The bishops received 
the title of count from the emperor Henry I. (919-936), and in 
1510 were raised to the dignity of dukes, their territory including 
the town itself and its territory, called Cambresis. 

See E. Bouly, Histoire de Cambrai et du Cambresis (Cambria, 

CAMBRIA, the Med. Lat. name for Wales. After the 
end of the western Roman empire the Cymric Celts held for a 
while both Wales and the land round the Solway (now Cumber- 
land and adjacent regions), and the former came to be called 
Cambria, the latter Cumbria, though the two names were some- 
times interchanged by early medieval writers. 

CAMBRIAN SYSTEM, in geology, the name now universally 
employed to designate the earliest group of Palaeozoic rocks 
which possesses a connected suite of fossils. The strata of this 
system rest upon the Pre-Cambrian, and are succeeded by the 
Ordovician system. Until the fourth decade of the 19th century 
all stratified rocks older than the Carboniferous had been grouped 
by geologists into a huge and indefinite " Transition Series." In 
1 83 1 Adam Sedgwick and Sir Roderick I. Murchison began the 
herculean task of studying and sub-dividing this series of rocks as 
it occurs in Wales and the bordering counties of England. 
Sedgwick attacked the problem in the Snowdon district, where 
the rocks are highly altered and displaced and where fossils are 
comparatively difficult to obtain; Murchison, on the other hand, 
began to work at the upper end of the series where the strati- 
graphy is simple and the fossils are abundant. Murchison 
naturally 4nade the most of the fossils collected, and was soon able 
to show that the transition series could be recognized by them, 
just as younger formations had fossils peculiar to themselves; as 
he zealously worked on he followed the fossiliferous rocks further 
afield and continually lower in the series. This fossil-bearing I 

set of strata he first styled the " fossiliferous greywacke series," 
changing it in 1835^0 " Silurian system." 

In the same year Sedgwick introduced the name " Cambrian 
series " for the older and lower members. Murchison published his 
Silurian system in 1839, wherein he recognized the Cambrian to 
include the barren slates and grits of Harlech, Llanberis and the 
Long Mynd. So far, the two workers had been in agreement; 
but in his presidential address to the Geological Society of London 
in 1842 Murchison stated his opinion that the Cambrian contained 
no fossils, that differed from those of the Lower Silurian. Where- 
upon Sedgwick undertook a re-examination of the Welsh rocks 
with the assistance of J. W. Salter, the palaeontologist; and in 
1852 he included the Llandeilo and Bala beds (Silurian) in the 
Upper Cambrian. Two years later Murchison brought out his 
Siluria, in which he treated the Cambrian system as a mere 
local fades of the Silurian system, and he included in the latter, 
under J. Barrande's term " Primordial zone," all the lower rocks, 
although they had a distinctive fauna. 

Meanwhile in Europe and America fossils were being collected 
from similar rocks which were classed as Silurian, and the use of 
" Cambrian " was almost discarded, because, following Murchison, 
it was taken to apply only to a group of rocks without a charac- 
teristic fauna and therefore impossible to recognize. Most of 
the Cambrian rocks were coloured as Silurian on the British 
official geological maps. 

Nevertheless, from 1851 to 1855, Sedgwick, in his writings on 
the British palaeozoic deposits, insisted on the independence of 
the Cambrian system, and though Murchison had pushed his 
Silurian system downward in the series of rocks, Sedgwick 
adhered to the original grouping of his Cambrian system, and 
even proposed to limit the Silurian to the Ludlow and Wenlock 
beds with the May Hill Sandstone at the base. This attitude he 
maintained until the year of his death (1873), when there appeared 
his introduction to Salter's Catalogue of Cambrian and Silurian- 

It is not to be supposed that one of these great geologists was 
necessarily in the wrong; each had right on his side. It was 
left for the subsequent labours of Salter and H. Hicks to prove 
that the rocks below the undoubted lower Silurian of Murchison 
did indeed possess a characteristic fauna, and their work was con- 
firmed by researches going on in other countries. To-day the 
recognition of the earliest fossil-bearing rocks, below the Llan- 
deilo formation of Murchison, as belonging to the Cambrian 
system, and the threefold subdivision of the system according to 
palaeontological evidence, may be regarded as firmly established. 

It should be noted that A. de Lapparent classifies the Cambrian 
as the lowest stage in the Silurian, the middle and upper stages 
being Ordovician and Gothlandian. E. Renevier proposed to use 
Silurique to cover the same period with the Cambrian as the 
lowest series, but these differences of treatment are merely 
nominal. Jules Marcou and others have used Taconic (Taconian) 
as the equivalent of Cambrian, and C.Lapworth proposed to apply 
the same term to the lowest sub-division only; he had also used 
" Annelidian " in the same sense. These names are of historical 
interest alone. 

Cambrian Rocks. — The lithological characters of the Cambrian 
rocks possess a remarkable uniformity in all quarters of the 
globe. Muds, sands, grits and conglomerates are the predominant 
types. In Scotland, North America and Canada important 
deposits of limestone occur and subordinate limestones are 
found in the Cambrian of central Europe. 

In some regions, notably in the Baltic province and in parts of 
the United States, the rocks still retain their original horizon- 
tality of deposition, the muds are scarcely indurated and the 
sands are still incoherent; but in most parts of the world they 
bear abundant evidence of the many movements and stresses to 
which they have been exposed through so enormous a period of 
time. Thus, we find them more frequently, folded, tilted and 
cleaved ; the muds have become shales, slates, phyllites or 
schists, the grey and red sands and conglomerates have become 
quartzites and greywackes, while the limestones are very gener- 
ally dolomitized. In the Cambrian limestones, as in their more 



recent analogues, layers and nodules of chert and phosphatized 
material are not wanting. 

Igneous rocks are not extensively developed; in Wales they 
form an important feature and occur in considerable thickness; 

Distribution of 

Cambrian Rocks 

wF&^ w^0$ 

Areas in which marine deposits are known. 

Areas gained by the Sea between the beginning 

and dose of the Period. 

1 \Unknown. The broken lines indicate the possible 

1 \distribution of Land and Sen, 


alter Ds Lapp&rent 

Emery Valker 5C. 

they are represented by lavas of olivine-diabase and by con- 
temporaneous tuffs which are traversed by later granite and 
quartz felsite. In the Cambrian of Brittany there are acid 
lavas and tuffs. Quartz porphyry, diabase and diorite appear 
in the Ardennes. In Bohemia, North America and Canada 
igneous rocks have been observed. 

In China, on the Yang-tse river, a thick deposit has been found 
full of boulders of diverse kinds of rock, striated in the manner 
that is typical of glacial action. A similar deposit occurs in the 
Gaisa beds near the Varanger Fjord in Norway. These forma- 
tions lie at the base of the lowest Cambrian strata and may 
possibly be included in the pre- Cambrian, though in Norway 
they are clearly resting upon a striated floor of crystalline rocks. 

Cambrian Life. — In a general survey of the life of this period, 
as it is revealed by the fossils, three outstanding facts are ap- 
parent: (1) the great divergence between the Cambrian fauna 
and that of the present day; (2) the Cambrian life assemblage 
differs in no marked manner from that of the succeeding Ordovi- 
cian and Silurian periods; there is a certain family likeness 
which unites all of them; (3) the extraordinary complexity and 
diversity not only in the assemblage as a whole but within 
certain limited groups of organisms. Although in the Cambrian 
strata we have the oldest known fossiliferous rocks — if we leave 
out of account the very few and very obscure organic remains 
hitherto recorded from the pre-Cambrian — yet we appear to 
enter suddenly into the presence of a world richly peopled with a 
suite of organisms already far advanced in differentiation; the 
Cambrian fauna seems to be as far removed from what must 
have been the first forms of life, as the living forms of this remote 
period are distant from the creatures of to-day. 

With the exception of the vertebrates, every one of the great 
classes of animals is represented in Cambrian rocks. Simple 
protozoa appear in the form of Radiolaria; Lithistid sponges 
are represented by such forms as Archaeoscyphia, Hexactinellid 
sponges by Protospongia; Graptolites {Diciyograptus (Diclyo- 
nemo)) come on in the higher parts of the system. Medusa-like 
casts have been found in the lower Cambrian of Scandinavia 
(Medusina) and in the mid-Cambrian of Alabama (Brooksella) . 
Corals, Archaeocyathus, Spirocyathus, &c, lived in the Cambrian 
seas along with starfishes (Palaeasterina) , Cystideans, Protocys- 
tites, Trochocystites and possibly Crinoids, Dendrocrinus. An- 
nelids left their traces in burrows and casts on the sea-floor 
(Arenicolites, Cruziana, Scolithus, &c). Crustacea occupied an 
extremely prominent place; there were Phyllocarids such as 
Hymenocaris, and ' Ostracods like Entomidella; but by far the 
most important in numbers and development were the Trilo- 

bites, now extinct, but in palaeozoic times so abundant. In the 
Cambrian period trilobites had already attained their maximum 
size; some species of Paradoxides were nearly 2 ft. long, but in 
company with these monsters were tiny forms like Agnostus and 
Microdiscus. Many of the Cambrian trilobites appear to have 
been blind, and they had not at this period developed that 
flexibility in the carapace that some forms acquired later. 

Brachiopods were fairly abundant, particularly the non- 
articulated forms {Obolus, Lingulella, Acrotreta, Discinopsis, 
&c); amongst the articulate genera are Kutorgina, Orthis, 
Khynchonella. It is a striking fact that certain of these non- 
articulate "lamp-shells" are familiar inhabitants of our present 
seas. Each of the principal groups of true mollusca was repre- 
sented: Pelecypods (Modioloides); Gasteropods (Scenella, 
Pleurotomaria, Trochonema) ; Pteropods (Hyolithellus, Hyo- 
lithes, S alter ella); Cephalopods {Orthoceras, Cystoceras) . Of 
land plants no traces have yet been discovered. Certain 
markings on slates and sandstones, such as the " fucoids " of 
Scandinavia and Scotland, the Phycoides of the Fichtelgebirge, 
Eophyton and other seaweed-like impressions, may indeed be 
the casts of fucoid plants; but it is by no means sure that 
many of them are not mere inorganic imitative markings or the 
tracks or casts of worms. Oldhamia, a delicate branching body, 
abundant in the Cambrian of the south-east of Ireland, is probably 
a calcareous alga, but its precise nature has not been satisfactorily 

Cambrian Stratigraphy. — Wherever the Cambrian strata have 
been carefully studied it has now been found possible and con- 
venient to arrange them into three series, each of which is charac- 
terized by a distinctive genus of trilobite. Thus we have a 
Lower Cambrian with Olenellus, a middle series with Paradoxides 
and an Upper Cambrian with Olenus. It is true that these 
fossils are not invariably present in every occurrence of Cambrian 
strata, but this fact notwithstanding, the threefold division holds 
with sufficient constancy. An uppermost series lies above the 
Olenus fauna in some areas; it is represented by the Tremadoc 
beds in Britain or by the Dictyonema beds or Euloma-Niobe 
fauna elsewhere. Three regions deserve special attention: (1) 
Great Britain, the area in which the Cambrian was first differ- 
entiated from the old " Transition Series "; (2) North America, 
on account of the wide-spread occurrence of the rocks and the 
abundance and perfection of the fossils; and (3) Bohemia, 
made classic by the great labours of J. Barrande. 

Great Britain and Ireland. — The table on p. 88 contains the names 
that have been applied to the subdivisions of the Cambrian strata 
in the areas of outcrop in Wales a nd England ; at the same time it 
indicates approximately their relative position in the system. 

In Scotland the upper and middle series are represented by a 
thick mass of limestone and dolomite, the Durness limestone 
(1500 ft.). In the lower series are, in descending order, the " Ser- 
pulite grits " or " Salterella beds," the " Fucoid beds " and the 
" Eriboll quartzite," which is divided into an upper " Pipe rock " 
and lower " Basal quartzite." 

The Cambrian rocks of Ireland, a great series of purple and green 
shales, slates and grits with beds of quartzite, have not yet yielded 
sufficient fossil evidence to permit of a correlation with the Welsh 
rocks, and possibly some parts of the series may be transferred in 
the future to the overlying Ordovician. 

North America. — On the North American continent, as in Europe, 
the Cambrian system is divisible into three series: (1) the lower 
or " Georgiaa," with Olenellus fauna; (2) the middle or " Acadian," 
with Paradoxides or Dikelocephalus fauna; (3) the upper or " Pots- 
dam," with Olenus fauna (with Saratogan or St Croix as synonyms 
for Potsdam). The lower division appears on the Newfoundland 
and Labrador coasts, and is traceable thence, in a great belt south- 
west of those points, through Maine and the Hudson-Champlain 
valley into Alabama, a distance of some 2000 m.; and the rocks 
are brought up again on the western uplift, in Nevada, Idaho, Utah, 
western Montana and British Columbia. The middle division covers 
approximately the same region as the lower one, and in addition 
it is found in the states of Texas, Oklahoma, and Arizona, in 
western Montana, and possibly in western Wisconsin. The lower 
division, in addition to covering the areas already indicated, spreads 
over the interior of the United States. 

Bohemia. — The Cambrian rocks of^this country are now recognized 
by J. F. Pompeskj to comprise the Paradoxidian and Olenelledian 
groups. They were made famous through the researches of Barrande. 
The Cambrian system is covered by his stages " B " and ' C " ; the 



former a barren series of conglomerates and quartzites, the latter 
a series of grey and green fissile shales 1200 ft. thick with sandstones, 
greywackes and conglomerates. 

Scandinavia. — Here the Cambrian system is only distinguished 
clearly on the eastern side, where the three subdivisions are found 
in a thin series of strata (400 ft.), in which black concretion-bearing 

North Wales. 

South Wales. 

Midland and West of England. 


Malvern Hills. 


Upper Cambrian 
Olenus fauna 

Tremadoc slates 

Tremadoc beds 

Shineton shales 

Bronsil shales, 

Upper Stocking- 


and shales with 

grey (Niobe 

ford shales 




(Merivale shales) 

Lingula flags 

Lingula flags 

Malvern black 
shales (White- 

(1) Dolgellybeds 

(2) Ff est i niog 

Middle Stocking- 


ford shales, 
(Oldbury shales) 

(3) Maentwrog 


Middle Cam- 

Menevian beds 

Menevian beds 

brian, Paradox- 

ides fauna 

Solva group 

Comley or Holly- 

Hollybush sand- 

Lower Stocking- 

bush sandstone 


ford shales 

with upper 

(Purley shales) 

Comley lime- 


Lower Cambrian, 

Harlech grits and 

Caerfai group 

Lower Comley 

Hollybush sand- 

Upper Hartshill 

Olenellus fauna 

Llanberis slates 

Wrekin quartzite 

stone with Mal- 
vern quartzite 
and conglomer- 
ate at the base 

quartzite. Hyo- shales and 

Middle arid lower 
Hartshill quart- 
zite and the 
quartzite of the 

Lickey Hills 

shales play an important part. Limestones and shales with the 
Euloma-Niobe fauna come at the top. The upper series {Olenus) 
has been minutely zoned by W. C. Brogger, S. A. Tullberg and J. C. 
Moberg. In the middle series (Paradoxides) three thin limestone 
bands have been distinguished, the Fragmenten-Kalk, the Exulans- 
Kalk and the Andrarums-Kalk. 

On the Norwegian side the Cambrian is perhaps represented by 
the Roros schists which lie at the base of a great series of crystal- 
line schists, the probable equivalent of Ordovician and Silurian 

Baltic Province. — The Cambrian rocks in this region are nearly all 
soft sediments, some 600 ft. thick; they reach from the Guff of 
Finland towards Lake Ladoga. At the base is the so-called " blue 
clay " (really greenish) with ferruginous sandstones and with a 
fucoidal sandstone at its summit. This division is the equivalent 
of the Lower Cambrian. Above the fucoidal sandstone an im- 
portant break appears in the system, for the Paradoxides and Olenus 
divisions are absent. The upper members are the " Ungulite grit " 
and about 20 ft. of Dictyonema shale. Cambrian rocks have been 
traced into Siberia (lat. 71 °) and on the island of Vaigatch. 

Central Europe. — Besides the Bohemian region previously men- 
tioned, Cambrian rocks are present in Belgium and the north of 
France, in Spain and the Thiiringer Wald. In the Ardennes the 
system is represented by grits and sandstones, shales, slates and 
quartz schists, and includes also whet slates and some igneous rocks. 
A. Dumont has arranged the whole series {Terrain ardennais) into 
three systems, an upper " Salmien," a middle " Revinien " and a 
lower " Devillien," but J. Gosselet has subsequently proposed to 
unite the two lower groups in one. 

France. — -In northern France Cambrian rocks, mostly purple 
conglomerates and red shales, rest with apparent unconformability 
upon pre-Cambrian strata in Brittany, Normandy and northern 
Poitou. In the Rennes basin limestones — often dolomitic — are 
associated with quartzites and conglomerates; silicious limestones 
also occur in the Sarthe region. Farther south, around the old 
lands of Languedoc, equivalents of the two upper divisions of the 
Cambrian have been recorded ; and the uppermost members of the 
system appear in Herault. Patches of Cambrian rocks are found 
in the Pyrenees. 

In Spain slates and quartzites, the slates of Rivadeo, more than 
9000 ft. thick, are followed by the middle Cambrian beds of La Vega, 
thick quar^ites with limestone, slates and iron ores. Cambrian 
rocks occur also in the provinces of Seville and Ciudad-Real. Upper 
Cambrian strata have been found in upper Alemtejo in Portugal. 

In Russian Poland is a series of conglomerates, quartzites and 
shales; some of the beds yield a Paradoxides fauna. 

In the Thiiringer Wald are certain strata, presumably Cambrian 
since the uppermost beds contain the Euloma-Niobe fauna. 

Sardinia contains both middle and upper Cambrian. The Cam- 
brian system is represented in the Salt Range of India by the Neo- 
bolus or Khussack beds, which may possibly belong to the middle 
subdivision. The same group is probably represented in Corea 

and the Liao-tung by 
the thick " Sinisian " 
formation of F. von 

In South America 
upper Cambrian rocks 
have been recorded from 
north Argentina. 

The Lower Cambrian 
has been found at vari- 
ous places ,in South 
Australia; and in Tas- 
mania a thick series of 
strata appears to be in 
part at least of Upper 
Cambrian age. 

General Physical 
Conditions in the Cam- 
brian Period. — The 
Cambrian rocks previ- 
ously described are all 
such as would result 
from deposition, in 
comparatively shallow 
seas, of the products 
of degradation of land 
surfaces by the ordinary 
agents of denudation. 
Evidences of shallow 
water conditions are 
abundant; very fre- 
quently on the bedding 
surfaces of sandstones 
and other rocks we find cracks made by the sun's heat and 
pittings caused by the showers that fell from the Cambrian sky, 
and these records of the weather of this remote period are pre- 
served as sharply and clearly as those made only to-day on our 
tidal reaches. Ripple marks and current bedding further point, to 
the shallowness of the water at the places where the rocks were 

No Cambrian rocks are such as would be formed in the abysses 
of the sea— although the absence of well-developed eyes in the 
trilobites has led some to assume that this condition was an 
indication that the creatures lived in abyssal depths. 

At the close of the pre-Cambrian, many of the deposits of 
that period must have been elevated into regions of fairly high 
ground; this we may assume from the nature of the Cambrian 
deposits which are mainly the product of the denudation of such 
ground. Over the land areas thus formed, the seas in Cambrian 
time gradually spread, laying down first the series known as 
Lower Cambrian, then by further encroachment on the land the 
wider spread Upper Cambrian deposits — in Europe, the middle 
series is the most extensive. Consequently, Cambrian strata are 
usually unconformable on older rocks. 

During the general advance of the sea, local warpings of the 
crust may have given rise to shallow lagoon or inland-lake con- 
ditions. The common occurrence of red strata has been cited in 
support of this view. 

Compared with some other periods, the Cambrian was free 
from extensive volcanic disturbances, but in Wales and in 
Brittany the earlier portions of this period were marked by 
voluminous outpourings; a condition that was feebly reflected 
in central and southern Europe. 

No definite conclusions can be drawn from the fossils as to the 
climatic peculiarities of the earth in Cambrian times. The red 
rocks may in some cases suggest desert conditions; and there is 
good reason to suppose that in what are now Norway and China 
a glacial cold prevailed early in the period. 

Considerable variations occur in the thickness of Cambrian 
deposits, which may generally be explained by the greater 



rapidity of deposition in some areas than in others. Nothing 
could be more striking than the difference between the thick- 
nesses in western and eastern Europe; in Brittany the deposits 
are over 24,000 ft. thick, in Wales at least 12,000 ft., in western 
England they are only 3000 ft., and in northern Scotland 2000 ft., 
while no farther east than Scandinavia the complete Cambrian 
succession is only about 400 ft. thick. Again, in North America, 
the greatest thicknesses are found along the mountainous regions 
on the west and on the east — reaching 12,000 ft. in the latter 
and probably nearly 40,000 ft. in the former (in British 
Columbia) — while over the interior of the continent it is seldom 
more than 1000 ft. thick. 

Any attempt to picture the geographical conditions of the 
Cambrian period must of necessity be very imperfect. It was 
pointed out by Barrande that early in Palaeozoic Europe there 
appeared two marine provinces— a northern one extending from 
Russia to the British Isles through Scandinavia and northern 
Germany, and a southern one comprising France, Bohemia, the 
Iberian peninsula and Sardinia. It is assumed that some kind 
of land barrier separated these two provinces. Further, there is 
a marked likeness between the Cambrian of western Europe and 
eastern America; many fossils of this period are common to 
Britain, Sweden and eastern Canada; therefore it is likely that a 
north Atlantic basin existed. Prof. Kayser suggests thaf there 
was also a Pacific basin more extensive than at present; this is 
borne out by the similarity between the Cambrian faunas of 
China, Siberia and Argentina. The same author postulates an 
Arctic continent, bordering upon northern Europe, Greenland 
and North America; an African-Brazilian continent across the 
present south Atlantic, and a marine communication between 
Australia and India, where the faunas have much in common. 
References. — The literature devoted to the Cambrian period 
is very voluminous, important contributions having been made 
by A. Sedgwick, Sir R. I. Murchison, H. Hicks, C. Lapworth, T. 
Groom, J. W. Salter, J. E. Marr, C. D. Walcott, G. F. Matthew, 
E. Emmons, E. Billings, J. Barrande, F. Schmidt, W. C. Brogger, 
5, A. Tullberg, S. L. Torngrist, G. Linnarsson and many others. 
A good general account of the period will be found in Sir A. Geikie's 
Text-Book of Geology, vol. ii. 4th ed. 1903 (with references), and 
from an American point of view, in T. C. Chamberlin and R. D. 
Salisbury's Geology, vol. ii., 1906 (references to American sources). 
See also J. E. Marr, The Classification of the Cambrian and Silurian 
Rocks,^ 1883 (with bibliography up to the year of publication); 
A. Geikie Q. J. Geol. Soc, 1891, xlvii., Ann. address, p. 90; F. Freeh, 
" Die geographische Verbrcitung und Entwickelung des Cambrium," 
Compte Rendu. Congres Geol. Internat. 18 Q7, St-Petersbourg (1899); 
Geological Literature added to the Geological Society's Library, pub- 
lished annually since 1893. (J- A. H.) 

CAMBRIC, a word derived from Kameryk or Kamerijk, the 
Flemish name of Cambrai, a town in the department of Nord, 
France, where the cloth of this name is said to have been first 
made. It was originally made of fine linen. There is a record 
of a privy purse expenditure in 1 530 for cambric for Henry VIII. 's 
shirts. Cambric has been used for many years in the manufacture 
of handkerchiefs, collars, cuffs, and for fine underclothing; also 
for the best shrouds, and for fine baby linen. The yarns for 
this cloth are of very fine quality, and the number of threads 
and picks often reaches and sometimes exceeds 120 per inch. 
Embroidery cambric is a fine linen used for embroidery. Batiste, 
said to be called after Baptiste, a linen-weaver of Cambrai, is a 
kind of cambric frequently dyed or printed. All these fabrics are 
largely copied in cheaper materials, mixtures of tow and cotton, 
and in many cases cotton alone, taking the place of the original 
flax line yarns. 

and early Plantagenet kings of England the earldom of Cam- 
bridge was united with that of Huntingdon, which was held 
among others by David I., king of Scotland, as the husband of 
earl Waltheof's daughter, Matilda. As a separate dignity the 
earldom dates from about 1340, when William V., count (after- 
wards duke) of Juliers, was created earl of Cambridge by King 
Edward III.; and in 1362 (the year after William's death) 
Edward created his own son, Edmund of Langley, earl of Cam- 
bridge, the title being afterwards merged in that of duke of York, 
which was bestowed upon Edmund in 13S5. Edmund's elder 

son, Edward, earl of Rutland, who succeeded his father as duke 
of York and earl of Cambridge in 1402; appears to have resigned 
the latter dignity in or before 1414, as in this year his younger 
brother, Richard, was made earl of Cambridge. In the following 
year Richard was executed for plotting against King Henry V., 
and his title was forfeited, but it was restored to his son, Richard, 
who in 141 5 became duke of York in succession to his uncle 
Edward. Subsidiary to the dukedom of York the title was held 
by Richard, and after his death in 1460 by his son Edward, 
afterwards King Edward IV., becoming extinct on the fall of the 
Yorkist dynasty. 

In 1619 King James I., anxious to bestow an English title upon 
James Hamilton, 2nd marquess of Hamilton (d. 1625), created 
him earl of Cambridge, a title which came to his son and successor 
James, 3rd marquess and first duke of Hamilton (d. 1649). In 
1651 when William, 2nd duke of Hamilton, died, his English title 
became extinct. 

Again bestowed upon a member of the royal house, the title of 
earl of Cambridge was granted in 1659 by Charles II. to his 
brother Henry, duke of Gloucester, only to become extinct on 
Henry's death in the following year. In 1661 Charles, the infant 
son of James, duke of York, afterwards King James II., was 
designated as marquess and duke of Cambridge, but the child 
died before the necessary formalities were completed. However, 
two of James's sons, James (d. 1667) and Edgar (d. 1671), were 
actually created in succession dukes of Cambridge, but both died 
in childhood. After the passing of the Act of Settlement in 1701 
it was proposed to grant an English title to George Augustus, 
electoral prince of Hanover, who, after his grandmother, the 
electress Sophia, and his father, the elector George Louis, was 
heir to the throne of England; and to give effect to this proposal 
George Augustus was created marquess and duke of Cambridge 
in November 1706. The title lapsed when he became king of 
Great Britain and Ireland in 1727, but it was revived in 1801 in 
favour of Adolphus Frederick, the seventh son of George III. He 
and his son are dealt with below. 

Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge (1774-1850), was 
born in London on the 24th of February 1774. Having studied 
at the university of Gottingen, Adolphus Frederick served in the 
Hanoverian and British armies, and, in November 1801, was 
created earl of Tipperary and duke of Cambridge, becoming a 
member of the privy council in the following year. The duke is 
chiefly known for his connexion with Hanover. In 1813, on the 
conclusion of the war, the electorate of Hanover was raised to 
the rank of a kingdom, and in the following year the duke was 
appointed viceroy. He held this position until the separation of 
Great Britain and Hanover in 1837, and displaying tact and 
moderation, appears to have ruled the country with great success 
during a difficult period. Returning to England the duke became 
very popular, and was active in supporting many learned and 
benevolent societies. He died in London on the 8th of July 1850. 
In 1818 he married Augusta (1797-1889), daughter of Frederick, 
landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. He left three children: his successor, 
George; Augusta Caroline (b. 1822), who married Frederick 
William, grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; and Mary Adelaide 
(1833-1897), who married Francis, duke of Teck. 

George William Frederick Charles, duke of Cam- 
bridge (1819-1904), was born at Hanover on the 26th of 
March 1819. He was thus about two months older than his 
cousin,. Queen Victoria, and was for that period in the line of 
succession to the British throne. He was educated at Hanover 
by the Rev. J. R. Wood, a canon of Worcester. In November 
1837, after he had served for a short time in the Hanoverian 
army, the rank of colonel in the British army was conferred upon 
him, and he was attached to the staff at Gibraltar from October 
1838 to April 1839. After serving in Ireland with the 12th 
Royal Lancers, he was appointed in April 1842 colonel of the 
17th Light Dragoons (now Lancers). From 1843 to 1845 he 
was colonel on the staff in the Ionian Islands, and was then 
promoted major-general. In October 1846 he took command 
of the Limerick district, and shortly afterwards of the Dublin 
district. In 1850 his father died, and he succeeded to the 



dukedom. Being appointed inspector of cavalry in 1852, he held 
that post until 1854, when, upon the outbreak of the Crimean 
War, he was placed in command of the 1st division (Guards and 
Highland brigades) of the British army in the East. In June 
of the same year he was promoted lieutenant-general. He was 
present at the battles of the Alma, Balaklava and Inkerman, 
and at the siege of Sevastopol. On the 15th of July 1856 he was 
appointed general commanding-in-chief, on the 9th of November 
1862 field marshal, and by letters patent, 1887, commander- 
in-chief. The long period during which he held the command 
of the army was marked by many changes. The Crimean War 
brought to light great administrative defects, and led to a re- 
grouping of the departments, which, with the whole personnel 
of the army, were brought under the authority of the secretary 
of state for war. The constitutional changes involved did not, 
however, affect seriously the organization of the military forces. 
Only in 1870, after the successes of Prussia had created a pro- 
found impression, were drastic changes introduced by Card well 
into the entire fabric of the army. The objects of the reformers 
of 1870 were undoubtedly wise; but some of the methods 
adopted were open to question, and were strongly resented by 
the duke of Cambridge, whose views were shared by the majority 
of officers. Further changes were inaugurated in 1880, and again 
the duke found much to criticize. His opinions stand recorded 
in the voluminous evidence taken by the numerous bodies 
appointed to inquire into the condition of the army. They show 
a sound military judgment, and, as against innovations as such, 
a strong attachment to the old regimental system. That this 
judgment and this attachment were not so rigid as was generally 
supposed is proved by his published correspondence. Throughout 
the period of change, while protesting, the duke invariably 
accepted and loyally endeavoured to carry out the measures 
on which the government decided. In a memorandum addressed 
to Mr Childers in 1880 he defined his attitude as follows:— 
" Should it appear, however, that for reasons of state policy it 
is necessary that the contemplated changes should be made, 
I am prepared to carry them out to the best of my ability." 
This attitude he consistently maintained in all cases in which his 
training and associations led him, rightly or wrongly, to deprecate 
changes the need for which was not apparent to him. His 
judgment was especially vindicated in the case of an ill-advised 
reduction of the artillery carried out by Mr. Stanhope. Under 
the order in council of February 1888, the whole responsibility 
for military duties of every kind was for the first time centred 
upon the commander-in-chief. This, as pointed out by the 
Hartington commission in 1890, involved " an excessive 
centralization " which " must necessarily tend to weaken the 
sense of responsibility of the other heads of departments, and 
thus to diminish their efficiency." The duke of Cambridge, whose 
position entailed many duties apart from those strictly apper- 
taining to a commander-in-chief, could not give personal atten- 
tion to the vast range of matters for which he was made nominally 
responsible. On the other hand, the adjutant-general could 
act in his name, and the secretary of state could obtain military 
advice from officials charged with no direct responsibility. 
The effect was to place the duke in a false position in the eyes 
of the army and of the country. If the administration of 
the army suffered after 1888, this was due to a system which 
violated principles. His active control of its training during 
the whole period of his command was less hampered, and more 
directly productive of good results. 

Throughout his long term of office the duke of Cambridge 
evinced a warm interest in the welfare of the soldier, and great 
experience combined with a retentive memory made him a 
master of detail. He was famous for plain, and strong, 
language; but while quick to condemn deviations from 
the letter of regulations, and accustomed to insist upon great 
precision in drill, he was never a martinet, and his natural 
kindliness made him ready to bestow praise. Belonging to the 
older generation of soldiers, he could not easily adapt himself 
to the new conditions, and in dispensing patronage he was some- 
what distrustful of originality, while his position as a member of 

the royal family tended to narrow his scope for selection. He 
was ' thus inclined to be influenced by considerations of pure 
seniority, and to underrate the claims of special ability. The 
army, however, always recognized that in the duke of Cambridge 
it had a commander-in-chief devoted to its interests, and keenly 
anxious amid many difficulties to promote its well-being. The 
duke resigned the commandership-in-chief on the 1st of November 
1895, and was succeeded by Lord Wolseley, the duties of the 
office being considerably modified. He was at the same time 
gazetted honorary colonel-in-chief to the forces. He was made 
ranger of Hyde Park and St James's Park in 1852, and of 
Richmond Park in 1857; governor of the Royal Military 
Academy in 1862, and its president in 1870, and personal aide- 
de-camp to Queen Victoria in 1882. He died on the 17th of 
March 1904 at Gloucester House, London. The chief honours 
conferred upon him were: G.C.H., 1825; K.G., 1835; G.C.M.G., 
1845; G.C.B., 1855; K.P., 1861; K.T., 1881. From 1854 he 
was president of Christ's hospital. The duke of Cambridge was 
married to Louisa Fairbrother, who took the name of FitzGeorge 
after her marriage. She died in 1890. 

See Rev. E. Sheppard, George, Duke of Cambridge; a Memoir 
of his Private Life (London, 1906) ; and Willoughby Verner, Military 
Life of the Duke of Cambridge (1905). 

CAMBRIDGE, RICHARD OWEN (1717-1802), English poet, 
was born in London on the 14th of February 1717. He was 
educated at Eton and at St John's College, Oxford. Leaving 
the university without taking a degree, he took up residence at 
Lincoln's Inn in 1737. Four years later he married, and went to 
live at his country seat of Whitminster, Gloucestershire. In 
1751 he removed to Twickenham, where he enjoyed the society 
of many notable persons. Horace Walpole in his letters makes 
many jesting allusions to Cambridge in the character of news- 
monger. He died at Twickenham on the 17th of September 
1802. His chief work is the Scribleriad (r75i), a mock epic 
poem, the hero of which is the Martinus Scriblerus of Pope, 
Arbuthnot and Swift. The poem is preceded by a dissertation 
on the mock heroic, in which he avows Cervantes as his master. 
The satire shows considerable learning, and was eagerly read 
by literary people; but it never became popular, and the 
allusions, always obscure, have little interest for the present-day 
reader. He made a valuable contribution to history in his 
Account of the War in India . . . on the Coast of Coromandel 
from the year 17 50 to 1760 . . . (1761). He had intended to write 
a history of the rise and progress of British power in India, 
but this enterprise went no further than the work just named, 
as he found that Robert Orme, who had promised him the use 
of his papers, contemplated the execution of a similar plan. 

The Works of Richard Owen Cambridge, Esq., including several 
Pieces never before published, with an Account of his Life and Char- 
acter by his Son, George Owen Cambridge (1803), includes, besides the 
Scribleriad, some narrative and satirical poems, and about twenty 
papers originally published in Edward Moore's paper called The 
World. His poems are included in A. Chalmers's English Poets(i8l6). 

CAMBRIDGE, a municipal and parliamentary borough, the 
seat of a university, and the county town of Cambridgeshire, 
England, 56 m. N. by E. of London by the Great Eastern 
railway, served also by the Great Northern, London & North- 
western and Midland lines. Pop. (1901) 38,379. It lies in a flat 
plain at the southern border of the low Fen country, at an 
elevation of only 30 to 50 ft. above sea-level. The greater part of 
the town is situated on the east (right) bank of the Cam, a 
tributary of the Ouse, but suburbs extend across the river. To 
the south and west the slight hills bordering the fenland rise 
gently. The parliamentary borough of Cambridge returns one 
member. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 1 2 aldermen, 
and 36 councillors. Area, 3233 acres. 

Cambridge University 1 shares with that of Oxford the first 
place among such institutions in the British empire. It is the 
dominating factor in the modern importance of History 
the town, and it is therefore necessary to outline 
the historical conditions which led to its establishment. The 
geographical situation of Cambridge, in its present appearance 
1 See also Universities. 


9 1 

possessing little attraction or advantage, calls nevertheless for 
first consideration. Cambridge, in fact, owed its growth to its 
position on a natural line of communication between the east and 
the midlands of England, flanked on the one hand by the deep 
forests which covered the uplands, on the other by the unreclaimed 
fens, then desolate and in great part impenetrable. The import- 
ance of this highway may be judged from the number of early 
earthworks in the vicinity of Cambridge; and the Castle Hill, at 
the north side of the present town (near the west bank of the 
river), is perhaps a British work. Roman remains discovered in 
the same locality give evidence of the existence of a small town 
or village at the junction of roads; the name of Camboritum is 
usually attached to it, but without certainty. The modern name 
of Cambridge has no connexion with this. The present form of 
the name has usually been derived from a corruption of the 
original name Grantebrycge or Grantabridge (Skeat); but Mr 
Arthur Gray points out that there is no documentary evidence 
for this corruption in the shape of such probable intermediate 
forms as Grantebrig or Crantebrig. On the other hand, he brings 
evidence to show that the name Cantebrig, though not applied to 
the whole town, was very early given to that quarter of it near 
the Cante brig, i.e. the bridge over the Cante (the ward beyond 
the Great Bridge was called " Parcelle of Cambridge " as late as 
1340); in this quarter, close to the bridge, Cambridge castle was 
built by the Conqueror, and from the castle and the castle- 
quarter the name spread within sixty years to the whole town, 
the similarity between the names Grantebrig and Cantebrig 
playing some part in this extension ( The Dual Origin of the Town 
of Cambridge, p. 3 1) . Granta is the earlier and still an alternative 
name of the river Cam, this more common modern form having 
been adopted in sympathy with the modern name of the town. 
Cambridge had a further importance from its position at the head 
of river navigation, and a charter of Henry I., in which the town 
is already referred to as a borough, grants it exclusive rights as 
a river-port, and regulates traffic and tolls. The wharves lay 
principally along that part of the river where are now the 
celebrated " backs " of some of the colleges, whose exquisite 
grounds slope down to the water. The great Sturbridge or 
Stourbridge Fair at Barnwell, formerly one of the most important 
in England, is a further illustration of the ancient commercial 
importance of Cambridge; the oldest known charter concerning 
it dates from the opening of the 13th century, though its initiation 
may perhaps be placed a century before. 

Concerning the early municipal history of Cambridge little is 
known, but at the time of the Domesday survey its citizens felt 
themselves strong enough to protest against the exactions of the 
Norman sheriff, Roger Picot; and the town had attained a 
considerable degree of importance when, in 1068, William the 
Conqueror built a castle on the site known as Castle Hill, and used 
it as a base of operations against Hereward the Wake and the 
insurgents of the fenland. Cambridge, however, has practically 
no further military history. From the 14th century onward 
materials were taken from the castle by the builders of colleges, 
while the gatehouse, the last surviving portion, was removed in 

The medieval spirit of emulation between the universities of 
Cambridge and Oxford resulted in a series of remarkable fables 
to account for the foundation of both. That of Cambridge was 
assigned to a Spanish prince, Cantaber, in the 4321st year after 
the Creation. A charter from King Arthur dated 531, and the 
transference of students from Cambridge to Oxford by King 
Alfred, were also claimed as historical facts. The true germ of 
the university is to be sought in the religious foundations in the 
town. The earliest to be noticed is the Augustinian house of St 
Giles, founded by Hugoline, wife of Roger Picot the sheriff, in 
1092; this was removed in n 12 to Barnwell, where the chapel 
dedicated to St Andrew the Less is practically the sole remnant 
of its buildings. In 1224 the Franciscans came to Cambridge, 
and later in the same century a number of other religious orders 
settled here, such as the Dominicans, the Gilbertines and the 
Carmelites, who had before been established at Newnham. 
Students were gradually attracted to these several religious 

houses, and Cambridge was already recognized as a centre of 
learning when, in 1 231, Henry III. issued a writ for its governance 
as such, among other provisions conferring certain disciplinary 
powers on the bishop of Ely. It soon became evident that the 
influence of the religious orders on those who came to them for 
instruction was too narrow. This was recognized elsewhere, for 
it was in order to counteract that influence that Walter de 
Merton drew up the statute of governance for his foundation of 
Merton College, Oxford, a statute which was soon afterwards 
used as a model by Hugh de Balsham, bishop of Ely, when, in 
1 281-1284 he founded the first Cambridge college, Peterhouse. 

The friction between town and university, due in the main to 
the conflict of their jurisdictions, the tradition of which, as in the 
sister university, died hard in the annual efforts of some under- 
graduates to revive the " town and gown " riots, culminated 
during the rebellion of Wat Tyler (1381) in an episode which is 
alone worthy of record and may serve to illustrate the whole. 
This was an attack by the rabble, instigated, it is said, by the 
more reputable townspeople, on the colleges, several of which 
were sacked. The attack was ultimately defeated by the courage 
and resource of Henry Spenser or Le Dispencer, bishop of 
Norwich. The relations of the university of Cambridge with the 
crown were never so intimate as those of Oxford. Henry III. 
fortified the town with two gates, but these were burnt by the 
rebellious barons; and in much later times the two first of the 
Stuart kings, and the two first of the Georges, cultivated friendly 
personal relations with the university. During the civil war the 
colleges even melted down their plate for the war chest of King 
Charles; but Cambridge showed little of the stubborn royalism 
of Oxford, and submitted to the Commonwealth without serious 

The history of collegiate foundation in Cambridge after that of 
Peterhouse may be followed through the ensuing description of 
the colleges, but for ease of reference these are dealt colieees 
with in alphabetical order. The main street which 
traverses the town from south to north, parallel to, and at a 
short distance from the river, is known successively as Trumping- 
ton Street, King's Parade, Trinity Street, St John's Street and 
Bridge Street. The majority of the colleges lie on either side of 
this street, and chiefly between it and the river. Those of St 
John's, Trinity, Trinity Hall, Clare, King's and Queens' present 
the famous " backs " towards the river, which is crossed by a 
series of picturesque bridges leading to the gardens and grounds 
on the opposite bank. 

Christ's College is not among the group indicated above; it 
stands farther to the east, in St Andrew's Street. It was founded 
in 1505 by the Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII. 
It incorporated God's House, which had been founded by 
William Bingham, a cleric of London, in 1439, had been removed 
when the site was required for part of King's College, and had 
been refounded with the countenance of Henry VI. in 1448. 
This was a small house, but the Lady Margaret's endowment 
provided for a master, twelve fellows and forty-seven scholars. 
Edward VI. added another fellowship and three scholarships 
and the present number of fellows is fifteen. There are certain 
exhibitions in election to which preference is given to schools 
in the north of England — Giggleswick, Kirkby Lonsdale, Skipton 
and Sedbergh. The buildings of Lady Margaret's foundation 
were in great part faced in classical style in the 17th century; 
a building east of the old quadrangle is also of this period, and 
is ascribed to Inigo Jones. The rooms occupied by the foundress 
herself are preserved, though in an altered condition, as are 
those of the poet Milton, who was educated here, and with whom 
the college has many associations. In the fine gardens is an 
ancient mulberry tree believed to have been planted by him. 
Among illustrious names connected with this college are John 
Leland the antiquary, Archdeacon Paley, author of the Evidences, 
and Charles Darwin, while Henry More and others of the school 
of Cambridge Platonists in the 17th century were educated here. 

Clare College lies close to the river, south of Trinity Hall. In 
1326 the university erected a hall, known as University Hall, to 
accommodate a number of students, and in 1338 Elizabeth de 

9 2 


Burgh, countess of Clare, re-endowed the hall, which took the 
name of Clare Hall, and only became known as college in 1856. 
There was a strong ecclesiastical tendency in this foundation; 
six out of the twenty fellows were to be priests when elected. 
The foundation now consists of a master and fifteen fellows, 
besides scholars, of whom three receive emoluments from the 
endowment of Lady Clare. The old college buildings were in 
great part destroyed by fire in 1521; the present buildings 
date from 1638 to 1715, and are admirable examples of their 
period. They surround a very beautiful quadrangle, and the 
back towards the river is also fine. Unconfirmed tradition 
indicates the poet Chaucer as an alumnus of this college; other 
famous men associated with it were Hugh Latimer the martyr, 
Ralph Cudworth, one of the " Platonists," and Archbishop 

Corpus Christi College (commonly called Corpus) stands 
on the east side of Trumpington Street. The influence of 
medieval gilds in Cambridge, the character of which was 
primarily religious, was exceedingly strong. About the be- 
ginning of the 14th century there is first mentioned the gild of 
St Mary, which was connected with Great St. Mary's church. 
The gild was at this time prosperous, but about 1350, when 
the idea of the foundation of a college by the gilds was matured, 
the fraternity of St Mary lacked the means to proceed save by 
amalgamating with another gild, that of Corpus Christi. The 
age of this institution, whose church was St Benedict's or St 
Bene't's, is not known. By the two gilds, therefore, the "House 
of Scholars of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary" 
was founded in 1352, the foundation being the only instance 
of its kind. In early times it was commonly known as St Bene't's 
from the church connected with the Corpus gild which stands over 
against the college, and served as its chapel for nearly three 
centuries. The foundation consists of a master and twelve 
fellows, with scholars of the old and later foundations. The 
ancient small quadrangle remains, and is of historical rather 
than architectural interest. The great quadrangle dates from 
1823-1825. The library contains the famous collection of MSS. 
bequeathed by .Archbishop Matthew Parker, alumnus of the 
college, in the 16th century. 

Downing College is in the southern part of the town, to the 
east of Trumpington Street. Sir George Downing, baronet, of 
Gamlingay Park, who died in 1749, left estates to various 
relations, who died without issue. In this event, Downing's will 
provided for the foundation of a college, but the heirs contested 
the will with the university, and in spite of a decision against 
them in 1769, continued to hold the estates for many years, so 
that it was not until 1800 that the charter for the college was 
obtained. The foundation-stone was laid in 1807, and the two 
ranges of buildings, in classical style, represent all that was 
completed of an intended quadrangle. The foundation consists 
of a master, professors of English law and of medicine, six 
fellows and six scholars. 

Emmanuel College overlooks St Andrew's Street. It was 
founded in 1 584 by Sir Walter Mildmay (c. 1 5 20-1 589) , chancellor 
of the exchequer and privy councillor under Queen Elizabeth. 
The foundation, considerably enlarged from the original, consists 
of a master, sixteen fellows and thirty scholars. There are further 
scholarships on other foundations which are awarded by pre- 
ference to pupils of Uppingham and other schools in the midlands. 
Emmanuel was noted from the outset as a stronghold of Puritan- 
ism; it is indeed recorded that Elizabeth rallied the founder 
on his intention that this should be so. Mildmay assuredly had 
the welfare of the church primarily at heart, and he attempted 
to provide against the life residence of fellows, which he con- 
sidered an unhealthy feature in some colleges. The site of 
Emmanuel was previously occupied by a Dominican friary, 
and some of its buildings were adapted to collegiate uses. There 
is only a little of the earliest building remaining; the greater 
part Of the present college dates from the second half of the 
18th century. The chapel, however, is by Sir Christopher Wren 
(1677). Richard Holdsworth, Gresham professor, and William 
Sancroft, archbishop of Canterbury, were masters of this college; I 

Bishops JoseprrTTall and Thomas Percy were among its alumni, 
as was John Harvard, principal founder of the great American 
college which bears his name. 

Gonville and Caius College (commonly called Caius, pronounced 
Kees), stands mainly on the west side of Trinity Street. It arose 
out of an earlier foundation. In 1348 Edmund Gonvile or Gonevill 
founded the hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin, which 
was commonly called Gonville Hall, for the education of twenty 
scholars in dialectic and other sciences, with endowment for 
a master and three fellows. This hall stood on part of the present 
site of Corpus, but on the death of its founder in 1351 it was 
moved to the north-west corner of the site of the present Caius, 
by William Bateman, bishop of Norwich and founder of Trinity 
Hall. The famous physician John Caius (q.v.) , who was educated 
at this small institution, later conceived the idea of refounding 
and enlarging it, obtained a charter to do so in 1557, and became 
master of the new foundation of Gonville and Caius College. 
The foundation consists of a master and not less than twenty- 
two fellows, exclusive of the provision under the will of William 
Henry Drosier (d. 1889), doctor of medicine and fellow of the 
college, for the endowment of seven additional fellowships. 
Since its refoundation by Caius, the college has had a peculiar 
connexion with the study of medicine, while, besides many 
eminent physicians, Sir Thomas Gresham, Judge Jeffreys, 
Robert Hare, Jeremy Taylor, Henry Wharton and Lord Thurlow 
are among its noted names. Three sides of the main quadrangle, 
Tree Court, including the frontage towards Trinity Street, are 
modern (1870). The interior of this court is picturesque, and 
the design of the smaller Caius Court was inspired by Caius 
himself. He also designed the gates of Honour, Virtue and 
Humility, of which the two first stand in situ; the gate of 
Honour is a peculiarly good example of early Renaissance work. 
Caius is buried in the chapel. 

Jesus College lies apart from and to the north-east of the 
majority of the colleges. It was founded in 1496 by John 
Alcock, 1 bishop of Ely. The site was previously occupied by a 
Benedictine nunnery dedicated to St Radigund, which was 
already in existence in the first half of the 12th century and was 
claimed by Alcock to have been founded from Ely, to the bishops 
of which it certainly owed much. The name given to Alcock's 
college was that of " the most Blessed Virgin Mary, St John the 
Evangelist, and the glorious Virgin Saint Radigund," but it 
appears that the founder himself intended the name to be Jesus 
College. He provided for a master and six fellows, but the 
foundation now consists of a master and sixteen fellows, with 
twenty scholars or more. There are several further scholarships 
confined to the sons of clergymen of the Church of England. 
Architecturally Jesus is one of the most interesting colleges in 
Cambridge, for Alcock retained, and there still remains, a con- 
siderable part of the old buildings of the nunnery. The most 
important of these is the church, which Alcock, by removing 
most of the nave and other portions, converted into the usual 
form of a college chapel. The tower, however, is retained. The 
bulk of the building is an admirable example of Early English 
work, but there are traces of Norman; and Alcock added certain 
Perpendicular features. Of the rest of the college buildings, 
the hall is Alcock's work, the brick gatehouse is a fine structure 
of the close of the 15th century, while the cloister is a little later, 
and stands on the site of the nuns' cloister. Another court dates 
from the 17th and early 18th centuries, and there is a considerable 
amount of modern building. The most famous name connected 
with Jesus College is that of Cranmer. Among many others are 
Sir Thomas Elyot, John Bale, John Pearson, bishop of Chester, 
Hugh Peters, Gilbert Wakefield, Thomas Malthus, Laurence 
Sterne and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 

King's College has its fine frontage upon the western side of 
King's Parade. It was founded by King Henry VI. in 1441. 
The first site was small and circumscribed, and in 1443 the existing 
site was with difficulty cleared of dwellings. The king designed 
a close connexion between this college and his other foundation 
at Eton; he provided for a provost and for seventy scholars, 
all of whom should be Etonians. In 1861 open scholarships 



were instituted, and the foundation now consists of a provost, 
forty-six fellows and forty-eight scholars. Half the scholarships 
are still appropriated to Eton. An administrative arrangement 
peculiar to King's College is that by which the provost has 
absolute authority within its walls, to the exclusion of officers 
of the University. The chief architectural ornament of the 
college, and one of the most notable in the town, is the magnifi- 
cent Perpendicular chapel, comparable with those of St George 
at Windsor and Henry VII. at Westminster Abbey. The 
building was begun in 1446, and extended (apart from the 
interior fittings) over nearly seventy years. Within, the most 
splendid features are the fan-vaulting which extends throughout 
the chapel, the noble range of stained-glass windows, which 
date for the most part from the early part of the 16th century, 
and the wooden organ screen, which, with part of the stalls, is 
of the time of Henry VIII. The college services are celebrated 
for the beauty of their music. The bulk of the other collegiate 
buildings are of the 18th century or modern. The old court 
of King's College is occupied by the modern university library, 
north of the chapel; the gateway, a good example (1444), is 
preserved. John Frith the Martyr, Richard Croke, Giles 
Fletcher, Richard Mulcaster, Sir William Temple, William 
Oughtred, the poet Waller, and Horace Walpole and others of 
his family are among many illustrious alumni of the college. 

Magdalene College (pronounced Maudlin) stands on the west 
bank of the Cam, near the Great Bridge. In 1428 the Bene- 
dictines of Crowland Abbey founded a home for student monks 
on this site, and in 15 19 Edward, duke of Buckingham, partly 
secularized this institution by founding Buckingham College 
in connexion with it. After the dissolution of the monastery, 
Thomas, Baron Audley of Walden, erected Magdalene in place 
of the former house in 1542. The foundation consists of a 
master and seven fellows, besides scholars. There are some 
valuable exhibitions appropriated to Wisbech school. The 
appointment of the master is peculiar, the office being in the gift 
of the occupant of Audley End, an estate near Saffron Walden, 
Essex. Some parts of the original building are preserved, but 
the most notable portion of the college is the Pepysian library, 
dating c. 1 700. It contains the very valuable collection of books 
bequeathed by Samuel Pepys to the college, at which he was a 
student. Buckingham College had Archbishop Cranmer as a 
lecturer; Charles Kingsley and Charles Stewart Parnell were 
educated at Magdalene. 

Pembroke College stands to the east of Trumpington Street. 
It was founded in 1347 by Mary de St Paul, widow of Aylmer 
de Valence, carl of Pembroke. Henry VI. made notable bene- 
factions to it. The foundation consists of a master and thirteen 
fellows, and there are six scholarships on the original foundation, 
besides others of later institution. The older existing buildings 
are mainly of the 18th century, but much of the original fabric 
was removed and rebuilt in 1874. The chapel is of the middle of 
the 17th century, and is ascribed to Sir Christopher Wren. The 
poets Spenser and Gray, Nicholas Ridley the martyr, Archbishop 
Whitgift and William Pitt were associated with this college; 
and from the number of bishops whose names are associated 
with it the college has obtained the style of collegium episcopale. 

Petcrhousc or St Peter's College is on the west side of Trump- 
ington Street, almost opposite Pembroke. It has already been 
indicated as the oldest Cambridge college (1284). Hugh de 
Balsham, the founder, had settled some secular scholars in the 
ancient Augustinian Hospital of St John in 1280, but the experi- 
ment was not a success. Nor did he carry out his full intentions 
as regards Peterhouse, the foundation of which followed on the 
failure of the fusion of his scholars with the hospital; but 
Simon Montagu, his successor in the bishopric of Ely, carried 
on his work, and in 1344 gave the college a code of statutes in 
which the influence of the Merton code is plainly visible. A 
master and fourteen fellows formed the original foundation, but 
the present consists of a master, and not less than eleven fellows 
and twenty- three scholars. The hall retains some original work; 
it was first built out of a legacy from the founder. The library 
building (c. 1590) is due to a legacy from Dr Andrew Pernc I 

(master 1554-1580) ; and Dr Matthew Wren (master 1625-1634), 
uncle of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren, directed 
the building of the chapel and cloisters. The most famous name 
connected with the college is that of Cardinal Beaufort. 

Queens' College stands at the south of the riverside group, and 
one of its ranges of buildings rises immediately from the river. 
A college of St Bernard had been established in 1445 by Andrew 
Docket or Dokett, rector of St Botolph's church, who had also 
been principal of a hostel, or students' lodge, of St Bernard. 
He sought and obtained the patronage of Margaret of Anjou, 
wife of Henry VI., who undertook the foundation of a new house 
on another site in 1448, to bear the name of Queens'. Docket 
became the first master. In 1465 Elizabeth Woodville, wife of 
Edward IV., became the college's second foundress. The 
foundation consists of a president and eleven fellows. The 
buildings are exceedingly picturesque. The main quadrangle, 
of red brick, was completed very soon after the foundation. 
The smaller cloister court, towards the river, retains building 
of the same period, and the beautiful wooden gallery of the 
president's lodge deserves notice. Another court is called 
Erasmus's; the rooms which he is said to have occupied remain, 
and a walk in the college garden across the river bears his name. 

St Catharine's College, on the west side of Trumpington Street, 
was founded by Dr Robert Woodlark or Wodelarke, chancellor 
of the university and (1452) provost of King's College. It was 
opened in 1473, but the charter of incorporation dates from 1475. 
The foundation provided for a master (Woodlark being the first) 
and three fellows; there are now six fellows, and twenty-six 
scholars. The principal buildings, surrounding a court on three 
sides, date mainly from a complete reconstruction of the college 
at the close of the 17th century. 

St John's College, at the north of the riverside group of colleges, 
was founded in 1511 by the Lady Margaret Beaufort, also 
foundress of Christ's College. It replaced the Hospital of St 
John, which dated from the early years of the 13th century, 
and has been mentioned already in connexion with Peterhouse. 
The Lady Margaret died before the college was firmly established, 
and her designs were not carried out without many difficulties, 
which were overcome chiefly by the exertions of John Fisher, 
bishop of Rochester, one of her executors. Thirty-two fellow- 
ships were endowed, but subsequent endowments allowed 
extension, and the foundation now consists of a master, fifty-six 
fellows, sixty scholars and nine sizars. A large number of 
exhibitions are appropriated to special schools. Of the four 
courts of St John's, the easternmost is the original, and has a very 
fine Tudor gateway of brick. The chapel is modern (1863-1869), 
an ornate example of the work of Sir Gilbert Scott. The second 
court, practically unaltered, dates from 1 598-1602. In this there 
is a beautiful Masters' gallery, panelled, with a richly-moulded 
ceiling; it is now used as a combination room or fellows' common- 
room. The third court, which contains the library (1624), backs 
on to the river, and the fourth, which is on the opposite bank, 
was built c. 1830. A covered bridge connects the two, and is 
commonly called the Bridge of Sighs from a certain resemblance 
to the bridge of that name at Venice. Among the notable names 
connected with this college are Cecil, Lord Burghley, Thomas 
Cartwright, Wentworth, earl of Strafford, Roger Ascham, 
Richard Bentley, John Cleveland, the satirist, Thomas Baker, the 
historian, Lord Palmerston, Professor Adams, Sir John Herschel, 
Bishop Colenso, Dr Benjamin Kennedy, Dean Merivale, Home 
Tooke, Samuel Parr and William Wilberforce, and the poets 
Herrick (afterwards of Trinity Hall) and Wordsworth. 

Selwyn College, standing west of the river (Sidgwick Avenue), 
was founded in 1882 by public subscription in memory of George 
Augustus Selwyn, bishop of New Zealand and afterwards of 
Lichfield, for the purpose of giving university education with 
economy " combined," according to the charter, " with Christian 
training, based upon the principles of the Church of England." 

Sidney Sussex College faces Sidney Street. It was founded 
under the will (1588) of the Lady Frances Sidney, dowager 
countess of Sussex (d. 1589), and received its charter in 1S96. 
The foundress provided for a master, ten fellows and twenty 



scholars, but thirty-six scholarships are now provided. The 
original buildings were of brick, but they were plastered over 
and greatly altered by Wyatville about 1830. The Grey Friars 
had occupied the site, and part of their buildings remained in 
the chapel until 1777. A beautiful block of new buildings, 
with a cloister, was erected in 1890. The most famous name 
associated with the college is that of Oliver Cromwell, who was 
a fellow commoner, as also was Thomas Fuller, author of the 
Worthies of England. 

Trinity College, the front of which is on Trinity Street, is the 
largest collegiate foundation in Cambridge, and larger than any 
in Oxford. It was founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII. and 
absorbed several earlier institutions — King's Hall (founded 
by Edward III. in 1336), St Michael's or Michaelhouse (founded 
by Hervey de Stanton, chancellor of the exchequer under 
Edward II., in 1323), Fyswick or Physick's Hostel, belonging 
to Gonville Hall, and other hostels. Henry's original foundation 
was for a master and sixty fellows and scholars, but Queen 
Mary and other later benefactors enabled extensions to be made, 
and the foundation now consists of a master (appointed by the 
crown), at least sixty fellows, seventy-four scholars and sixteen 
sizars, with minor scholars, chaplains librarian and the regius 
professors of Divinity, Hebrew and Greek. Major scholarships 
are open to undergraduates, not being of standing to take the 
degree of bachelor of arts, as well as to non-members of the 
university under nineteen years of age, while minor scholarships 
and exhibitions are open only to the latter. There are valuable 
exhibitions appropriated to certain schools, of which the most 
important are those confined to Westminster school. Trinity 
College is entered from Trinity Street by the King's Gateway 
(1518-1535) preserved from King's Hall, but subsequently 
altered. The principal or Great Court is the largest in Cambridge 
and very fine. Its buildings are of different dates. In the centre 
is a picturesque fountain, erected by Thomas Neville, master 
(1593-1615), under whose direction much of the building was 
carried out. The chapel on the north side of the court was 
begun in the reign of Mary. The carved oak fittings within 
date from the mastership of Richard Bentley (1 700-1 742). The 
organ is particularly fine. A statue of Sir Isaac Newton by 
Roubiliac stands in the antechapel, and Richard Porson and 
William Whewell are buried here. The hall on the west of the 
court is Neville's work (1605), and very beautiful. The second 
court is also his foundation and bears his name. The library 
on the west side is the work of Sir Christopher Wren. Its interior 
is excellent, and besides busts of some of the vast number of 
famous men connected with Trinity, it contains a statue of Lord 
Byron by the Danish sculptor Thorvaldsen. The New Court, 
Gothic in style, was begun in 1823. The beautiful grounds and 
walks of the college extend down to and beyond the river. 
The college has extended its buildings to the opposite side of 
Trinity Street, where the two courts known as Whewell's Hostel 
were built (c. i860) at the charge of Dr William Whewell during 
his mastership. The eminent alumni of this great college are 
too numerous to admit of selection. 

Trinity Hall, which lies near the river, south of Trinity, was 
founded by William Bateman, bishop of Norwich, in 1350. On 
the site there had been, for about twenty years before the founda- 
tion , a house of mona stic students from Ely. The present college 
is alone in preserving the term Hall in its title. The foundation 
consists of a master and thirteen fellows, and the study of law, 
which the founder had especially in mind, is provided for by 
lectureships, and not less than three studentships tenable by 
graduates of the college. The buildings are for the most part 
modern or modernized, but the interior of the library well 
preserves its character of the early part of the 17th century. 

Of the churches of Cambridge one has long been recognized as 
the church of the university, namely Great St Mary's, which 

stands in the centre of the town, between King's 
buildings* P ara de and Market Hill. It is a fine Perpendicular 

structure, founded in 1478; but the tower was not 
completed until 1608. Some Decorated details are preserved 
from a former building. The university preachers deliver their 

sermons in this church, but it was formerly the meeting-place 
of the university for the transaction of business, for learned 
disputations and for secular festivals. The " Cambridge 
chimes " struck by the clock are famous, and a curfew is rung 
each evening on the great bell. The Senate House, standing 
opposite Great St Mary's, dates from 1730 and is classical in 
style. The buildings of the university library, in the immediate 
vicinity, enclose two quadrangles, and in part occupy the site 
of the old court of King's College. One of the quadrangles 
was formerly occupied by the schools or lecture rooms, but as 
the library grew it usurped their place. Important modern ad- 
ditions date from 1842, 1864 and 1888. The facade of the old 
schools is an excellent work of 1758. The library is one of those 
which is entitled to receive, under the Copyright Act, a copy of 
every book published in the United Kingdom. The Fitzwilliam 
Museum, a massive classical building, was begun in 1837 to 
contain the bibliographical and art collection bequeathed by 
Richard, Viscount Fitzwilliam, in 18 16. The museum of 
archaeology (classical, general and local, 1884), is connected 
with the Fitzwilliam Museum. The Pitt Press (1833), housing 
the university printing establishment, was begun out of the 
residue of a fund for erecting the statues of William Pitt in 
Hanover Square, London, and Westminster Abbey. It stands 
near Pembroke, Pitt's college. The Selwyn Divinity School 
(1879), opposite St John's College, was built largely at the charge 
of Dr William Selwyn, Lady Margaret professor of divinity. 
The museums and lecture rooms (begun in 1863) are extensive 
buildings on each side of Downing Street. Include?! in these 
are the museum of zoology, which had its origin in collections 
made by Sir Busick Harwood, professor of anatomy in 
1785-1814, and contains the collection of fishes made by 
Charles Darwin in the ship "Beagle"; the medical school, 
botanical museum and herbarium, mineralogical museum, 
engineering laboratory (1894), optical and astronomical lecture 
room, chemical laboratory (1887), and the Cavendish laboratory 
for physical research (1874), the gift of William Cavendish, 
7th duke of Devonshire and chancellor of the university. The 
Sedgwick Geological Museum, opened by King Edward VII. 
in 1904, commemorates Adam Sedgwick, Woodwardian pro- 
fessor of geology, and originated in the collections of Dr 
John Woodward (d. 1728). Adjoining this building, in Down- 
ing Street is the law library, founded on a bequest from Miss 
Rebecca Flower Squire (d. 1898) with the law school. The 
observatory (1824) is on the outskirts of the town in Mad- 
ingley Road, and the botanic garden (founded 1762, and removed 
to its present site in 1831) borders Trumpington Road. The 
club-rooms and debating hall of the Cambridge Union Society 
are adjacent to the Holy Sepulchre church. 

The non-collegiate students of the university (i.e those who 
receive the university education and possess the same status as 
collegiate students without belonging to any college) have 
lecture and other rooms and a library in Fitzwilliam Hall. This 
body was created in 1869. The students reside in lodgings. 
There are two women's colleges — Girton, established in 1873 on 
the north-western outskirts of the town, having been previously 
opened at Hitchin in 1869, and Newnham (1875), originally (1873) 
a hall of residence for students attending special lectures for 
women. Among other educational establishments mention must 
be made of the Leys school, founded in 1875 by prominent Wes- 
leyans for non-sectarian education, and the Perse School, an 
ancient foundation remodelled in 1902. 

Out of a number of ancient churches in Cambridge, two, 
besides Great St Mary's, deserve special notice. In St Bene- 
dict's or Benet's, which has been already mentioned 
in connexion with Corpus College, the tower is of uni y ers i ty 
great interest, being the oldest surviving building in buildings. 
Cambridge, of pre-Norman workmanship, having rude 
ornamentation on the exterior and the tower arch within. The 
church of the Holy Sepulchre in Bridge Street is one of the four 
ancient round churches in England. Its supposed date is 1120- 
1140, but although it is doubtless to be associated with the 
Knights Templars, the circumstances of its foundation are not 




known. The chancel is practically a modern reconstruction, 
and an extensive restoration, which has been adversely criticized, 
was applied by the Cambridge Camden Society to the whole 
fabric in 1841. At several of the villages neighbouring or 
suburban to Cambridge there are churches of interest, as at 
Chesterton, Trumpington, Grantchester (where the name indi- 
cates a Roman station, borne out by the discovery of remains), 
Fen Ditton and Barnwell, near which is the Norman Sturbridge 
chapel. In Cambridge itself there is a Norman house, .much 
altered, which by a tradition of unknown origin bears the name 
of the School of Pythagoras. 

The university is a corporate body, including all the colleges. 
These, however, are also corporations in themselves, and have 
University tneir own statutes, but they are further subject to the 
constttu- paramount laws of the university. The university 
Hon and statutes of Queen Elizabeth were only replaced in 
1858. The statutes as revised by a commission in 
that year were soon found to require emendation; in 
1872 another commission was appointed, and in 1882 new 
statutes received the approval of the queen in council. The 
head of the university is the chancellor. He is a member of the 
university, of high rank and position, elected by the senate. 
Being generally non-resident, he delegates his administrative 
duties to the vice-chancellor, who is the head of a college, and 
is elected for one year by the senate. The principal executive 
officers under the vice-chancellor are as follows. The two 
proctors have as their main duty that of disciplinary officers 
over the members of the university in statu pupillari. In each 
year two colleges nominate one proctor each, according to a 
fixed rotation which gives the larger colleges a more frequent 
choice than the smaller. The proctors are assisted by four 
pro-proctors. The public orator is the spokesman of the senate 
upon such public occasions as the conferring of honorary 
degrees. The librarian has charge of the university library. 
The registrary, with his assistant, records the proceedings of 
the senate, &c, and has charge of documents. The university 
returns two members to parliament, elected by the members of 
the senate. The chancellor and sex viri (elected by the senate) 
form a court for offences against the university statutes by 
members not in statu pupillari. The chancellor and six heads of 
colleges, appointed by the senate, form a court of discipline for 
members in statu pupillari. 

The senate in congregation is the legislative body. Those who 
have votes in it are the chancellor, vice-chancellor, doctors of 
divinity, law, medicine, science, letters and music, 
and masters of art, law, surgery and music. The 
council of the senate, consisting of the chancellor, vice-chancellor, 
four heads of colleges, four professors and eight other members 
of the senate chosen by the vice-chancellor, brings all proposals 
(called Graces) before the senate. The revenues of the university 
are derived chiefly from fees at matriculation, for certain ex- 
aminations, and for degrees, from a tax upon all members of the 
university, and from contributions by the colleges, together with 
the profits of the University Press. A financial board, consisting 
of the vice-chancellor ex officio and certain elected members, 
administers the finances of the university. There are boards for 
each of the various faculties, and a General Board of Studies, 
with the vice-chancellor at the head. There are university 
professors, readers or lecturers in a large number of subjects. 
The oldest professorship is the Lady Margaret professorship of 
divinity, instituted by the founders of Christ's and St John's 
Colleges in 1502. In 1540 Henry VIII. founded the regius 
professorships of divinity, civil law, physic, Hebrew and Greek. 

The head of a college generally bears the title of master, as 
indicated above in the account of the several colleges. It has 
College a ' so been seen that the foundation of each college 
organiza- includes a certain number of fellows and scholars. 
Hon— The affairs of the college are managed by the head and 
the fellows, or a committee of fellows. The scholars, 
and other members in statu pupillari are generally 
termed collectively undergraduates. Those who receive ' no 
emoluments (and therefore pay the full fees) are technically 



called pensioners, and form the bulk of the undergraduates. 
Another group of students receiving emoluments are termed 
sizars ; the primary object of sizarships is to open the university 
course to men of limited means. The title of fellow-commoners 
belongs to wealthy students who pay special fees and have the 
right of dining at the fellows' tables. This class has virtually 
ceased to exist. As regards his work, the undergraduate in 
college is under the intimate direction of his tutor; the discip- 
linary officer in college is the dean. Besides the foundation 
scholarships in each college there are generally certain scholar- 
ships and exhibitions founded by private or special benefactions ; 
these are frequently awarded for the encouragement of specific 
branches of study, or are confined wholly, or by preference, to 
students from certain schools. 

The total number of students is about 3000. The colleges 
cannot accommodate this number, so that a student commonly 
spends some part of his residence in lodgings, which gesld- ' 
are licensed by, and under the control of, the university ence and 
authorities. Such residence implies no sacrifice of examina- 
membership of a college. There are three terms — ons " 
Michaelmas (October), Lent and Easter (summer). They 
include together not less than 227 days, though the actual period 
of residence for undergraduates is about 24 weeks annually. 
Undergraduates usually begin residence in Michaelmas term. 
An elementary examination or other evidence of qualification is 
required for admission to a college. After nine terms' (three 
years') residence an undergraduate can take the first degree, that 
of bachelor of arts (b.a.). The examinations required for the 
ordinary b.a. degree are — (1) Previous examination or Little-go 
(usually taken in the first term of residence or at least in the first 
year), including classics, mathematics and a gospel in Greek and 
Paley's Evidences of Christianity, or an additional Greek or Latin 
classic and logic. (2) General examination in classics and 
mathematics, with a portion of English history, &c. (3) Special 
examination in a subject other than classical or mathematical. 
Candidates for honours are required to pass the Previous examina- 
tion with certain additional subjects; they then have only a 
" tripos. " examination in one of the following subjects — mathe- 
matics, classics, moral sciences, natural sciences, theology, law, 
history, oriental languages, medieval and modern languages, 
mechanical sciences, economics. The mathematical tripos is 
divided into two parts, in the first of which, down to 1909, the 
candidates were classed in the result as Wranglers, Senior 
Optimes and Junior Optimes. There was also an individual 
order of merit, the most proficient candidate being placed at the 
head of the list as Senior Wrangler. But in 1906 a number of 
important reforms of this tripos were proposed by the Mathe- 
matical Board, and among these the abolition of the individual 
order of merit was recommended and passed by the senate. It 
is not employed in any other tripos. The classical tripos is also 
in two parts, to the second of which certain kindred subjects are 
added (ancient philosophy, history, &c). Individual order of 
merit is not observed in either part, the candidates being grouped 
in classes. There are a large number of university prizes and 
scholarships on special foundations. Such are the Smith's prizes 
for mathematics and natural philosophy, on the foundation 
(1768) of Robert Smith, master of Trinity, awarded up to 1883 
after examination, but since then for an essay on some branch of 
each subject, and the Chancellor's medals, of which two have 
been awarded annually in classics since the foundation of the 
prizes in 1751 by Thomas Holies, duke of Newcastle. 

The university may adopt as affiliated colleges institutions in 
the United Kingdom or in any part of the British empire which 
fulfil certain conditions as to the education of adult 
students. Attendance at these institutions is counted as colleges. 
equivalent to a certain period of residence at Cambridge 
University in the event of a student wishing to pursue his work 
here. There are over twenty such affiliated colleges. There are 
also, in England, certain " affiliated centres." These are towns 
in which there is no affiliated college, but students who have 
there attended a course of education managed in connexion 
with the university by a committee may enter the university 

9 6 


with privileges similar to those enjoyed by students from 
affiliated colleges. 

The principal social function of the university is the '■' May 
Week " at the close of the Easter term. It actually takes place 
Ma eek * n J une an< ^ ' asts l° n g er than a week. There is a great 
influx of visitors into Cambridge for this occasion. 
The first four days are occupied by the college boat-races on the 
Cam, and on subsequent days there are college balls, concerts, 
theatrical performances and other entertainments. On the 
Tuesday after the races there is a Congregation, at which prize 
exercises are recited, and usually, but not invariably, a number 
of honorary degrees are conferred on eminent men by invitation. 
This final period of the academic year is called Commencement, 
or in Latin Comitia Maxima. 

Authorities. — For details of the administration of the university 
and colleges, regulations as to studies, prizes, scholarships, &c, see 
the annual Cambridge University Calendar and The Students' Hand- 
book to tlie University and Colleges of Cambridge; see also R. Willis 
and J. W. Clark, Architectural History of the University of Cambridge 
(3 vols., Cambridge, 1886); J. Bass Mullinger, History of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge from the Earliest Times to the Accession of 
Charles I. (2 vols., 1873-1884; third vol., 1909); and smaller 
History of Cambridge, in Longman's "Epoch" Series (1888); 
J. W. Clark, Cambridge, Historical and Picturesque (London, 1890) ; 
T. D. Atkinson, Cambridge Described and Illustrated, with intro- 
duction by J. W. Clark (London, 1897) ; F. W. Maitland, Township 
and Borough (Cambridge, 1898); C. W. Stubbs, Cambridge, in 
"Mediaeval Towns" series (London, 1905); Arthur Gray, The 
Dual Origin of the Town of Cambridge (publications of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Soc, new ser. No. 1, Cambridge, 1908); J. W. Clark, 
Liber memorandorum ecclesie de Bernewelle (Cambridge, 1907), with 
an introduction by F. W. Maitland. For the individual colleges, 
see the series of College Histories, by various authors (London, 1899 
et seq.). 

CAMBRIDGE, a city and the county-seat of Dorchester 
county, Maryland, U.S.A., on the Choptank river, near Chesa- 
peake Bay, about 60 m. S.E. of Baltimore. Pop. (1890) 4192; 
(1900) 5747 (1958 being negroes); (1910)6407. It is served by the 
Cambridge branch of the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washing- 
ton railway (Pennsylvania railway), which connects with the 
main line at Seaford, 30 m. distant, and with the Baltimore, 
Chesapeake & Atlantic at Hurlock, 16 m. distant; and by 
steamers of the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic railway 
company. It is a business centre for the prosperous farming 
region by which it is surrounded, and is a shipping point for 
oysters and fish; among its manufactures are canned fruits 
and vegetables, flour, hominy, phosphates, underwear and 
lumber. Cambridge was founded in 1684, received its present 
name in 1686, and was chartered as a city in 1900. 

CAMBRIDGE, a city and one of the county-seats of Middlesex 
county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated on the Charles river, 
in the outskirts of Boston, of which it is in effect a part, although 
under separate government. Pop. (1880) 52,669; (1890) 
70,028; (1900) 91,886; (1910 census) 104,839. Of the 
total population in 1900, 30,446 were foreign-born, including 
11,235 Irish, 9613-English Canadians, 1944 English, 1483 French 
Canadians and 1584 Swedish; and 54,200 were of foreign 
parentage (both parents foreign-born), including 24,961 of Irish 
parentage, 9829 of English-Canadian parentage, 2587 of English 
parentage, and 2 288 of French-Canadian parentage. Cambridge 
is entered directly by only one railway, the Boston & Maine. 
The township, now practically built over by the city, contained 
originally several separate villages, the names of which are still 
used as a convenience in designating corresponding sections of 
the municipality: Old Cambridge, North Cambridge, Cam- 
bridgeport and East Cambridge, the last two being manufactur- 
ing and commercial districts. 

Old Cambridge is noted as the seat of Harvard University 
(q.v.) and as a literary and scientific centre. Radcliffe College 
(1879), for women, practically a part of Harvard; an Episcopal 
Theological School (1867), and the New Church (Swedenborgian 
or New Jerusalem) Theological School (1866) are other educa- 
tional institutions of importance. To Cambridge also, in 1908, 
was removed Andover Theological Seminary, a Congregational 
institution chartered in 1807, opened in Andover, Massachusetts, 

in 1808 (re-incorporated under separate trustees in 1907). This 
seminary is one of the oldest and most famous theological institu- 
tions in the United States; it grew out of the theological teaching 
previously given in Phillips Academy, and was founded by the 
widow of Lt.-Governor Samuel Phillips, her son John Phillips 
and Samuel Abbot (1 732-181 2). The instruction was strongly 
Calvinistic in the earlier period, but the seminary has always 
been " equally open to Protestants of every denomination." 
Very liberal aid is given to students, and there is no charge for 
tuition. The Bibliotheca Sacra, founded in 1843 by Edward 
Robinson and in 1844 taken over by Professors Bela B. Edwards 
and Edwards A. Park, and the Andover Review (1884-1893), have 
been the organs of the seminary. In 1886 some of its professors 
published Progressive Orthodoxy, a book which made a great stir 
by its liberal tone, its opposition to supernaturalism and its 
evident trend toward the methods of German " higher criticism." 
Legal proceedings for the removal of five professors, after the 
publication of this book, failed; and their successful defence 
helped to secure greater freedom in thought and in instruction 
in American Presbyterian and Congregational theological 
seminaries. The seminary is now affiliated with Harvard 
University, though it remains independent and autonomous. 

Cambridge is a typical New England city, built up in detached 
residences, with irregular streets pleasantly shaded, and a 
considerable wealth of historic and literary associations. There 
are many reminders of the long history of Harvard, and of the 
War of Independence. Cambridge was the site of the camp of 
the first American army, at the outbreak of the war, and from 
it went the detachment which intrenched on Bunker's Hill. 
Here are the Ap thorp House (built in 1760), in which General 
Burgoyne and his officers were lodged as prisoners of war in 
1777; the elm under which, according to tradition, Washington 
took command of the Continental Army on the 3rd of July 1775; 
the old Vassall or Craigie House (1759), where Washington lived 
in 1775-1776, and which was later the home of Edward Everett, 
Joseph E. Worcester, Jared Sparks and (1837-1882) Henry W. 
Longfellow. Elbridge Gerry lived and James Russell Lowell 
Was born, lived and died in " Elmwood " (built in 1767); Oliver 
Wendell Holmes was born in Cambridge also; John Fiske, the 
historian, lived here; and there are many other literary associa- 
tions, attractive and important for those interested in American 
letters. In Mt Auburn Cemetery are buried many artists, poets, 
scholars and other men and women of fame. Cambridge is 
one of the few American cities possessing a crematorium (1900). 
The municipal water-works are excellent. A handsome bridge 
joining Cambridgeport to Boston (cost about $2,250,000) was 
opened late in 1906. Four other bridges span the Charles river 
between the two cities. A dam between East Cambridge and 
Boston, traversed by a roadway 150 ft. wide, was in the process 
of construction in 1907; and an extension of the Boston subway 
into Cambridge to the grounds of Harvard University, a distance 
of about 3 m., was projected. The city government is admini- 
stered almost entirely under the state civil-service laws, Cam- 
bridge having been a leader in the adoption of its provisions. 
A non-partisan association for political reform did excellent 
work from 1890 to 1900, when it was superseded by a non- 
partisan party. Since 1887 the city has declared yearly by 
increasing majorities for prohibition of the liquor traffic. The 
high schools enjoy a notable reputation. A handsome city hall 
(cost $235,000) and public library (as well as a manual training 
school) were given to the city by Frederick H. Rindge, a one- 
time resident, whose benefactions to Cambridge aggregated 
in value $650,000. Cambridge has many manufacturing estab- 
lishments, and in 1905 the city's factory products were valued 
at $42,407,064, an increase of 45-8% over their value in 1900. 
The principal manufactures are slaughtering and meat-packing 
products, foundry and machine-shop products, rubber boots and 
shoes, rubber belting and hose, printing and publishing products, 
carpentering, pianos and organs, confectionery and furniture. 
Cambridge is one of the chief publishing centres of the country. 
The tax valuation of property in 1906 ($105,153,235) was more 
than $1000 per inhabitant. 



Cambridge is "one of the few American towns that may be 
said to have owed their very name and existence to the pursuit 
of letters " (T. W. Higginson). Its site was selected in 1630 
by Governor Winthrop and others as suitable for fortifications 
and defence, and it was intended to make it the capital of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony; but as Boston's peninsular position 
gave it the advantage in commerce and in defence against the 
Indians, the plan fell through, although up to 1638 various 
sessions of the general court and particular courts were held 
here. The township records (published) are continuous since 
1632. A direct tax for the wooden " pallysadoe " about Cam- 
bridge led the township of Watertown in 1632 to make the first 
protest in America against taxation without representation. 
The settlement was firsfknown as the " New Towne," but in 
1638 was named Cambridge in honour of the English Cambridge, 
where several score of the first immigrants to the colony were 
educated. The oldest college in America (Harvard) was founded 
here in 1636. In 1639 there was set up in Cambridge the first 
printing press of British North America (Boston having none 
until 1676). Other notable dates in history are 1637 and 1647, 
when general synods of New England churches met at Cambridge 
to settle disputed doctrine and define orthodoxy; the departure 
for Connecticut of Thomas Hooker's congregation in 1636; the 
meeting of the convention that framed the present constitution 
of the commonwealth, 1779-1780; the separation of the Con- 
gregationalists and Unitarians of the first parish church, in 1829; 
and the grant of a city charter in 1846. The original township 
of Cambridge was very large, and there have been successively 
detached from it, Newton (1691), Lexington (1713), Brighton 
(1837) and Arlington (1867). 

See Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630- 
1877 (Boston, Mass., 1877); T. W. Higginson, Old Cambridge 
(New York, 1899) ; Arthur Gilman (ed.), The Cambridge of Eighteen 
Hundred and Ninety-Six (Cambridge, 1896); and Historic Guide 
to Cambridge (Cambridge, 1907.) 

CAMBRIDGE, a city and the county-seat of Guernsey county, 
Ohio, U.S.A., on Wills Creek, about 75 m. E. by N. of Columbus. 
Pop. (1890) 4361; (1900) 8241, of whom 407 were foreign- 
born; (1910 census) 11,327. It is served by the Baltimore & 
Ohio and the Pennsylvania railways, and is connected by an 
electric line with Byesville (pop. in 1910, 3156), about 7 m. S. 
Cambridge is built on a hill about 800 ft. above sea-level. 
There is a public library. Coal, oil, natural gas, clay and iron 
are found in the vicinity, and among the city's manufactures are 
iron, steel, glass, furniture and pottery. The value of its 
factory products in 1905 was $2,440,917. The municipality 
owns and operates the water-works. Cambridge was first settled 
in 1798 by emigrants from the island of Guernsey (whence the 
name of the county); was laid out as a town in 1806; was 
incorporated as a village in 1837; and was chartered as a city 
in 1893. 

CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS, a school of philosophico-religious 
thinkers which flourished mainly at Cambridge University in the 
second half of the 17th century. The founder was Benjamin 
Whichcote and the chief members were Ralph Cudworth, 
Richard Cumberland, Joseph Glanvill, Henry More and John 
Norris (see separate articles). Other less important members 
were Nathanael Culverwel (d. 1651?), Theophilus Gale (1628- 
1678), John Pordage (1607-1681), George Rust (d. 1670), John 
Smith (1618-1652) and John Worthington (1618-1671). They 
represented liberal thought -at the time and were generally 
known as Latitudinarians. Their views were due to a reaction 
against three main tendencies in contemporary English thought: 
the sacerdotalism of Laud and his followers, the obscurantist 
sectaries and, most important of all, the doctrines of Hobbes. 
They consist chiefly of a reconciliation between reason and 
religion, resulting in a generally tolerant spirit. They tend 
always to mysticism and the comtemplation of things transcen- 
dental. In spite of inaccuracy and the lack of critical capacity 
in dealing with their authorities both ancient and modern, the 
Cambridge Platonists exercised a valuable influence on English 
theology and thought in general. Their chief contributions to 

v. 4 

thought were Cudworth's theory of the " plastic nature " of 
God, More's elaborate mysticism, Norris's appreciation of Male- 
branche, Glanvill's conception of scepticism as an aid to Faith,- 
and, in a less degree, the harmony of Faith and Reason elaborated 
by Culverwel. The one doctrine on which they all combined to 
lay especial emphasis was the absolute existence of right and 
wrong quite apart from the theory of divine authority. Their 
chief authorities were Plato and the Neo-platonists (between 
whom they made no adequate distinction), and among modern 
philosophers, Descartes, Malebranche and Boehme. From these 
sources they attempted to evolve a philosophy of religion, 
which would not only refute the views of Hobbes, but would 
also free theology finally from the errors of scholasticism, 
without plunging it in the newer dangers of unfettered rational- 
ism (see Ethics). 

See Tulloch, Rational Theology in England in the 17th Century, 
Hallam, Literature of Europe (chap, on Philosophy from 1650 to 1700; 
Hunt, Religious Thought in England; von Stein, Sieben Biicher zur 
Geschichte des Platonismus (1862), and works on individual philo- 
sophers appended to biographies. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE, an eastern county of England, bounded 
N. by Lincolnshire, E. by Norfolk and Suffolk, S. by Essex and 
Hertfordshire, and W. by Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire and 
Northamptonshire, The area is 858-9 sq. m. The greater part 
of the county falls within the district of the Fens, and is flat, 
elevated only a few feet above sea-level, and intersected with 
innumerable drainage channels. The physical characteristics of 
this district, and the history of its reclamation from a marshy 
and in great part uninhabitable condition, fall for consideration 
under the heading Fens. Except in the south of the county the 
scenery of the flat land is hardly ever varied by rising ground or 
wood, and owes the attraction it possesses rather to individuality 
than to beauty. At the south-eastern and southern boundaries, 
and to the west of Cambridge, bordering the valley of the Cam on 
the north, the land rises in gentle undulations; but for the rest, 
such elevations as the Gog Magog Hills, S.E. of Cambridge, and 
the gentle hillock on which the city of Ely stands, are. isolated 
and conspicuous from afar. The principal rivers are the Ouse 
and its tributaries in the south and centre, and the Nene 
in the north; the greater part of the waters of both these 
rivers within Cambridgeshire flow in artificial channels, of 
which those for the Ouse, two great parallel cuts between 
Earith and Denver Sluice, in Norfolk, called the Bedford 
Rivers, form the most remarkable feature in the drainage of 
the county, The old main channel of the Ouse, from Ely 
downward to Denver (below which are tidal waters), is filled 
chiefly by the waters of the Cam or Granta, which joins the 
Ouse 3 m. above Ely, the Lark (which with its feeder, the 
Kennett, forms the boundary of the county with Suffolk for a 
considerable distance) and the Little Ouse, forming part of the 
boundary with Norfolk. 

Geology. — By its geological features, Cambridgeshire is 
divisible into three well-marked regions; in the south and 
south-east are the low uplands formed by the Chalk; north of 
this, but best developed in the south-west, is a clay and greensand 
area; all the remaining portion is alluvial Fenland. The general 
strike of the rocks is along a south-west and north-east line, the 
dip is south-easterly. The oldest rock is the Jurassic Oxford 
Clay, which appears as an irregular strip of elevated flat ground 
reaching from Croxton by Conington and Fenny Drayton to 
Willingham and Rampton. Eastward and northward it no doubt 
forms the floor of the Fen country, and at Thorney and Whittlesea 
small patches rise like islands, through the level fen alluvium. 
The Coralline Oolite, with the Els worth or St Ives rock at the 
base, occurs as a small patch, covered by Greensand, at Upware, 
whence many fossils have been obtained; elsewhere its place is 
taken by the Ampthill Clays, which are passage beds between the 
Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays. The latter clay lies in a narrow 
strip by Papworth St Agnes, Oakington and Cottenham; a 
large irregular outcjrop surrounds Haddenham and Ely, and 
similar occurrences are at March, Chatteris and Manea. Above 
the Kimmeridge Clay comes the Lower Greensand, sandy for the 


9 8 


greater part, but here and there hardened into the condition 
known as " Carstone," which has been used as an inferior 
building-stone. This formation is thickest in the south-west ; it 
extends from the border by Gamlingay, Cuxton and Cottenham, 
and appears again in outliers at Upware, Ely and Haddenham. 
The Gault forms a strip of flat ground, 4 to 6 m. wide, running 
roughly parallel with the course of the river Cam, from Guilden 
Morden through Cambridge to Soham; it is a stiff blue clay 
200 ft. thick in the south-west, but is thinner eastward. At the 
bottom of the chalk is the Chalk Marl, 10 to 20 ft. thick, with 
a glauconitic and phosphatic nodule-bearing layer at its base, 
known as the Cambridge Greensand. This bed has been largely 
worked for the nodules and for cement; it contains many 
fossils derived from the Gault below. Several outliers of Chalk 
Marl lie upon the Gault west of the Cam. The Chalk comprises 
all the main divisions of the formation, including the Totternhoe 
stone, Melbourn rock and Chalk rock. Much glacial boulder 
clay covers all the higher ground of the county; it is a stiff 
brownish clay with many chalk fragments of travelled rocks. 
Near Ely there is a remarkable mass of chalk, evidently trans- 
ported by ice, resting on and surrounded by boulder clay. 
Plateau gravel caps some of the chalk hills, and old river gravels 
occur at lower levels with the bones of mammoth, rhinoceros and 
other extinct mammals. The low-lying Fen beds are marly silt 
with abundant peat beds and buried forests; at the bottom is a 
gravel layer of marine origin. 

Industries. — The climate is as a whole healthy, the fens being 
so carefully drained that diseases to which dwellers in marshy 
districts are commonly liable are practically eliminated. The 
land is very fertile, and although some decrease is generally 
apparent in the acreage under grain crops, Cambridgeshire is 
one of the principal grain-producing counties in England. 
Nearly nine-tenths of the total area is under cultivation, and an 
unusually small proportion is under permanent pasture. Wheat 
is the chief grain crop, but large quantities of barley and oats are 
also grown. Among green crops potatoes occupy a large and 
increasing area. Dairy-farming is especially practised in the 
south-west, where the district of the Cam valley has long been 
known as the Dairies; and much butter and cheese are sent to 
the London markets. Sheep are pastured extensively on the 
higher ground, but the number of these and of cattle for the 
county as a whole is not large. Beans occupy a considerable 
acreage, and fruit-growing and market-gardening are important 
in many parts. There is no large manufacturing industry 
common to the county in general; among minor trades brewing 
is carried on at several places, and brick-making and lime- 
burning may also be mentioned. 

Communications. — The principal railway serving the county is 
the Great Eastern, of which system numerous branch lines centre 
chiefly upon Cambridge, Ely and March. Cambridge is also 
served by branches of the Great Northern line from Hitchin, 
of the London & North- Western from Bletchley and Bedford, 
and of the Midland from Kettering. A trunk line connecting 
the eastern counties with the north and north-west of England 
runs northward from March under the joint working of the Great 
Northern and Great Eastern companies. The artificial water- 
ways provide the county with an extensive system of inland 
navigation; and a considerable proportion of the industrial 
population is employed on these. In this connexion the building 
of boats and barges is carried on at several towns. 

Population and Administration.- — The area of the ancient 
county is 549,723 acres, with a population in 1891 of 188,961, 
and in 1901 of 190,682. The ancient county includes the two 
administrative counties of Cambridge in the south and the Isle 
of Ely in the north. The liberty of the Isle of Ely was formerly 
of the independent nature of a county palatine, but ceased to 
be so under acts of 1836 and 1837. Its area is 238,048 acres, 
and that of the administrative county of Cambridge 315,171 
acres. Cambridgeshire contains seventeen hundreds. The 
municipal boroughs are Cambridge, the county town (pop. 
38,379), in the administrative county of Cambridge, and Wisbech 
(9381) in the Isle of Ely. The other urban districts are — -in the 

administrative county of Cambridge, Chesterton (9591), and in 
the Isle of Ely, Chatteris (4711), Ely (7713), March (7565) and 
Whittlesey (3909). Among other considerable towns Soham 
(4230) and Littleport (4181), both in the neighbourhood of Ely. 
may be mentioned. The town of Newmarket, which, although 
wholly within the administrative county of West Suffolk, is 
mainly in the ancient county of Cambridgeshire, is famous for 
its race-meetings. The county is in the south-eastern circuit, 
and assizes are held at Cambridge. Each administrative county 
has a court of quarter sessions, and the two are divided into ten 
petty sessional divisions. The borough of Cambridge has a 
separate court of quarter sessions, and this borough and Wisbech 
have separate commissions of the peace. The university of 
Cambridge exercises disciplinary jurisdiction over its members. 
There are 168 entire civil parishes in the two administrative 
counties. Cambridgeshire is almost wholly in the diocese of Ely 
and the archdeaconries of Ely and Sudbury, but small portions 
are within the dioceses of St Albans and Norwich. There are 
194 ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part within 
the county. The parliamentary divisions are three, namely. 
Northern or Wisbech, Western or Chesterton, and Eastern or 
Newmarket, each returning one member. The county also 
contains the parliamentary borough of Cambridge, returning 
one member; and the university of Cambridge returns two 

History. — The earliest English settlements in what is now 
Cambridgeshire were made about the 6th century by bands of 
Engles, who pushed their way up the Ouse and the Cam, and 
established themselves in the fen-district, where they became 
known as the Gyrwas, the districts corresponding to the modern 
counties of Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire being dis- 
tinguished as the lands of the North Gyrwas and the South 
Gyrwas respectively. At this period the fen-district stretched 
southward as far as Cambridge, and the essential unity which 
it preserved is illustrated later by its inclusion under one 
sheriff, chosen in successive years from Cambridgeshire proper, 
the Isle of Ely and Huntingdonshire. In 656 numerous lands in 
the neighbourhood of Wisbech were included in the endowment 
of the abbey of Peterborough, and in the same century religious 
houses were established at Ely and Thorney, both of which, 
however, were destroyed during the Danish invasions of the 
9th century. After the treaty of Wedmore the district became 
part of the Danelaw. On the expulsion of the Danes by Edward 
in the 10th century it was included in East Anglia, but in the 
nth century was again overrun by the Danes, who in the course 
of their devastations burnt Cambridge. The first mention of 
the shire in the Saxon Chronicle records the valiant resistance 
which it opposed to the invaders in 1010 when the rest of East 
Anglia had taken ignominious flight. The shire-system of 
East Anglia was in all probability not definitely settled before 
the Conquest, but during the Danish occupation of the 9th century 
the district possessed a certain military and political organization 
round Cambridge, its chief town, whence probably originated 
the constitution and demarcation of the later shire. At the time 
of the Domesday Survey the county was divided as now, except 
that the Isle of Ely, which then formed two hundreds having 
their meeting-place at Witchford, is now divided into the four 
hundreds of Ely, Wisbech, North Witchford and South Witch- 
ford, while Cambridge formed a hundred by itself. The 
hundred of Fiendish was then known as Flamingdike. Cam- 
bridgeshire was formerly included in the diocese of Lincoln, 
until, on the erection of Ely to a bishop's see in 1109, almost the 
whole county was placed in that diocese. In 1291 the whole 
county, with the exception of parishes in the deanery of Fordham 
and diocese of Norwich, constituted the archdeaconry of Ely, 
comprising the deaneries of Ely, Wisbech, Chesterton, Cambridge, 
Shingay, Bourn, Barton and Camps. The Isle of Ely formerly 
constituted an independent franchise in which the bishops 
exercised quasi-palatinate rights, and offences were held to be 
committed against the bishop's peace. These privileges were 
considerably abridged in the reign of Henry VIII. , but the Isle 
still had separate civil officers, appointed by the bishop, chief 



among whom were the chief justice, chief bailiff, deputy bailiff 
and two coroners. The bishop is still cuslos rotulorum of the 
Isle. Cambridgeshire has always been remarkable for its lack 
of county families, and for the frequent changes in the ownership 
of estates. No Englishmen retained lands of any importance 
after the Conquest, and at the time of the Domesday Survey 
the chief lay proprietors were Alan, earl of Brittany, whose 
descendants the Zouches retained estates in the county until 
the 15th century; Picot the sheriff, whose estates passed to 
the families of Peverell and Peche; Aubrey de Vere, whose 
descendants retained their estates till the 16th century; and 
Hardwinus de Scalariis, ancestor of the Scales of Whaddon. 

From the time of Hereward's famous resistance to the Con- 
queror in the fen-district, the Isle of Ely was intimately concerned 
with the great political struggles of the country. It was defended 
against Stephen by Bishop Nigellus of Ely, who fortified Ely 
and Aldreth, and the latter in 1144 was held for the empress 
Maud by Geoffrey de Mandeville. During the struggles between 
John and his barons, Faukes de Breaute was made governor of 
Cambridge Castle, which, however, surrendered to the barons 
in the same year. The Isle of Ely was seized by the followers 
of Simon de Montfort in 1266, but in 1267 was taken by Prince 
Edward. At the Reformation period the county showed much 
sympathy with the Reformers, and in 1642 the knights, gentry 
and commoners of Cambridgeshire petitioned for the removal 
of all unwarrantable orders and dignities, and the banishment 
of popish clergy. In the civil war of the 17th century 
Cambridgeshire was one of the associated counties in which the 
king had no visible party, though the university assisted him 
with contributions of plate and money. 

Cambridgeshire has always been mainly an agricultural 
county. The Domesday Survey mentions over ninety mills 
and numerous valuable fisheries, especially eel-fisheries, and 
contains frequent references to wheat, malt and honey. The 
county had a flourishing wool-industry in the 14th century, 
and became noted for its worsted cloths. The Black Death of 
1349 and the ravages committed during the Wars of the Roses 
were followed by periods of severe depression, and in 1439 several 
Cambridgeshire towns obtained a remission of taxation on the 
plea of poverty. In the 16th century barley for malt was grown 
in large quantities in the south, and the manufacture of willow- 
baskets was carried on in the fen-districts. Saffron was extens- 
ively cultivated in the 1 8th century, and paper was manufactured 
near Sturbridgc. Sturbridge fair was at this period reckoned 
the largest in Europe, the chief articles of merchandise being 
wool, hops and leather; and the Newmarket races and horse- 
trade were already famous. Large waste areas were brought 
under cultivation in the 17 th century through the drainage 
of the fen-district, which was brought to completion about 
1652 through the labours of Cornelius Vermuyden, a Dutchman. 
The coprolite industry was very profitable for a short period 
from 1850 to 1880, and its decline was accompanied by a general 
industrial and agricultural depression. Cambridgeshire returned 
three members to parliament in 1290, and in 1295 the county 
returned two members, the borough of Cambridge two members, 
and the city of Ely two members, this being the sole return for 
Ely. The university was summoned to return members in 1300 
and again in 1603, but no returns are recorded before 1614, 
after which it continued to return two members. Under the 
Reform Act of 1832 the county returned three members. 
. Antiquities. — In ecclesiastical architecture Cambridgeshire 
would be rich only in the possession of the magnificent cathedral 
at Ely and the round church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jesus 
College and King's College chapels, and many other examples 
in Cambridge. But there are many fine churches elsewhere. 
At Thorney, a small town in the north of the county, which owes 
much in appearance to the 8th duke of Bedford (d. 1872), the 
parish church is actually a portion of the church of an abbey 
said to date originally from the 7 th century, and refounded in 
972 by Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, as a Benedictine 
monastery. The church is partly fine Norman. Another 
Norman building of special interest is Sturbridge chapel near 

Cambridge, which belonged to a lepers' hospital. To this 
foundation King John granted a fair, which became, and continued 
until the 18th century, one of the most important in England. It 
is still held in September. At Swaffham Prior there are remains 
of two churches in one churchyard, the tower of one being good 
Transitional Norman, while that of the other is Perpendicular, 
the upper part octagonal. Among many Early English examples 
the church of Cherry Hinton near Cambridge may be mentioned. 
The churches of Trumpington and Bottisham are fine specimens 
of the Decorated style; in the first is a famous brass to Sir 
Roger de Trumpington (1289). As Perpendicular examples the 
tower and spire of St Mary's, Whittlesey, and the rich wooden 
roof of Outwell church, may be selected. Monastic remains 
are scanty. Excluding the town of Cambridge there are no 
domestic buildings, either ancient or modern, of special note, 
with the exception of Sawston Hall, in the south of the county, 
a quadrangular mansion dated 1557-1584. 

Authorities. — See D. and S. Lysons, Magna Britannia, vol. ii. 
part i. (London, 1808) ; C. C. Babington, Ancient Cambridgeshire 
(Cambridge, 1883); R. Bowes, Catalogue of Books printed at or 
relating to Cambridge (Cambridge, 1891 et seq.) ; E. Conybeare, 
History of Cambridgeshire (London, 1897); Victoria County History, 

CAMBUSLANG, a town of Lanarkshire, Scotland. It is situ- 
ated near the Clyde, 45 m. S.E. of Glasgow (of which it is a 
residential suburb) by the Caledonian railway. Pop. (1891) 
8323; (1901) 12,252. Its leading industries include coal-mining, 
turkey-red dyeing and brick-making. It contains one of the 
largest steel works in the United Kingdom. Among the chief 
edifices are a public hall, institute and library. It was the 
birthplace of John Claudius London (1783-1843), the land- 
scape gardener and writer on horticulture, whose Arboretum et 
Fruticetum Britannicum still ranks as an authority. 

CAMBYSES (Pers. Kambujiya) , the name borne by the father 
and the son of Cyrus the Great. When Cyrus conquered Babylon 
in 539 he was employed in leading religious ceremonies (Chronicle 
of Nabonidus), and in the cylinder which contains Cyrus's 
proclamation to the Babylonians his name is joined to that of 
his father in the prayers to Marduk. On a tablet dated from the 
first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of- Babel. But his 
authority seems to have been quite ephemeral; it was only in 
530, when Cyrus set out on his last expedition into the East, 
that he associated Cambyses on the throne, and numerous 
Babylonian tablets of this time are dated from the accession 
and the first year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was " king of the 
countries " {i.e. of the world). After the death of his father in 
the spring of 528 Cambyses became sole king. The tablets dated 
from his reign in Babylonia go down to the end of his eighth 
year, i.e. March 521 B.C. 1 Herodotus (iii. 66), who dates his reign 
from the death of Cyrus, gives him seven years five months, i.e. 
from 528 to the summer of 521. For these dates cf. Ed. Meyer, 
Forschungen zur alien Geschichte, ii. 470 ff. 

The traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek 
authors, come from two different sources. The first, which 
forms the main part of the account of Herodotus (iii. 2; 4; 
10-37), is of Egyptian origin. Here Cambyses is made the 
legitimate son of Cyrus and a daughter of Apries (Herod, iii. 2, 
Dinon fr. n, Polyaen. viii. 29), whose death he avenges on the 
successor of the usurper Amasis. (In Herod, iii. 1 and Ctesias 
ap. Athen. xiii. 560 D, this tradition is corrected by the Persians: 
Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who sends 
him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daughter, and by 
her Cambyses is induced to begin the war.) His great crime is 
the killing of the Apis, for which he is punished by madness, 
in which he commits many other crimes, kills his brother and his 
sister, and at last loses his empire and dies from a wound in the hip, 
at the same place where he had wounded the sacred animal. 
Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercen- 
aries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who 

1 On the much discussed tablet, which is said to date from his 
nth year, the writer had at first written " 10th year of Cyrus," 
and then corrected this date into " 1st year of Cambyses"; see 
Strassmaier, Inschriften von Cambyses, No. 97. 



betrayed Egypt to the Persians. In the Persian tradition the 
crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother; he is further 
accused of drunkenness, in which he commits many crimes, and 
thus accelerates his ruin. These traditions are found in different 
passages of Herodotus, and in a later form, but with some 
trustworthy detail about his household, in the fragments of 
Ctesias. With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and 
some Egyptian inscriptions, we possess no contemporary evidence 
about the reign of Cambyses but the short account of Darius in 
the Behistun inscription. It is impossible from these sources to 
form a correct picture of Cambyses' character; but it seems 
certain that he was a wild despot and that he was led by 
drunkenness to many atrocious deeds. 

It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered Asia, 
Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the only 
remaining independent state of the Eastern world. Before he 
set out on his expedition he killed his brother Bardiya (Smerdis), 
whom Cyrus had appointed governor of the eastern provinces. 
The date is given by Darius, whereas the Greek authors narrate 
the murder after the conquest of Egypt. The war took place in 
525, when Amasis had just been succeeded by his son Psam- 
metichus III. Cambyses had prepared for the march through 
the desert by an alliance with Arabian chieftains, who brought a 
large supply of water to the stations. King Amasis had hoped 
that Egypt would be able to withstand the threatened Persian 
attack by an alliance with the Greeks. But this hope failed; 
the Cyprian towns and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who 
possessed a large fleet, now preferred to join the Persians, and 
the commander of the Greek troops, Phanes of Halicarnassus, 
went over to them. In the decisive battle at Pelusium the 
Egyptians were beaten, and shortly afterwards Memphis was 
taken. The captive king Psammetichus was executed, having 
attempted a rebellion. The Egyptian inscriptions show that 
Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the costume of the 
Pharaohs, although we may very well believe that he did not 
conceal his contempt for the customs and the religion of the 
Egyptians. From Egypt Cambyses attempted the conquest of 
Ethiopia (Cush), i.e. the kingdom of Napata and Meroe, the 
modern Nubia. But his army was not able to cross the deserts; 
after heavy losses he was forced to return. In an inscription 
from Napata (in the Berlin museum) the Ethiopian king Nastesen 
relates that he had beaten the troops of Kembasuden, i.e. 
Cambyses, and taken all his ships (H. Schafer, Die Aethiopische 
Konigsinschrift des Berliner Museums, 1901). Another expedi- 
tion against the great oasis failed likewise, and the plan of attack- 
ing Carthage was frustrated by the refusal of the Phoenicians 
1 operate against their kindred. Meanwhile in Persia a usurper, 
the Magian Gaumata, arose in the spring of 522, who pretended 
to be the murdered Bardiya (Smerdis). He was acknowledged 
throughout Asia. Cambyses attempted to march against him, 
but, seeing probably that success was impossible, died by his 
own hand (March 521). This is the account of Darius, which 
certainly must be preferred to the traditions of Herodotus and 
Ctesias, which ascribe his death to an accident. According to 
Herodotus (iii. 64) he died in the Syrian Ecbatana, i.e. Hamath; 
Josephus {Ant. xi. 2. 2) names Damascus; Ctesias, Babylon, 
which is absolutely impossible. 

See A. Lincke, Kambyses in der Sage, Litteratur und Kunst des 
Mittelalters, in Aegyptiaca: Festschrift fur Georg Ebers (Leipzig 
1897), pp. 41-61; also Persia: Ancient History. (Ed. M.) 

CAMDEN, CHARLES PRATT, ist Earl (1714-1794), lord 
chancellor of England, was born in Kensington in 17 14. He was 
a descendant of an old Devonshire family of high standing, the 
third son of Sir John Pratt, chief-justice of the king's bench in 
the reign of George I. He received his early education at Eton 
and King's College, Cambridge. In 1734 he became a fellow of 
his college, and in the following year obtained his degree of B.A. 
Having adopted his father's profession, he had entered the 
Middle Temple in 1728, and ten years later he was called to the 
bar. He practised at first in the courts of common law, travelling 
also the western circuit. For some years his practice was so 
limited, and he became so much discouraged, that he seriously 

thought of turning his back on the law and entering the church. 
He listened, however, to the advice of his friend Sir Robert 
Henley, a brother barrister, afterwards known as Lord Chancellor 
Northington, and persevered, working on and waiting for success. 
The first case which brought him prominently into notice and 
gave him assurance of ultimate success was the government 
prosecution, in 1752, of a bookseller, William Owen, for a libel on 
the House of Commons. 

His speech for the defence contributed much to the verdict for 
the defendant. In 1757, through the influence of William Pitt 
(afterwards earl of Chatham), with whom he had formed an 
intimate friendship while at Eton, he received the appointment 
of attorney-general. The same year he entered the House of 
Commons as member for the borough of Downton in Wiltshire. 
He sat in parliament four years, but did not distinguish himself 
as a debater. His professional practice now largely increased. 
One of the most noticeable incidents of his tenure of office as 
attorney-general was the prosecution of Dr. J. Shebbeare (1709- 
1788), a violent party writer of the day, for a libel against the 
government contained in his notorious Letters to the People of 
England, which were published in the years 1756-1758. As a 
proof of Pratt's moderation in a period of passionate party 
warfare and frequent state trials, it is noted that this was the 
only official prosecution for libel which he set on foot. In 
January 1762 Pratt was raised to the bench as chief-justice of the 
common pleas. He was at the same time knighted. Soon after 
his elevation the nation was thrown into great excitement about 
the prosecution of John Wilkes, and the question involved in it 
of the legality of " general warrants." Chief-Justice Pratt 
pronounced, with decisive and almost passionate energy, against 
their legality, thus giving voice to the strong feeling of the nation 
and winning for himself an extraordinary degree of popularity 
as one of the " maintainers of English constitutional liberty." 
Honours fell thick upon him in the form of addresses from the city 
of London and many large towns, and of presentations of freedom 
from various corporate bodies. In July 1765 he was raised to 
the peerage as Baron Camden, of Camden Place, in the county of 
Kent; and in the following year he was removed from the court 
of common pleas to take his seat as lord chancellor (July 30, 
1766). This seat he retained less than four years; for although 
he discharged its duties in so efficient a manner that, with one 
exception, his decisions were never reversed on appeal, he took 
up a position of such uncompromising hostility to the govern- 
ments of the day, the Grafton and North administrations, on 
the greatest and most exciting matters, the treatment of the 
American colonies and the proceedings against John Wilkes, 
that the government had no choice but to require of him the 
surrender of the great seal. He retired from the court of chancery 
in January 1770, but he continued to take a warm interest in 
the political affairs and discussions of the time. He continued 
steadfastly to oppose the taxation of the American colonists, and 
signed, in 1778, the protest of the Lords in favour of an address 
to the king on the subject of the manifesto of the commissioners 
to America. In 1782 he was appointed president of the 
council under the Rockingham administration, but retired in the 
following year. Within a few months he was reinstated in this 
office under the Pitt administration, and held it till his death. 
Lord Camden was a strenuous opponent of Fox's India Bill, took 
an animated part in the debates on important public matters 
till within two years of his death, introduced in 1786 the scheme 
of a regency on occasion of the king's insanity, and to the last 
zealously defended his early views on the functions of juries, 
especially of their right to decide on all questions of libel. He 
was raised to the dignity of an earl in May 1786, and was at the 
same time created Viscount Bayham. Earl Camden died in 
London on the 18th of April 1794. His remains were interred in 
Seale church in Kent. 

Marquess (1759-1840), only son of the ist earl, was born on the 
nth of February 1759, and was educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. In 1780 he was chosen member of parliament for 
Bath, and he obtained the lucrative position of teller of the 



exchequer, an office which he kept until his death, although 
after 1812 he refused to receive the large income arising from it. 
In the ministry of William Pitt, Pratt was successively a lord of 
the admiralty and a lord of the treasury; then, having suc- 
ceeded his father in the earldom in 1794, he was appointed lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland in 1 795. Disliked in Ireland as an opponent 
of Roman Catholic emancipation and as the exponent of an 
unpopular policy, Camden's term of office was one of commotion 
and alarm, culminating in the rebellion of 1798. Immediately 
after the suppression of the rising he resigned, and in 1804 
became secretary for war and the colonies under Pitt, and in 
1 805 lord president of the council. He was again lord presi- 
dent from 1807 to 181 2, after which date he remained for some 
time in the cabinet without office. In 181 2 he was created 
earl of Brecknock and Marquess Camden. He died on the 8th 
of October 1840, and was succeeded by his only son, George 
Charles, 2nd marquess (1799-1866). The present marquess is 
his descendant. Camden was chancellor of the university of 
Cambridge and a knight of the Garter. 

CAMDEN, WILLIAM (1551-1623), English antiquary and 
historian, was born in London on the 2nd of May 1551. His 
father, Sampson Camden, a native of Lichfield, had settled in 
London, and, as a painter, had become a member of the company 
of painter-stainers. His mother, Elizabeth, belonged to the old 
Cumberland family of Curwen. Young Camden received his 
early education at Christ's Hospital and St Paul's school, and 
in 1566 went to Magdalen College, Oxford, probably as a servitor 
or chorister. Failing to obtain a demyship at Magdalen he re- 
moved to Broadgates Hall, afterwards Pembroke College, and 
later to Christ Church, where he was supported by his friend, 
Dr Thomas Thornton, canon of Christ Church. As a defender 
of the established religion he was soon engaged in controversy, 
and his failure to secure a fellowship at All Souls' College is 
attributed to the hostility of the Roman Catholics. In 1570 
he supplicated in vain for the degree of B.A., and although a 
renewed application was granted in 1573 it is doubtful if he ever 
took a degree; and in 1571 he went to London and devoted 
himself to antiquarian studies, for which he had already acquired 
a taste. 

Camden spent some time in travelling in various parts of 
England collecting materials for his Britannia, a work which 
was first published in 1586. Owing to his friendship with Dr 
Gabriel Goodman, dean of Westminster, Camden was made 
second master of Westminster school in 1575; and when Dr 
Edward Grant resigned the headmastership in 1593 he was 
appointed as his successor. The vacations which he enjoyed 
as a schoolmaster left him time for study and travel, and during 
these years he supervised the publication of three further 
editions of the Britannia. Although a layman he was granted 
the prebend of Ilfracombe in 1589, and in 1597 he resigned his 
position at Westminster on being made Clarencieux king-at-arms, 
an appointment which caused some ill-feeling, and the York 
herald, Ralph Brooke, led an attack on the genealogical accuracy 
of the Britannia, and accused its author of plagiarism. Camden 
replied to Brooke in an appendix to the fifth edition of the 
Britannia, published in 1600, and his reputation came through 
the ordeal untarnished. Having brought out an enlarged and 
improved edition of the Britannia in 1607, he began to work on a 
history of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to which he had been 
urged by Lord Burghley in 1597. The first part of this history 
dealing with the reign down to 1588 was published in 1615 under 
the title Annates rerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum regnante 
Elizabetha. With regard to this work some controversy at 
once arose over the author's treatment of Mary, queen of Scots. 
It was asserted that Camden altered his original narrative in 
order to please James L, and, moreover, that the account which 
he is said to have given to his friend, the French historian, 
Jacques de Thou, differed substantially from his own. It seems 
doubtful if there is any truth in either of these charges. The 
second part of this work, finished in 1617, was published, after 
the author's death, at Leiden in 1625 and in London in 1627, 
In 1622 Camden carried out a plan to found a history lectureship 

at Oxford. He provided an endowment from some lands at 
Bexley, and appointed as the first lecturer, his friend, Degory 
Wheare. The present occupant of the position is known as the 
Camden professor of ancient history. His concluding years were 
mainly spent at Chislehurst, where he had taken up his residence 
in 1609, and in spite of recurring illnesses he continued to work 
at material for the improvement of the Britannia and kindred 
subjects. He died at Chislehurst on the 9th of November 1623, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where a monument now 
stands to his memory. 

The Britannia, the first edition of which is dedicated to Burgh- 
ley, is a survey of the British islands written in elegant Latin. 
It was first translated into English in 1610, probably under the 
author's direction, and other translations have subsequently 
appeared, the best of which is an edition edited by Richard 
Gough and published in three volumes in 1789, and in four 
volumes in 1806. The Annates has been translated into French, 
and English translations appeared in 1635, 1675 and 1688. 
The Latin version was published at Leiden in 1639 and 1677, 
and under the editorship of T, Hearne at Oxford in 17 17. In 
addition to these works Camden compiled a Greek grammar, 
Institutio Graecae Grammatices Compendiaria, which became 
very popular, and he published an'edition of the writings of Asser, 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Thomas Walsingham and others, under the 
title, Anglica, Hibernica, Normannica, Cambrica, a veteribus 
scripta, published at Frankfort in 1602, and again in 1603. 
He also drew up a list of the epitaphs in Westminster Abbey, 
which was issued as Reges, Reginae, Nobiles et alii in ecclesia 
collegiata Beati Petri Westmonasterii sepulti. This was enlarged 
and published again in 1603 and 1606. In 1605 he published 
his Remains concerning Britain, a book of collections from the 
Britannia, which quickly passed through seven editions; and 
he wrote an official account of the trial of the Gunpowder Plot 
conspirators as Actio in Henricum Garnetum, Societatis Jesuiticae 
in Anglia superiorem et caeteros. 

Camden, who refused a knighthood, was a man of enormous 
industry, and possessed a modest and friendly disposition. 
He had a large number of influential friends, among whom were 
Archbishop Ussher, Sir Robert Cotton, John Selden, the French 
jurist Brisson, and Isaac Casaubon. His correspondence was 
published in London in 1691 by Dr Thomas Smith under the title, 
Vita Gulielmi Camdeni et Illustrium virorum ad G. Camdenum 
Epistolae. This- volume also contains his Memorabilia de seipso; 
his notes of the reign of James L; and other interesting matter. 
In 1838 the Camden Society was founded in his honour, and 
much valuable work has been done under its auspices. 

CAMDEN, a city and the county-seat of Camden county, 
New Jersey, U.S.A., on the Delaware river, directly opposite 
Philadelphia, Pa. Pop. (1880) 41,659; (1890) 58,313; (1900) 
75,935> of whom 10,097 wer e foreign-born and 5576 were 
negroes; (1910) 94,538. It is a terminus of the Atlantic 
City, the West Jersey & Sea Shore, and the Pennsylvania 
( Amboy division) railways, and is also served by river and coasting 
steamboat lines. Camden is practically a suburb of Philadelphia, 
with which it is connected by ferries. It has several pleasant 
residential sections, and among its public buildings are the 
city hall, the Camden county court house, the post office, the 
free public library, the Cooper hospital and the West Jersey 
homeopathic hospital. The high school has a thoroughly 
equipped manual training department. The city owns and 
operates its water- works system,and is an important manufactur- 
ing and ship-building centre, among its manufactories being 
chemical works; asbestos, wall-paper, oil-cloth and morocco- 
leather factories; woollen, worsted and yarn mills; preserving 
factories; iron and steel mills; boot and shoe factories; and 
ship-yards. In 1900 the total value of the city's manufactured 
products was $20,451,874 (of which $17,969,954 was the value 
of factory products, which in 1905 had increased 86-5% to 
$33>587,273), several of the largest items being worsted goods 
($2,090,991 in 1900, and $2,528,040 in 1905); leather, tanned, 
curried and finished ($1,515,935 in 1900, and $6,364,928 in 
1905); oil-cloth ($1,638,556 in 1900); pickles, preserves and 



sauces ($683, 358 in 1900), and wooden ships and boats ($409,500 
in 1900, and $361,089 in 1905, when the value of the iron and 
steel ship-building industry was $4,673,504). The first settlers 
on the site of Camden came in 1679, but for a century the settle- 
ment consisted of isolated farms and a small group of houses 
about the ferry by which travellers from the east crossed to 
Philadelphia. The early settlers were largely Quakers. About 
1773 Jacob Cooper laid out a town near the ferry, and gave it 
the name Camden in honour of Lord Chancellor Camden, who 
had been one of the strongest opponents of the Stamp Act. 
The settlement, however, was known variously as"Pluckemin," 
" The Ferry " and " Cooper's Ferry " until about the time of 
the War of 181 2. Until 1828 it was administratively a part 
of the town of Newton, Gloucester county, but in that year, 
with more than a thousand inhabitants, it was chartered as a 
city under its present name. During the British occupation 
of Philadelphia in the War of Independence, a British force 
was stationed here, and Camden was the scene of several skir- 
mishes between the British troops and the New Jersey irregular 
militia. Camden was the home of Walt Whitman from 1873 
until his death. 

CAMDEN, a town and the county-seat of Kershaw county, 
South Carolina, U.S.A., near the Wateree river, 33 m. N.E. of 
Columbia. Pop. (1890) 3533; (1900) 2441; this decrease was 
due to the separation from Camden during the decade of its 
suburb "Kirkwood," re-annexed in 1905; (1910) 3569. It is 
served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air Line and 
the Southern railways. Camden is situated about 100 ft. above 
the river, which is navigable to this point. The town is a winter 
resort, chiefly for Northerners. Cotton, grain and rice are 
produced in the vicinity, and there are some manufactories, 
including cotton mills, a cotton-seed oil mill and planing mills. 
Camden, first known as Pine Tree Hill, is one of the oldest 
interior towns of the state, having been settled in 1758; in 1768 
the present name was adopted in honour of Lord Chancellor 
Camden. The town was first incorporated in 1791; its present 
charter dates from 1890. For a year following the capture of 
Charleston by the British in May 1780, during the War of 
Independence, Camden was the centre of important military 
operations. It was occupied by the British under Cornwallis in 
June 1780, was well fortified and was garrisoned by a force 
under Lord Rawdon. On the 16th of August Gen. Horatio 
Gates, with an American force of about 3600, including some 
Virginia militia under Charles Porterfield (1 750-1 780) and Gen. 
Edward Stevens (1745-1820), and North Carolina militia under 
Gen. Richard Caswell (1729-1789), was defeated here by the 
British, about 2000 strong, under Lord Cornwallis, who had 
joined Rawdon in anticipation of an attack by Gates. Soon 
after the engagement began a large part of the Americans, 
mostly North Carolina and Virginia militia, fled precipitately, 
carrying Gates with them ; but Baron De Kalb and the Maryland 
troops fought bravely until overwhelmed by numbers, De Kalb 
himself being mortally wounded. A monument was erected to 
his memory in 1825, Lafayette laying the corner-stone. The 
British loss in killed, wounded and missing was 324; the 
American loss was about 800 or 900 killed and 1000 prisoners, 
besides arms and baggage. On the 3rd of December Gates was 
superseded by Gen. Nathanael Greene, who after Cornwallis had 
left the Carolinas, advanced on Camden and arrived in the 
neighbourhood on the 19th of April 1781. Considering his force 
(about 1450) insufficient for an attack on the fortifications, he 
withdrew a short distance north of Camden to an advantageous 
position on Hobkirk's Hill, where on the 25th of April Rawdon, 
with a force of only 950, took him somewhat by surprise and 
drove him from the field. The casualties on each side were nearly 
equal: American 271; British 258. On the 8th of May Rawdon 
evacuated the town, after burning most of it. On the 24th of 
February 186 5, during the Civil War, a part of Gen. W.T.Sherman's 
army entered Camden and burned stores of tobacco and cotten, 
and several buildings. (See American War of Independence.) 

See also T. J. Kirkland and R. M. Kennedy, Historic Camden 
(Columbia, S.C., 1905). 

CAMEL (from the Arabic Djemal or the Heb. Gamal), the 
name of the single-humped Arabian Camelus dromedarius, but 
also applied to the two-humped central Asian C. bactrianus and 
to the extinct relatives of both. The characteristics of camels 
and their systematic position are discussed under the headings 
Tylopoda and Artiodactyla. The two living species are 
distinguishable at a glance. It may be mentioned that the 
Bactrian camel, which is a shorter-legged and more ponderous 
animal than the Arabian species, grows an enormously long and 
thick winter coat, which is shed in blanket-like masses in spring. 
The Arabian camel, which is used not only in the country from 
which it takes its name, but also in North Africa and India, and 
has been introduced into Australia and North America, is known 
only as a domesticated animal. On the other hand, the Bactrian 
species, which is employed throughout a large tract of central 
Asia in the domesticated condition, appears, according to recent 
researches, to exist in the wild state in some of the central 
Asian deserts. From the examination of specimens collected by 
Dr Sven Hedin, Professor W. Leche shows that the wild Bactrian 
camel differs from the domesticated breed of central Asia in the 
following external characters: the humps are smaller; the long 
hair does not occupy nearly so much of the body; the colour is 
much more rufous; and the ears and muzzle are shorter. Many 
important 'differences are also recorded between the skulls of the 
two animals, and it is especially noteworthy that the last lower 
molar is smaller in the wild than in the tame race. In connexion 
with this point it should be noticed that, unlike what occurs in 
the yak, the wild animal is not larger than the tame one, although 
it is incorrect to say that the former is decidedly the inferior of 
the latter in point of stature. Dr Leche also institutes a com- 
parison between the skeletons of the wild and the tame Bactrian 
camel with the remains of certain fossil Asiatic camels, namely, 
Camelus knoblochi from Sarepta, Russia, and C. alutensis from 
the Aluta valley, Rumania. This comparison leads to the 
important conclusion that the wild Bactrian Camelus bactrianus 
ferns comes much nearer to the fossil species than it does to the 
domesticated breed, the resemblance being specially noticeable 
in the absolutely and relatively small size of the last molar. In 
view of these differences from the domesticated breed, and the 
resemblance of the skull or lower jaw to that of the extinct 
European species, it becomes practically impossible to regard 
the wild camels as the offspring of animals that have escaped 
from captivity. 

On the latter hypothesis it has been generally assumed that 
the wild camels are the descendants of droves of the domesticated 
breed which escaped when certain central Asian cities were 
overwhelmed by sand-storms. This theory, according to Pro- 
fessor Leche, is rendered improbable by Dr Sven Hedin's 
observations on the habits and mode of life of the wild camel. 
The habitat of the latter extends from the lower course of the 
Keria river to the desert at the termination of that river, and 
thence to the neighbourhood of the Achik, the ancient bed of the 
Tarim river. These animals also occur in the desert district 
south of the Tarim; but are most abundant in the deserts and 
mountains to the southward of Kuruktagh, where there are a 
few brackish-water pools, and are also common in the barren 
mountains between Kuruktagh and Choetagh. Large herds 
have also been observed in the deserts near Altyntagh. The 
capacity of camels for travelling long distances without water 
— owing to special structural modifications in the stomach — 
is familiar to all. That the Arabian species was one of the 
earliest animals to be domesticated is evident from the record 
of Scripture, where six thousand camels are said to have formed 
part of the wealth of the patriarch Job. Camels also formed 
part of the present which Pharaoh gave to Abraham, and it was 
to a company of Ishmaelites travelling from Gilead to Egypt on 
camels, laden with spices, much as their Arabian descendants do 
at the present day, that Joseph was sold by his brothers. 

The hump (or humps) varies in size according to the condition 
of the animal, becoming small and flaccid after hard work and 
poor diet. 

During the rutting-season male camels become exceedingly 


savage and dangerous, uttering a loud bubbling roar and engaging 
in fierce contests with their fellows. The female carries her 
young for fully eleven months, and produces only one calf at a 
time, which she suckles for a year. Eight days after birth the 
young Arabian camel stands 3 ft. high, but does not reach its 
full growth till its sixteenth or seventeenth year; it lives from 
forty to fifty years. The flesh of the young camel resembles veal, 
and is a favourite food of the Arabs, while camel's milk forms 
an excellent and highly nutritious beverage, although it does 
not furnish butter. The long hair is shorn every summer, and 
woven into a variety of stuffs used by the Arab for clothing 
himself and his family, and covering his tent. It was in raiment 
of camel's hair that John the Baptist appeared as a preacher. 
The hair imported into Europe is chiefly used in the manufacture 
of small brushes used by painters, while the thick hide is formed 
into a very durable leather. The droppings are used as fuel, and 
from the incinerated remains of these sal-ammoniac is extracted, 
which was at one time largely exported from Egypt. 

The Bactrian camel is, if possible, of still more importance 
to many of the central Asian Mongol races, supplying them 
alike with food and raiment. It is, however, as " the ship of the 
desert," without which vast tracts of the earth's surface could 
scarcely be explored, that the camel is specially valuable. In 
its fourth year its training as a beast of burden begins, when it 
is taught to kneel and to rise at a given signal, and is gradually 
accustomed to bear increasing loads. These vary in weight 
from 500 to 1000 lb, according to the variety of camel employed, 
for of the Arabian camel there are almost as many breeds as 
there are of the horse. When crossing a desert camels are 
expected to carry their loads 25 m. a day for three days without 
drink, getting a supply of water, however, on the fourth; but 
the fleeter breeds will carry their rider and a bag of water 50 m. 
a day for five days without drinking. When too heavily laden 
the camel refuses to rise, but on the march it is exceedingly 
patient under its burden, only yielding beneath it to die. 
Relieved from its load it does not, like other animals, seek the 
shade, even when that is to be found, but prefers to kneel beside 
its burden in the broad glare of the sun, seeming to luxuriate 
in the burning sand. When overtaken by a dust-storm it falls 
on its knees, and stretching its neck along the sand, closes its 
nostrils and remains thus motionless till the atmosphere clears; 
and in this position it affords some shelter to its driver, who, 
wrapping his face in his mantle, crouches behind his beast. 

The food of the camel consists chiefly of the leaves of trees, 
shrubs and dry hard vegetables, which it is enabled to tear down 
and masticate by means of its powerful front teeth. As regards 
temperament, if, writes Sir F. Palgrave, " docile means stupid, 
well and good; in such a case the camel is the very model of 
docility. But if the epithet is intended to designate an animal 
that takes an interest in its rider so far as a beast can, that in 
some way understands his intentions, or shares them in a sub- 
ordinate fashion, that obeys from a sort of submissive or half- 
fellow-feeling with his master, like the horse or elephant, then 
I say that the camel is by no means docile — very much the 
contrary. He takes no heed of his rider, pays no attention 
whether he be on his back or not, walks straight on when once 
set agoing, merely because he is too stupid to turn aside, and 
then should some tempting thorn or green branch allure him out 
of the path, continues to walk on in the new direction simply 
because he is too dull to turn back into the right road. In a 
word, he is from first to last an undomesticated and savage 
animal rendered serviceable by stupidity alone, without much 
skill on his master's part, or any co-operation on his own, save 
that of an extreme passiveness. Neither attachment nor even 
habit impresses him; never tame, though not wide-awake enough 
to be exactly wild." 

For extinct camels see Tylopoda. (R- L.*) 

The Biblical expression (Matt. xix. 24, &c), " it is easier for a camel 
to go through a needle's eye," &c, is sometimes explained by saying 
that the " needle's eye " means the small gate which is opened in the 
great gate of a city, when the latter is closed for the night; but 
recent criticism (e.g. Post in Hastings' Diet., under " Camel ") throws 
doubt on this explanation, and assumes that the more violent hyper- 


bole is intended. There is a various reading k&miAos (cable) for kA,l»jXos 
(camel), but Cheyne, in the Ency. Biblica, rejects this (see Cable). 

CAMELFORD, THOMAS PITT, 1ST Baron (1737-1703), 
English politician and art patron, was a nephew of the 1st earl 
of Chatham. He sat in parliament from 1761 till 1784, siding 
against his uncle and following George Grenville, who was also 
a relative; and in 1784 he was raised to the peerage. He 
dabbled in architecture and the arts generally, and was a pro- 
minent figure in the artistic circles of his day. His son Thomas 
Pitt, 2nd Baron Camelford (1775-1804), who succeeded him 
in 1793, had an adventurous and misspent career in the navy, 
but is principally remembered for his death in a duel with 
Mr Best on the 10th of March 1804, the title becoming extinct. 

CAMELLIA, a genus or subgenus of evergreen trees or shrubs 
belonging to the natural order Ternstroemiaceae, with thick 
dark shining leaves and handsome white or rose-coloured 
flowers. The name Camellia was given by Linnaeus in honour 
of George Joseph Camellus or Kamel, a Moravian Jesuit who 
travelled in Asia and wrote an account of the plants of the 
Philippine Island, Luzon, which is included in the third volume 
of John Ray's Historia Plantarum (1704). Modern botanists 
are agreed that the tea-plant, placed by Linnaeus in a separate 
genus, Thea, is too nearly allied to Camellia to admit of the 
two being regarded as distinct genera. Thea and Camellia are 
therefore now considered to represent one genus, which has been 
generally called Camellia, but more correctly Thea, as this name 
was the earlier of the two. Under the latter view Camellia is 
regarded as a subgenus or section of Thea. It contains about 
eight species, natives of India, China and Japan. Most of the 
numerous cultivated forms are horticultural products of C. 
japonica, a native of China and Japan, which was introduced 
into Europe by Lord Petre in 1739. The wild plant has red 
flowers, recalling those of the wild rose, but most of the cultivated 
forms are double. In the variety anemonaeflora nearly all the 
stamens have become transformed into small petaloid structures 
which give the flower the appearance of a double anemone. 

Another species, C. reticulata, a native of Hongkong, is also 
prized for its handsome flowers, larger than those of C. japonica, 
which are of a bright rose colour and as known in cultivation 
semi-double or double. 

Both C. sasanqua and C. drupifera, the for:ner inhabiting 
Japan and China, the latter Cochin-China and the mountains 
of India, are oil-yielding plants. The oil of C. sasanqua (of which 
sasankwa is the native Japanese name) has an agreeable odour 
and is used for many domestic purposes. It is obtained from 
the seeds by subjecting them to pressure sufficient to reduce them 
to a coarse powder, and then boiling and again pressing the 
crushed materip.1. The leaves are also used in the form of a 
decoction by the Japanese women for washing their hair; and 
in a dried state they are mixed with tea on account of their 
pleasant flavour. The oil of C. drupifera, which is closely allied 
to C. sasanqua, is used medicinally in Cochin- China. The flowers 
of these two species, unlike those of C. japonica and C. reticulata, 
are odoriferous. 

Camellias, though generally grown in the cool greenhouse, 
are hardy in the south of England and the south-west of Scotland 
and Ireland. They grow best in a rich compost of sandy peat 
and loam, and should not be allowed to get too dry at the roots; 
a liberal supply of water is especially necessary during the 
flowering period. The best position — when grown out of doors — 
is one facing north or north-west, with a wall or hedge behind 
for protection from cold winds. July is the best time for plant- 
ing; care must be taken that the roots are evenly spread, not 
matted into a ball. 

The plants are propagated by layers or cuttings, and the 
single-flowered ones also by seeds. Cuttings are taken in 
August and placed in sandy peat or loam in a cold shaded frame. 
In the following spring those which have struck are placed in a 
gentle heat, and in September or October the rooted plants are 
potted off. Camellias are also propagated by grafting or inarching 
in early spring on stocks of the common variety of C. japonica. 
The scale insect sometimes attacks the camellia. To remove 



the white scale, the plants are washed with a sponge and solution 
of soft soap as soon as their growth is completed, and again 
before the buds begin to swell. The brown scale may be got rid 
of by repeated washings with one of the many insecticides, but 
it should be applied at a temperature of 90°. 

CAMEO, a term of doubtful origin, applied in the first instance 
to engraved work executed in relief on hard or precious stones. 
It is also applied to imitations of such stones in glass, called 
" pastes," or on the shells of molluscous animals. A cameo is 
therefore the converse of an intaglio, which consists of an 
incised or sunk engraving in the same class of materials. For 
the history of this branch of art, and for an account of some of 
its most remarkable examples, see Gem. 

The origin of the word is doubtful and has been a matter of 
copious controversy. The New English Dictionary quotes its use 
in a Sarum inventory of 1222, " lapis unus cameu " and " magnus 
cameku." The word is in current use in the 13th century. Thus 
Matthew Paris, in his Life of Abbot Leofric of St Albans, in the 
Abbatum S. Albani Vitae, says: " retentis quibusdam nobilibus 
lapidibus insctdptis, quos camaeos vulgariter appellamus." In 
variant forms the word has found its way into most languages, e.g. 
Latin, camahutus, camahelus, camaynus; Italian, chammeo, chameo; 
French, camahieu, chemahou, camaut, camaieu. The following may 
be mentioned among the derivations that have been proposed: — 
von Hammer: camaut, the hump of a camel; Littre and others: 
camateum, an assumed Low Latin form from Kafiwrevav and 
KanaTov; Chabouillet and Babelon: /cfcijttijXia, treasures, 
connecting the word in particular with the dispersion of treasures 
from Constantinople, in 1204; King: Arabic camea, an amulet. 

For a bibliography of the question, see Babelon, Cat. des Camees 
. . . de la Bibliotheque Nationale, p. iv. 

CAMERA (a Latin adaptation of Gr., an arched 
chamber), in law, a word applied at one time to the English 
judges' chambers in Serjeants' Inn, as distinct from their bench 
in Westminster Hall. It was afterwards applied to the judges' 
private room behind the court, and, hence, in the phrase in 
camera, to cases heard in private, i.e. in chambers. So far as 
criminal cases are concerned, the courts have no power to hear 
them in private, nor have they any power to order adults (men 
or women) out of court during the hearing. In civil proceedings 
at common law, it may also be laid down that the public cannot 
be excluded from the court; in Malan v. Young, 1889, 6 T.L.R. 
68, Mr Justice Denman held that he had power to hear the case 
in camera, but he afterwards stated that there was considerable 
doubt among the judges as to the power to hear cases in camera, 
even by consent, and the case was, by consent of the parties, 
finally proceeded with before the judge as arbitrator. In the court 
of chancery it is the practice to hear in private cases affecting 
wards of the court and lunatics, family disputes (by consent), 
and cases where a public trial would defeat the object of the 
action {Andrew v. Raeburn, 1874, L.R. 9 Ch. 522). In an action 
for infringement of a patent for a chemical process the defendant 
was allowed to state a secret process in camera (Badische Anilin 
und Soda Fabrik v. Gillman, 1883, 24 Ch. D. 156). The Court 
of Appeal has decided that it has power to sit in private; in 
Mellor v. Thompson, 1883, 31 Ch. D. 55, it was stated that a 
public hearing would defeat the object of the action, and render 
the respondent's success in the appeal useless. In matrimonial 
causes, the divorce court, following the practice of the ecclesi- 
astical courts under the provisions of the Matrimonial Causes Act 
1857, s. 22, hears suits for nullity of marriage on physical grounds 
in camera, but not petitions for dissolution of marriage, which 
must be heard in open court. It was also decided in Bruce v. 
Druce, 1903, 19 T.L.R. 387, that in cases for judicial separation 
the court has jurisdiction to hear the case in camera, where it is 
satisfied that justice cannot be done by hearing the case in public. 

CAMERA LUCIDA, an optical instrument invented by Dr 
William Hyde Wollaston for drawing in perspective. Closing 
one eye and looking vertically downwards with the other through 
a slip of plain glass, e.g. a microscope cover-glass, held close to 
the eye and inclined at an angle of 45 to the horizon, one can 
see the images of objects in front, formed by reflection from the 


Fig. 1. 


1st Image 

Fig. 2. 

surface of the glass, and at the same time one can also see through 

the transparent glass. The virtual images of the objects appear 

projected on the surface of a sheet of paper placed beneath the 

slip of glass, and their outline can be accurately traced with a 

pencil. This is the simplest form of the camera lucida. The 

image (see fig. 1) is, however, inverted and 

perverted, and it is not very bright owing to 

the poor reflecting power of unsilvered glass. 

The brightness of the image is sometimes in-' 

creased by silvering the glass; and on removing 

a small portion of the silver the observer can 

see the image with part of the pupil while he 

sees the paper through the unsilvered aperture ■«— « 

with the remaining part. This form of the in- lm ^ 

strument is often used in conjunction with the 

microscope, the mirror being attached to the eye-piece and the 

tube of the microscope being placed horizontally. 

About the beginning of the 19th century Dr Wollaston in- 
vented a simple form of the camera lucida which gives bright 
and erect images. A four-sided prism of glass is constructed 
having one angle of 90°, the opposite angle of 135°, and the two 
remaining angles each of 67!°. This is represented in cross- 
section and in position in fig. 2. When the pupil of the eye is 
held half over the edge of the prism a, 
one sees the image of the object with 
one half of the pupil and the paper with 
the other half. The image is formed by 
successive total reflection at the surfaces 
b c and a b. In the first place an in- 
verted image (first image) is formed in 
the face b c, and then an image of this 
image is formed in a b, and it is the 
outline of this second image seen pro- 
jected on the paper that is traced by the 
pencil. It is desirable for two reasons that the image should 
lie in the plane of the paper, and this can be secured by placing 
a suitable lens between the object and the prism. If the image 
does not lie in the plane of the paper, it is impossible to see it 
and the pencil-point clearly at the same time. Moreover, any 
slight movement of the head will cause the image to appear to 
move relatively to the paper, and will render it difficult to obtain 
an accurate drawing. 

Before the application of photography, the camera lucida was 
of considerable importance to draughtsmen. The advantages 
claimed for it were its cheapness, smallness and portability; 
that there was no appreciable distortion, and that its field was 
much larger than that of the camera obscura. It was used largely 
for copying, for reducing or for enlarging existing drawings. It 
will readily be understood, for example, that a copy will be half- 
size if the distance of the object from the instrument is double 
the distance of the instrument from the copy. (C. J. J.) 

CAMERA OBSCURA, an optical apparatus consisting of a 
darkened chamber (for which its name is the Latin rendering) 
at the top of which is placed a box or lantern containing a convex 
lens and sloping mirror, or a prism combining the lens and 
mirror. If we hold a common reading lens (a magnifying lens) 
in front of a lamp or some other bright object and at some 
distance from it, and if we hold a sheet of paper vertically at a 
suitable distance behind the lens, we see depicted on the paper 
an image of the lamp. This image is inverted and perverted. 
If now we place a plane 
mirror (e.g. a lady's hand 
glass) behind the lens and 
inclined at an angle of 45 to 
the horizon so as to reflect Jec 
the rays of light vertically 
downwards, we can produce 
on a horizontal sheet of 
paper an unperverted image 
of the bright object (fig. 1), i.e. the image has the same appear- 
ance as the object and is not perverted as when the reflection of a 
printed page is viewed in a mirror. This is the principle of the 



Image with Mirror 

Fig. 1. 

Image without 



camera obscura, which was extensively used in sketching from 
nature before the introduction of photography, although it is 
now scarcely to be seen except as an interesting side-show at 
places of popular resort. The image formed on the paper may 
be traced out by a pencil, and it will be noticed that in this case 
the image is real— not virtual as in the case of the camera 
lucida. Generally the mirror and lens are combined into a 
single piece of wo/rked glass represented in section in fig. 2. 
Rays from external objects are first re- 
fracted at the convex surface a b, then totally 
reflected at the plane surface a c, and finally 
refracted at the concave surface b c (fig. 2) 
so as to form an image on the sheet of paper 
d e. The curved surfaces take the place of 
the lens in fig. 1, and the plane surface per- 
forms the function of the mirror. The prism 
a ft c is fixed at the top of a small tent fur- 
nished with opaque curtains so as to prevent the diffused day- 
light from overpowering the image on the paper, and in the 
darkened tent the images of external objects are seen very 

Quite recently, the camera obscura has come into use with 
submarine vessels, the periscope being simply a camera obscura 
under a new name. (C.J.J.) 

History. — The invention of this instrument has generally been 
ascribed, as in the ninth edition of this work, to the famous 
Neapolitan savant of the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della 
Porta, but as a matter of fact the principle of the simple camera 
obscura, or darkened chamber with a small aperture in a window 
or shutter, was well known and in practical use for observing 
eclipses long before his time. He was anticipated in the improve- 
ments he claimed to have made in it, and all he seems really to 
have done was to popularize it. The increasing importance 
of the camera obscura as a photographic instrument makes it 
desirable to bring together what is known of its early history, 
which is far more extensive than is usually recognized. In 
southern climes, where during the summer heat it is usual to 
close the rooms from the glare of the sunshine outside, we may 
often see depicted on the walls vivid inverted images of outside 
objects formed by the light reflected from them passing through 
chinks or small apertures in doors or window-shutters. From 
the opening passage of Euclid's Optics (c. 300 B.C.), which 
formed the foundation for some of the earlier middle age treatises 
on geometrical perspective, it would appear that the above 
phenomena of the simple darkened room were used by him to 
demonstrate the rectilinear propagation of light by the passage 
of sunbeams or the projection of the images of objects through 
small openings in windows, &c. In the book known as Aris- 
totle's Problems (sect. xv. cap. 5) we find the correlated problem 
of the image of the sun passing through a quadrilateral aperture 
always appearing round, and he further notes the lunated image 
of the eclipsed sun projected in the same way through the 
interstices of foliage or lattice-work. 

There are, however, very few allusions to these phenomena 
in the later classical Greek and Roman writers, and we find the 
first scientific investigation of them in the great optical treatise 
of the Arabian philosopher Alhazen (q.v.), who died at Cairo in 
a.d. 1038. He seems to have been well acquainted with the 
projection of images of objects through small apertures, and to 
have been the first to show that the arrival of the image of an 
object at the concave surface of the common nerve— or the 
retina — corresponds with the passage of light from an object 
through an aperture in a darkened place, from which it falls 
upon a surface facing the aperture. He also had some knowledge 
of the properties of concave and convex lenses and mirrors in 
forming images. Some two hundred years later, between 
a.d. 1266 and 1279, these problems were taken up by three 
almost contemporaneous writers on optics, two of whom, Roger 
Bacon and John Peckham, were Englishmen, and Vitelloor 
Witelo, a Pole. 

That Roger Bacon was acquainted with the principle of the 
camera obscura is shown by his attempt at solving Aristotle's 

problem stated above, in the treatise De Speculis, and also from 
his references to Alhazen's experiments of the same kind, but 
although Dr John Freind, in his History of Physick, has given him 
the credit of the invention on the strength of a passage in the 
Perspectiva, there is nothing to show that he constructed any 
instrument of the kind. His arrangement of concave and plane 
mirrors, by which the realistic images of objects inside the house 
or in the street could be rendered visible though intangible, 
there alluded to, may apply to a camera on Cardan's principle or 
to a method of aerial projection by means of concave mirrors, 
which Bacon was quite familiar with, and indeed was known 
long before his time. On the strength of similar arrangements of 
lenses and mirrors the invention of the camera obscura has also 
been claimed for Leonard Digges, the author of Pantometria 
(1571), who is said to have constructed a telescope from informa- 
tion given in a book of Bacon's experiments. 

Archbishop Peckham, or Pisanus, in his Perspectiva Communis 
(1270), and Vitello, in his Optics (1270), also attempted the 
solution of Aristotle's problem, but unsuccessfully. Vitello's 
work is to a very great extent based upon Alhazen and some of 
the earlier writers, and was first published in 1535. A later 
edition was published, together with a translation of Alhazen, 
by F. Risner in 1572. 

The first practical step towards the development of the camera 
obscura seems to have been made by the famous painter and 
architect, Leon Battista Alberti, in 1437, contemporaneously 
with the invention of printing. It is not clear, however, whether 
his invention was a camera obscura or a show box, but in a 
fragment of an anonymous biography of him, published in 
Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (xxv. 296), quoted by 
Vasari, it is stated that he produced wonderfully painted 
pictures, which were exhibited by him in some sort of small 
closed box through a very small aperture, with great verisimili- 
tude. These demonstrations were of two kinds, one nocturnal, 
showing the moon and bright stars, the other diurnal, for day 
scenes. This description seems to refer to an arrangement of a 
transparent painting illuminated either from the back or the front 
and the image projected through a hole on to a white screen in a 
darkened room, as described by Porta {Mag. Nat. xvii. cap. 7) 
and figured by A. Kircher (Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae), who 
notes elsewhere that Porta had taken some arrangement of pro- 
jecting images from an Albertus, whom he distinguished from 
Albertus Magnus, and who was probably L. B. Alberti, to whom 
Porta also refers, but not in this connexion. 

G. B. I. T. Libri-Carucci dalla Sommaja (1803-1869), in his 
account of the invention of the camera obscura in Italy (Histoire 
des sciences mathematiques en Italie, iv. 303), makes no mention 
of Alberti, but draws attention to an unpublished MS. of Leonardo 
da Vinci, which was first noticed by Venturi in 1797, and has 
since been published in facsimile in vol. ii. of J. G. F. Ravaisson- 
Mollien's reproductions of the MSS. in the Institut de France at 
Paris (MS. D, fol. 8 recto). After discussing the structure of the 
eye he gives an experiment in which the appearance of the 
reversed images of outside objects on a piece of paper held in 
front of a small hole in a darkened room, with their forms and 
colours, is quite clearly described and explained with a diagram, 
as an illustration of the phenomena of vision. Another similar 
passage is quoted by Richter from folio 404b of the reproduc- 
tion of the Codice Atlantico, in Milan, published by the Italian 
government. These are probably the earliest distinct accounts 
of the natural phenomena of the camera obscura, but remained 
unpublished for some three centuries. Leonardo also discussed 
the old Aristotelian problem of the rotundity of the sun's image 
after passing through an angular aperture, but not so successfully 
as Maurolycus. He has also given methods of measuring the 
sun's distance by means of images thrown on screens through 
small apertures. He was well acquainted with the use of magni- 
fying glasses and suggested a kind of telescope for viewing the 
moon, but does not seem to have thought of applying a lens to 
the camera. 

The first published account of the simple camera obscura was 
discovered by Libri in a translation of the Architecture of 



Vitruvius, with commentary by Cesare Caesariano, one of the 
architects of Milan cathedral, published at Como in 1521, shortly 
after the death of Leonardo, and some twenty years before 
Porta was born. He describes an experiment made by a 
Benedictine monk and architect, Dom Papnutio or Panuce, of 
the same kind as Leonardo's but without the demonstration. 

About the same time Francesco Maurolico, or Maurolycus, 
the eminent mathematician of Messina, in his Theoremata de 
Lumine et Umbra, written in 1521, fully investigated the optical 
problems connected with vision and the passage of rays of light 
through small apertures with and without lenses, and made 
great advances in this direction over his predecessors. He was 
the first correctly to solve Aristotle's problem, stated above, 
and to apply it practically to solar observations in a darkened 
room (Cosmographia, 1535)- Erasmus Reinhold has described 
the method in his edition of G. Purbach's Theoricae Novae 
Planetarum (1542), and probably got it from Maurolycus. He 
says it can also be applied to terrestrial objects, though he only 
used it for the sun. His pupil, Rainer Gemma-Frisius, used it 
for the observation of the solar eclipse of January 1544 at 
Louvain, and fully described the methods he adopted for making 
measurements and drawings of the eclipsed sun, in his De Radio 
Astronomico et Geometrico (1545)- He says they can be used for 
observation of the moon and stars and also for longitudes. The 
same arrangement was used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, by 
M. Moestlin and his pupil Kepler — the latter applying it in 1607 
to the observation of a transit of Mercury — also by Johann 
Fabricius, in 161 1, for the first observations of sun-spots. It is 
interesting to note this early employment of the camera obscura 
in the field of astronomical research, in which its latest achieve- 
ments have been of such pre-eminent value. 

The addition of optical appliances to the simple dark chamber 
for the purpose of seeing what was going on outside, was first 
described by Girolamo Cardan in his De Subtilitate (1550), as 
noted by Libri. The sun shining, he fixed a round glass speculum 
(orbem e vitro) in a window-shutter, and then closing it the images 
of outside objects would be seen transmitted through the 
aperture on to the opposite wall, or better, a white paper screen 
suitably placed. The account is not very clear, but seems to 
imply the use of a concave mirror rather than a lens, which 
might be suggested by the word orbem. He refers to Mauroly